Behaviours With ICT Integration In Mahatma Gandhi

Teachers ‘ attitudes and their influence on behavior can be a important measure in finding the psychosocial factors impacting instructors ‘ usage of Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) in learning. This survey attempted to supply an penetration of behaviors of instructors towards the usage of ICT. A behaviour is explained as a effect of subjective norms, attitude towards the behavior and sensed behavioral control. Using a study questionnaire, informations were collected from a sum of 240 secondary school instructors in six schools of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute ( MGI ) by following convenience sampling as trying scheme. The SPSS 14.0 package was employed as the major statistical analytic technique for a series of informations analyses such as Cross tabular matters with Chi- Square trial and Exploratory Factor Analysis.The findings revealed that in MGI the integrating of ICT in the instruction and acquisition procedure is dependent on gender of the instructor. In add-on, the consequences showed a reluctance behavior from senior instructors to encompass engineering in their instruction patterns.

____

Introduction

The intent of this paper is to portion with the readers the findings of a survey to look into the prospective instruction behaviors with ICT integrating at secondary degree. This survey seeks to look into the likely attitudes of instructors towards the usage of ICT for educational intents if equal entree is given to them. ICT is expected to hike the schoolroom end product but given that human existences by and large show opposition to alter, it is imperative to concentrate on instructor ‘s motive and preparedness to utilize ICT in instruction.

Technology is claimed to be a cosmopolitan linguistic communication and is regarded as one of the influential agents of globalization. On the planetary forepart, ICT is already making advanced, unfastened larning environments and in the local context, the present authorities has announced in the latest budget, that schoolrooms will be equipped with ICT support and that instructors will be expected to utilize advanced instruction schemes, more exactly ICT for learning. Furthermore, during the recent old ages, the authorities has embraced the vision of transfiguring Mauritius from an agricultural island to a cyber island.

In line with this vision, instructors are expected to play a catalysing function in this transmutation procedure. Harmonizing to Murray ( 2007 ) , the usage of engineering in instruction is an emerging field of survey as it involves the debut of new instructional possibilities. Consequently, the purpose of this survey has been to concentrate on the factors which encourage the consumption of ICT by instructors every bit good as the barriers which prevent instructors from doing full usage of ICT in learning. In developing states, instruction is seen as the hope of the hereafter and monolithic investing is done in this sector as it is expected to convey economic advancement while at the same time guaranting sustainable development.

Theoretical Background

The usage of ICT in Teaching

Harmonizing to a UNESCO enchiridion in 2005, research workers claim that to “ be effectual, particularly in developing states, ICT should be combined with more traditional engineerings such as books and wirelesss and be more extensively applied to the preparation of instructors. ” Consequently, the International Education Studies journal, May 2010 highlighted that instructors ‘ attitudes degrees towards the usage of ICT had a direct relation with the usage of ICT for educational intents and similar findings were reported by Albirini ( 2004 ) and Isleem ( 2003 ) .

Perraton et Al. identified two sets of activities or functions which should be considered to incorporate ICT in instruction which are the demand for the preparation of instructors to larn about ICT and its usage in instruction and the demand to supply teacher instruction ( 2001 ) . Therefore, in many states, ICT is now at the centre of instruction reforms that involve ( I ) its usage in coordination with alterations in course of study, ( two ) instructor preparation, ( three ) appraisal and ( four ) teaching method.

In the local context, Mauritius is besides following the same tendency since ICT is playing a cardinal function in its instruction reform attempts. There are outlooks that there will be much ICT investing in the instruction sector.

Attitudes towards the usage of ICT

Many factors influence the usage of ICT in learning and one of these factors is instructors ‘ attitudes towards the usage of ICT in the instruction and acquisition procedure. Huang and Liaw ( 2005 ) stated that instructors ‘ attitudes are of import factors which support the usage of computing machines in learning. Much literature reappraisal focuses on attitudes of instructors as cardinal to the integrating or attendant rejection of ICT in learning. Consequently, a figure of surveies have been carried out to look into instructors ‘ attitudes towards computing machine usage. Albirini ( 2004 ) investigated the attitudes of instructors in Syrian high schools sing the usage of ICT in instruction and he found out that in general instructors had positive attitudes toward engineering usage in instruction. However, given the ambivalent nature of human behavior, instructors ‘ attitudes can assist to find their reaction in some state of affairss. Fishbein ( 1967 ) defined attitude as a erudite inclination which makes us respond to an object or category of objects in a positive or hostile manner. Similar claims were made by Ajzen in 1988.

