Cambodian State Education System Education Essay

In the Kampuchean province instruction system, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport has reformed the course of study several times as the instruction system has evolved and regional and international forces have been recognized and incorporated in the national educational precedences. For illustration, the development of a national policy on Information, Communication and Technology ( ICT ) policy in 2004 was the authorities ‘s response to the increasing acknowledgment of the function of computing machine engineering and the cyberspace in the capacity edifice and instruction of Kampuchean students.In 2004 theMoEYS reformed the educational system by developing the school course of study in general instruction ( Grade 1-12 ) . There were alterations with clip allotment and capable pick. The MoEYS policy stated that:

Key characteristics of the 1996 Core Curriculum have been upgraded and improved.

For illustration, the course of study policy establishes learning clip allotment,

provide clip in a course of study for a Local Life Skill Program ( LLSP ) and offers

capable pick choice for Grades 11 and 12 pupils by adding acquisition

hours for each topic and pupils learn less topics than before ( 2004, p. two ) .

The course of study policy in 1996 had 13 topics: Khmer Literature, Mathematics, Foreign Language, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History, Geography, Earth Science, Morals-Civics, Home Economics, Sports and Art/Computer which were all compulsory for pupils in upper secondary school degree ( Grade 10 to 12 ) . Since 2008, the MoEYS reformed the course of study by offering the elected topics for pupils in class 10 to take for their senior twelvemonth in class 11 and 12. This new course of study policy development allows grade 11 and 12 pupils to analyze merely 7-8 topics. It has 4 topics that are mandatory and another 3 or 4 topics that are elected topics ( see Table 1 ) .

Table 1

Students choose their plan of survey following the clip allotment indicated from the topics countries listed below.


Khmer Literature 6 hours

Physical and wellness instruction, and sport2 hours

Foreign Language

Must take one

English 4 hours

Gallic 4 hours


Must take one

Basic 4 hours

Advanced 8 hours

ELECTIVES Each topic is taught for 4 hours per work


May take none, one or two or three




Earth and Environmental Studies


May take none, one, or two or three






May take none, one or two or three


Accounting/Business Management

Local Vocation Technical Subjects


Art Education ( and other topics )

Students who choose Math ( Basic ) must take 4 topics from the Elective courses

Entire 16 H + ( 4 x 4 ) = 32 hours per hebdomad

Students who choose Math ( Advanced ) must take 3 topics from the Elective courses

Entire 20 H + ( 3 x 4 ) = 32 hours per hebdomad

( MoEYS, 2004, p. 12 )

The intent for the course of study for class 11 and 12 is described:

The Grade 11-12 course of study