Cuban ( 1993 ) classified instructors as ( I ) technophile ; those who are enthusiastic about new engineering, ( two ) preservationist ; those who hold traditional positions sing the usage of ICT and ( three ) cautious optimist ; viz. instructors who exhibit slow, steady motion towards cardinal alterations in instruction.

Evans-Andris ( 1995 ) used matching categorizations of instructors as screening ( one ) proficient specialization ; those who embrace computing machines and position engineering as a challenge, ( two ) turning away ; instructors who distance themselves from computing machines and ( three ) integrating ; those who embrace computing machines in learning. Teo ( 2006 ) put frontward the statement that there is a direct nexus between the attitudes of instructors and their acuteness to utilize the engineering with the betterment in pupils ‘ larning with ICT as support.

Van Braak ( 2001 ) besides highlighted the strong correlativity between computing machine associated attitudes and the usage of ICT in learning. Van Braak, Tondeur, & A ; Valcke, ( 2004 ) mentioned that positive computing machine attitudes are likely to advance computing machine incorporation in the schoolroom. Akbaba & A ; Kurubacak, 1998 ; Clark, ( 2001 ) further mentioned that attitudes toward computing machines influence instructors ‘ acknowledgment of the effectivity of engineering, and besides find whether instructors integrate ICT into their schoolroom.

Harmonizing to Teo ( 2008 ) , a study of relevant literature shows that it can non be concluded whether gender influences the usage of ICT in learning. However, some writers such as Brosnan & A ; Davidson ( 1996 ) have claimed that the usage of ICT is a typically male sphere. In 1986, Loyd & A ; Gressard mentioned that male instructors show more confidence in utilizing ICT s compared to female instructors. Therefore, it is deserving observing that there might be a correlativity between a instructor ‘s gender and his willingness to utilize ICT in instruction.

Positive Teacher ‘s Behaviour

Integration of information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) tools has been at the head of the instruction sector and has had a profound consequence on the manner on instructors and scholars. The Success of pupil larning with the aid ICT will depend mostly on the attitudes of pedagogues and their willingness to encompass the engineering. ( Teo 2006 ) . Teachers are the cardinal forces in tapping the acquisition chances with the assistance information communicating engineering.

Technology enables instructors to individualize direction, allows pupils to larn and develop at their ain gait ( Peck and Domcott1994 ) . ICT can better larning results, even in traditional rote acquisition exercisings and advanced in the development of pedagogy-ICT integrating. Changes may be introduced in both teaching-learning methods. Students can bask larning actively, such as by conveying the outside universe into the schoolroom or by interacting with equals, experts and on-line AIDSs. Furthermore, the pupils will hold the chance to larn new accomplishments, such as turn uping appropriate information, doing informed picks by larning to recognize the genuineness of beginnings, and join forcesing with other scholars.

Five of import grounds for instructors to utilize engineering in instruction: motive, typical instructional abilities, higher productiveness of instructors, indispensable accomplishments for the information age, support for new learning techniques ( Roblyer and Edwards 2000 ) . Furthermore it promotes to societal and economic involvements, such as cut downing the costs of instruction and preparing pupils for work and for life in a society permeated with engineering. Many states make usage of computing machine engineering in schools by implementing computing machine research labs and implanting existent schoolrooms with digital engineerings to help and back up current schoolroom acquisition.

One of these factors is instructors ‘ attitudes towards the usage of engineering in learning and larning procedure. Research shows that the success of engineering usage in the educational scenes mostly depends on instructors attitudes toward engineering usage ( Albirini, 2006, Baylor & A ; Ritchie, 2002 ) . Teachers ‘ attitudes are considered as a major forecaster of the usage of new engineerings in the educational field ( Albirini, 2006 ) . Therefore, their attitudes toward computing machine can play an of import function in the credence of computing machines. Therefore, an attitude plays an of import function in finding people reactions to state of affairss. A reappraisal of the psychological literature reveals diverse definitions of attitudes. Much of the research on barriers besides considers what factors enable or encourage people to utilize Ict. It is of import to recognize that a figure of factors have been identified which encourage and enable instructors to incorporate ICT into their instruction.

ICT can offer instructors, whatever their context is: staging tools to back up their ain building and apprehension of new academic and professional cognition ; environments and contexts for acquisition, enabling instructors to see new state of affairss, activities, jobs and solutions ; communicative tools easing alone societal engagement constructions between instructors ; meta -cognitive tools enabling instructors to reflect on the acquisition procedure itself, both at single and group person ( Leech, Moon & A ; Power,2002 ) .Thus, it can be concluded that the attitude related to the usage frequence of engineering and usage sum of the engineering.

Barriers for teachers` ICT integrating

There are many elements identified as obstructions in the manner of presenting ICT in schools. Pelgrum ( 2001 ) presents a list of 10s such issues that educational practicians perceive as serious hindrances for gaining their ICT related ends. The three major 1s: ( 1 ) insufficient figure of computing machines, ( 2 ) instructors ‘ deficiency of knowledge/skills, and ( 3 ) hard to incorporate in direction. Ely ( 1993 ) likewise distinguishes as major conditions, relevant to ICT execution, the followers: ( 1 ) dissatisfaction with the position quo, ( 2 ) being of cognition and accomplishments, and ( 3 ) handiness of resources.

2.4.1 External and Internal barriers

Many writers categorise barriers as external ( first order ) or internal ( 2nd order ) . First-order barriers include deficiency of equipment, undependability, deficiency of proficient support ; second-order barriers include both school-level factors such as organizational civilization and teacher-level factors such as beliefs about learning and engineering, and openness to alter ( Snoeyink & A ; Ertmer 2001 ) . A deficiency of equipment is the highest rated barrier internationally ( Pelgrum 2001 ) , frequently cited even in well-resourced states. Indeed, one survey ( Guha 2000 ) found that instructors who used engineering most were more likely to kick about a deficiency of equipment. It would look therefore this is less a barrier to the debut of engineering than to its usage in originative and advanced ways. Older instructors seem to be loath towards the incorporation of ICT in schools, while pupil instructors and some freshly qualified instructors are the most confident users of ICT ( Galanouli & A ; McNair 2001 ) . Underliing these anxiousnesss are fright of embarrassment when utilizing computing machines ( Russell & A ; Bradley 1997 ) and fright of losing professional position through a downgrading of traditional pedagogical accomplishments ( Fabry & A ; Higgs 1997 ) . It seems that instructors ‘ attitudes sing ICT usage in schools non merely pose troubles in the usage of engineering but besides cancel the acquisition benefits expected to spring from the instructional reform. Teachers are characterised as being ‘technophobic ‘ about utilizing ICT ( Rosen & A ; Weil 2002 )

The ICT sector in Mauritius

The first telephone line in Mauritius was set up in October 1883 between the Colony Governor ‘s abode in Reduit and the Government House in Port Louis. This took topographic point merely seven old ages after telephone was invented. In the late 20th century, there was a dramatic explosive growing in telecommunications due to “ engineering push ” . The telecommunications revolution has been characterised by competition, technological alterations, the puting up of new companies and the meeting of planetary service suppliers around the universe. This has besides been the tendency in Mauritius. ICT so holds great promises for little island economic systems like Mauritius.

It is believed that this sector will non merely be the most dynamic industry in the universe and will besides account as one of the most powerful tools needed to open new avenues of sustainable development.

[ The ICT Sector in Mauritius-An overview, 2004 ]

ICT Policies in Mauritius

Harmonizing to Isaacs ( 2007 ) , the Government of Mauritius has actively promoted ICT since 1989. Since so it besides proposed a national ICT policy modeled on the Singaporean experience. The Mauritius scheme involved making instruments to back up liberalization of its telecommunication sector, making a work force which is ICT literate, heightening the potency of public establishments to optimize ICTs, and doing Mauritius a critical accelerator in ICTs by making the contributing environment equipped with up-to-date substructure.

In 1989 the authorities set up four establishments: the National Computer Board ( NCB ) , the Central Informatics Bureau ( CIS ) , the State Informatics Limited ( SIL ) , and the State Informatics Training Centre Limited ( SITCL ) . The authorities vision is to do Mauritius a “ cyber island ” with ICT going the 5th pillar of the economic system after, fabric, sugar, fiscal services and touristry every bit good as a regional hub.

2.7 ICT in schools

The Mauritius Ministry of Education has been involved in the debut of ICTs in schools since 1991.

School IT project-The national ICT policy provinces that IT will be a school topic that will be integrated into learning across both the primary and secondary schools ‘ course of study. However advancing connectivity in schools every bit good as puting up of web for sharing and interchanging of information in the instruction sector remain a challenge.

ICT competition- With the purpose of advancing ICT usage as an instruction tool, the NCB organises ICT competitions at secondary and third level- the School IT Competition and the ICT Project Competition. NCB has revised the School IT Competition therefore leting pupils to take part in an international Web site competition, ThinkQuest.

NEPAD eSchools Mauritius- The New Partnership for Africa ‘s Development ( NEPAD ) eSchools purposes at:

supplying ICT know-how to kids in the primary and secondary schools of Africa.

heightening instruction in schools through ICT applications every bit good as use of Internet.

ICT is playing a critical function in the instruction sector. For case, ICT classs were made compulsory in secondary schools in 1995 and pupils are expected to be ICT conversant after the 3rd twelvemonth. As from 2006, ICT was used as a pedagogical tool across the course of study. It was noted by that much research in the country of engineering integrating in instruction has been conducted in technologically advanced states, but small in the development states ( Jhuree, 2005 ) .

2.8 Research in ICT Education in Mauritius

From a study conducted by Ramessur-Seenarain ( 2007 ) , it was revealed that ICT is merely a acquisition tool which helps in bringing and entree. Furthermore the research worker found that:

it will take clip before ICT becomes a tool of originative cognition enabling pupils at the secondary degree to get the better of the troubles of globalization and guaranting sustained economic growing.

ICT as an educational tool is limited at the secondary degree in the island. Hence there is urgency for ministries to originate appropriate actions so as to assist instructors efficaciously integrate ICT into their teaching method of instruction and acquisition.

The instance survey carried out by Jhuree et Al, ( 2007 ) has shed visible radiation into an of import facet of primary school instructors ‘ mental province and their attitudes towards ICT and their preparedness in incorporating it in their profession. The survey concluded that prospective Oriental linguistic communication instructors had a positive attitude towards ICT and its usage in their schools.

However, the survey besides revealed that ICT integrating at school depends on the:

handiness of ICT resources in the schools,

political committedness,

be aftering for integrating and

monitoring, preparation and financess ( Jhurree, 2004 )

Purpose of the survey

Most old surveies have centered on Technology integrating in states that are technologically advanced than in developing states. ICT sector is really dynamic in our fast traveling cyber island and is lending to the economic system of Mauritius. In fact, the pervasiveness of ICT has brought singular alteration in assorted Fieldss and sectors, in peculiar in instruction. The relevancy of a instructor, in the twenty-first century, is determined by the will to develop professionally and be technologically adept.

Refering the usage of ICT, Brown et Al ( 1996 ) mentioned in the electronic diary of sociology that most of the undertakings carried out on synergistic state of affairss with computing machines, lay accent on the concepts of anxiousness and of emphasis and in the visible radiation of this statement the inquiry to be put frontward is whether this apply every bit to Mauritanian instructors? In fact, there has been one instance carried out on primary oriental instructor ‘s attitudes towards computing machine ( Jhuree et Al, 2007 ) harmonizing to which the attitudes of oriental linguistic communication instructors are positive towards ICT and there is subsequent usage of ICT while learning in schools. Therefore, there has been no survey on attitudes of pedagogues of secondary schools refering the usage of ICT. So, the chief aim of the present survey is to garner the engineering degree, the behaviours and attitudes of instructors working peculiarly in the schools falling under the auspices of MGI, in relation to integrating of ICT in their profession.

These steering research inquiries can be stated as follows:

1. What is the engineering degree of the pedagogues in MGSSs?

2. How do the pedagogues perceive integrating of ICT in their topics?

3. Why are the pedagogues willing or unwilling to utilize ICT?

4.Which factors motivate or impede them to utilize ICT?

5. What are the possibilities to incorporate ICT based instruction patterns?

6. If installations and preparation be provided, will the pedagogues show preparedness to develop ICT accomplishments?

Methodology

This survey employed a study research method that has been really frequently used in research on ICT and computing machine usage. A study research method is peculiarly utile for bring forthing quantitative informations that can be used to set up the footing for wider generalization.

4.1 Research Design and Tool

Our survey aimed to supply an apprehension of teachers` behaviour of usage of ICT by lucubrating Ajzen ‘s theory of planned behavior ( TPB ) ( Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 1991 ) which is a psychosocial theory applied in patterning behaviours.TPB explains behaviour as a effect of attitude towards the “ behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control ” . This theory has been chosen as the mention theoretical account on which a research theoretical account of the usage of ICT by instructors, the Information and Communication Technology Use Model ( ICTUM ) was developed for this survey. In fact for this survey, the TPB was modified by integrating external variables – age group, gender, topics taught, old ages of learning experience. Hence, the questionnaire administered in the current survey was used to prove the statistical relationships among the concepts of the TPB and the modified TPB theoretical account that is the ICT Use Model ( ICTUM ) that support this research survey viz. : attitude towards usage of ICT, subjective norms, purpose of usage of ICT, perceived behavioral control and usage of ICT.

A structured questionnaire was used as the research tool in our survey. Because the research constructs of this survey ( that is, attitudes, perceptual experiences, and beliefs ) are variables which can non be discernible, the usage of multiple point graduated tables is advantageous as it guarantees greater variableness and strengthen dependability of steps because the mistakes of each point tend to call off each other out ( DeVellis, 1991 ) . The questionnaire was based viz. on ICT Level of Use developed by Isleem ( 2003 ) and Teacher Attitudes towards ICT Scale developed by Albirini ( 2006 ) .It included 32 points used to mensurate instructors ‘ degree of ICT usage for educational intents. A five Likert graduated table format was used to measuring instructors ‘ degree of ICT usage for educational intents ( 1=never usage, 2=rarely usage, 3=sometimes usage, 4=often usage, 5=very frequently usage ) .It besides consisted of 32 other points on Teacher Attitudes towards ICT designed once more as 5-point Likert ‘s graduated table, where 1=strongly disagree to the construct, 2=disagree to the construct, 3=undecided to the construct, 4=agree to the construct, and 5=strongly strongly favourable to the construct ) . This made that all the inquiries were closed- ended doing analysis easier since responses would be classified.

4.2 Pilot Testing

A few trial questionnaires were distributed to instructors on a pilot footing. The instructors used for the pre-testing exercising were non used in the sample for the study afterwards. The responses revealed that certain footings, or the order of inquiry was non clear. Then the questionnaire was reviewed with the trial takers and confounding points that were discussed were solved.

4.3 Sample Features.

The study was carried out at the terminal of the 3rd semester, school twelvemonth 2010. Convenience sampling was used as trying scheme for this research. A entire figure of 210 respondents, stand foring a response rate of 93.3 % , completed the study. Participants were Educators working in the six Secondary Schools of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute ( MGI ) .

4.4 Data Analysis

The information collected was processed by utilizing Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) plan version 14.0. It was used to analyse informations as follows:

1 ) . The descriptive statistics was used in summing the information into cross tabular matters and utilizing the Chi-Square trial together with the Phi and Cramer ‘s V symmetric steps.

2 ) . The usage of Exploratory Factor analysis ( EFA ) to try placing variables, or factors, that explain the form of correlativities within a set of ascertained variables was adopted. Indeed ( EFA ) is a utile proficient manner for placing points which belong to a factor in a multi-factor construction. First, all of the points for mensurating the research concept are right entered in, SPSS, for the analysis. Subsequently, SPSS extracts the figure of factors and their associated points, and so it reports the factor burden of each point on the several factors.

Consequences

Profile of respondents

Looking at the gender features of the sample, two tierce of the respondents were female. This mirrors the predomination of the female Educators from the population of Educators in the six Secondary Schools under the auspices of MGI. Consequently, we have to analyze the gender variable on our object of survey: ICT integrating.

Table 1 shows a frequence tabular array on the respondent profiles with regard to gender.

Respondents` Profile

Male in %

Female in %

Age Group

Between 18 and 25

31.7

26.6

Between 26 and 30

30.2

50.0

Between 31 and 35

19.1

12.5

Between 36 and 40

9.5

3.9

Between 41 and 45

1.6

3.1

Above 46

7.9

3.9

Old ages of Experience

Between 0 and 1

22.2

18.3

Between 2 and 5

49.2

49.2

Between 6 and 10

11.2

21.4

Between 11 and 15

9.5

3.2

Above 15

7.9

7.9

Class of Subjects Taught

Languages and Social Surveies

19.3

50.9

Science

24.6

11.0

Mathematicss and computing machine

14.1

15.2

Art & A ; Music

15.7

9.3

Technical topics

19.3

6.8

Economics/Accounts/Business surveies

7.0

6.8

Table 1

5.2 Cluster saloon chart ( Figure 1 ) demoing the distribution of the gender with the 14 topics taught obtained from the respondents

Figure 1

Consequences of Senior Teachers and attitude towards usage of ICT

Galanouli & A ; Mc Nair ( 2001 ) found that senior instructors have a loath behaviour towards the usage of ICT in schools, while some freshly appointed instructors are the most confident users of ICT.

Consequences of Old ages of Experience and Outcome of utilizing ICT to be clip devouring.

The inquiry from the questionnaire asked: What are the likely results that can happen when you use ICT in your instruction? One of the options was Using ICT in my instruction will b clip devouring. Commenting on the consequences obtained ( Table 2 ) we found that, the lopsidedness of the distribution of old ages of experience with the result to utilize ICT to be clip devouring becomes more and more negative as the old ages of experiences additions. This means that the distribution becomes more negatively skewed. What can be inferred from this is most of the Educators holding 11 old ages of experience or more believed that it is likely or really likely that utilizing ICT in category is clip devouring. The kurtosis of the distributions gave a more or less a normal extremum around the mean though it is deserving to see that for the 15 or more old ages of experience, the rather high negative value of kurtosis showed that the sentiment that utilizing ICT is clip devouring is widely spread from a impersonal sentiment to a really likely to go on sentiment.

Old ages of Experience

Lopsidedness

Kurtosis

Outcome – Time devouring

0 – 1

0.1

-0.9

2 – 5

-0.3

-0.7

6 – 10

-0.6

-1.3

11 – 15

-0.9

0.1

More than 15

-1.0

-1.7

Table 2

Consequences of Age group and Use of ICT last twelvemonth.

The inquiry from the questionnaire asked: How frequently did you utilize ICT in your instruction last twelvemonth? Making a similar exercising as above, we found that, the lopsidedness of the distribution of age group with the frequence of use of ICT last twelvemonth becomes more and more positive as the age group increases. This means that the distribution becomes more positively skewed. It is deserving to observe that most of the Educators in the age groups of 36 – 40, 41 – 45 and more than 46 old ages, have ne’er or seldom used ICT in their instruction last twelvemonth. This is shown in the box secret plan in figure 2.

These two consequences support the findings of Galanouli & A ; Mc Nair ( 2001 ) that senior most instructors do present reluctance for utilizing ICT in their instruction patterns while freshly appointed instructors do encompass the usage of ICT with more assurance.

Figure 2

Consequences of Gender and utilizing ICT for Students` Learning.

Loyd and Gressard ( 1986 ) found that male instructors are more confident toward computing machines compared to their female co-workers. Similar findings- males showed more positive attitudes toward computing machines than females – were obtained by the survey undertaken by Blackmore et al. , ( 1992 ) .

The inquiry from the questionnaire asked: With regard to your hereafter usage, delight bespeak the figure that best represents the likeliness of your utilizing ICT in learning during the following six months. One of the options was I will teach pupils to utilize ICT for larning

Cross tabular matter for Gender Versus Using ICT for larning by pupils

Exploitation OF ICT FOR LEARNING

A

Entire

A

Gender

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Meter

A

A

A

A

A

Very Improbable

UNLIKELY

Neutral

Likely

Very Likely

A

Count

4

12

11

10

25

62

Expected Count

8.3

10.6

14.6

13.9

14.6

62

% within GENDER

6.5

19.4

17.7

16.1

40.3

100

% within USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

16

37.5

25

23.8

56.8

33.2

% of Entire

2.1

6.4

5.9

5.3

13.4

33.2

F

A

A

A

A

Count

21

20

33

32

19

125

Expected Count

16.7

21.4

29.4

28.1

29.4

125

% within GENDER

16.8

16

26.4

25.6

15.2

100

% within USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

84

62.5

75

76.2

43.2

66.8

% of Entire

11.2

10.7

17.6

17.1

10.2

66.8

Table 3

Mentioning to Postpone 3 we observe that 6.5 % of the male Educators were really improbable to utilize ICT for their students` larning while for the female Educators it was 16.8 % . 17.7 % of the male respondents and 26.4 % of the female respondents were impersonal about the thought of utilizing ICT for this intent. While merely 15.2 % of the female respondents were really likely to utilize ICT for larning to take topographic point, 40.3 % of the males were really likely to utilize ICT for the students` acquisition. Explicating the Null Hypothesis and the Alternate Hypothesis we have: H0: Using ICT for students` acquisition and Gender are independent and H1: Using ICT for students` larning depends on Gender. The consequences show that at 5 % degree of significance, there is an association between utilizing ICT for students` acquisition and Gender of the Educator ( I‡2 = 17.7, df = 4, P & lt ; 5 % ) . So we reject H0. The strength of the association is rather strong ( Cramer`s V = 0.702 ) .

Again the findings are in line with those of Loyd and Gressard ( 1986 ) and Blackmore et Al ( 1992 ) when it comes to utilize of ICT for the students` acquisition and this variable might depend on gender of the Educator.

5.4 Consequences of Subjects taught with utilizing ICT for Presentation.

The instance survey carried out by Jhuree et Al. ( 2007 ) on Primary Oriental Teachers Attitudes towards Computer harmonizing to which “ oriental linguistic communication instructors have positive attitudes towards ICT and there is subsequent usage of ICT in schools.

The inquiry from the questionnaire asked: With regard to your hereafter usage, delight bespeak the figure that best represents the likeliness of your utilizing ICT in learning during the following six months. One of the options was I will utilize ICT in showing my lessons.

For this current survey, by making a similar Cross tabular matter as above for Subjects taught versus utilizing ICT for Presentation, it was noted that 40 % of the Science Educators were really likely to utilize ICT for presentation in their teaching.33 % of Mathematicss Educators were really likely to utilize ICT in category for presentations while for Economics and Technical topics it was less than 14 % . It is deserving observing that 29 % of the linguistic communication instructors were really likely of utilizing ICT for their presentations.

Explicating the Null Hypothesis and the Alternate Hypothesis as: H0: Subjects taught and Using ICT for presentation is independent.H1: Using ICT for presentation is independent depends on Subjects Taught. The consequences obtained showed that at 5 % degree of significance, there is an association between Subjects taught and utilizing ICT for Presentation ( I‡2 = 57.0, df = 9, P & lt ; 5 % ) . So we reject H0. However, the strength of this association can non be truly described ( Cramer`s V = 0.538 ) .

Therefore, we found that though the relationship can non be certified in footings of strength, there might be an association of the topics taught with the usage of ICT for presentation. It can be an extrapolation of the findings of Jhuree et Al. ( 2007 ) for the secondary instructors and for other topics taught besides oriental linguistic communication.

5.5 Exploratory Factor Analysis ( EFA )

EFA was used to corroborate that the factor construction of the ascertained variables was the same as that in the proposed measuring theoretical account. Using SPSS 14.0 package, a 5-factor extraction was requested on the measuring theoretical account for 20 ascertained variables for the five latent variables viz. : Attitude towards ICT usage in instruction, Subjective norms, Perceived behavioural control which harmonizing to Ajzen ( 1988 ) is a person`s perceptual experience of executing the behavior with regard to ease or trouble, Intentions to utilize ICT and Use of ICT in learning. As recommended for explorative analysis, a factor burden of 0.4 was used as a lower cut-off value as recommended for explorative analysis ( Pallant, 2001 ) .

The determiner of the R – matrix is critical for proving multicollinearity and it should be greater than 0.00001.For the information selected it was 0.000059. Therefore multicollinearity was non a job for these informations.

KMO and Bartlett ‘s Trial

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.814

Bartlett ‘s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

1749.965

df

190

Sig.

.000

Table 4

From table 4, the value of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy gave 0.814 which is greater than 0.5.So it was confident that factor analysis was appropriate for these informations.

Furthermore, for these informations, Barlett`s trial is extremely important ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) and hence factor analysis was appropriate for these informations.

The tabular array 5 shows the revolved constituent matrix. Before rotary motion, most variables loaded extremely onto the first factor and the staying factors did non truly acquire a expression in. However, the rotary motion of the factor construction has clarified things well. There are five factors and variables load really extremely onto merely one factor. ( Except for one point )

Component

1

2

3

4

5

LIKE TEACHING USING ICT

.869

COMFORTABLE WITH ICT

.853

I AM CAPABLE OF USING ICT SUCCESSFULLY

.756

I HAVE RESOURCES, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO USE ICT

.737

Exploitation ICT IS A Good Idea

.691

I AM CERTAINLY ABLE TO USE ICT

.661

OUTCOME – Lesson ARE MORE DIVERSE

.541

Exploitation OF ICT FOR LEARNING

.530

IMPACT – DEVELOP STUDENTS ‘ LEARNING SKILLS

.428

.421

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: Support FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.856

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: TECHNICAL Support

.822

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.810

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: Resource

.794

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: Support FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.846

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: TECHNICAL Support

.836

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.768

OUTCOME – Time CONSUMING

.801

I CAN NOT CONTROL THINGS WHEN USING ICT

.745

Subject

-.655

Old ages OF Experience

.551

Table 5

Albiri ( 2004 ) and Isleem ( 2003 ) had similar findings in their respective survey reasoning that instructors ‘ attitudes degrees towards the usage of ICT had a direct relation with the usage of ICT for educational intents. Evans-Andris ( 1995 ) classified instructors as screening ( one ) proficient specialisation ( encompassing engineering ) ( two ) turning away ( fright of computing machines ) ( three ) integrating ( usage of computing machines in learning ) . Teo ( 2006 ) commented that the Success of pupil larning with ICT depends straight on the attitudes of instructors to utilize ICT. Pelgrum ( 2001 ) listed a few obstructions for instructors to gain their ICT related ends. One of them was that the teacher deficiency of knowledge/skills in utilizing ICT. The instance survey carried out by Jhuree et Al, ( 2007 ) found that the ICT integrating in schools depends a batch on political committedness and preparation of staffs.

Mentioning to the tabular array 5, we observed that the variables which load extremely on factor 1 is in fact attitude of the instructor for ICT. Hence this factor could be seen as Attitude towards ICT usage in learning. Making similar observations we found that factor 2, 3, 4 and 5 can be seen as Purposes to utilize ICT, The usage of ICT for learning, Perceived behavioral control and Subjective norms severally.

These consequences confirms the findings of Albirini ( 2004 ) and Isleem ( 2003 ) .Furthermore, from table 5, clearly the categorization of Evans- Andris ( 1995 ) can be seen viz. with regard to Factor 2 for Technical Specialisation, Factor 4 with Avoidance and Factor 1 for Integration.

However, from the heavy burden for factor 2 and 3, specially for the professional development oppurtunities on utilizing ICT in learning, we find that unlike Pelgrum ( 2001 ) , instructors perceive that their preparation for ICT accomplishments and Knowhow is really likely to happen and therefore do non see this as an obstruction for run intoing their ICT aims and goals..

Decision and Discussion

The Mauritanian authorities is already projecting to incorporate ICT in learning. However, as seen in the class of this survey, the debut of computing machines is non a agency to an terminal. This explains the purpose of this survey which has intended to look into the relationship between instructors ‘ behaviors and the usage of ICT in the Mauritanian context. The findings have shown that instructors correspond to Evans- Andris categorization of instructors as those who ( I ) embracing computing machines and position engineering as a challenge, ( two ) distance themselves from computing machines and ( three ) embracing computing machines in instruction.

Our findings indicate that there is a strong nexus between variables such as gender and senior status which impact on instructors ‘ motive to utilize ICT. As old ages of experience additions, our grounds reflects the fact that senior instructors believe that the usage of ICT is clip devouring. On the other manus, junior instructors and those with an mean instruction experience feel rather willing and comfy to utilize ICT. However, since instructors in all age groups are expected to utilize advanced instruction schemes, the usage of ICT remains a must. Therefore, there is the demand to supply farther preparation and support to instructors in this age group to run into this terminal.

The 2nd determination has shown a correlativity between instructors ‘ gender and their willingness to utilize ICT. Indeed, males appear to demo more enthusiasm to utilize ICT as compared to their female co-workers. This corresponds to the findings which were made by Loyd and Gressard ( 1986 ) who claimed that male instructors show more assurance and less malaise to utilize ICT.

Some restrictions can besides be identified due to the usage of convenience sampling, the findings can non be extrapolated to all secondary schools in Mauritius. Further research needs to be carried out which can be supported by schoolroom observation and seamster made interviews of respondents.

This survey has besides opened new avenues for farther research to look into the factors which contribute to the relationship between gender and ICT which can either support or belie our findings.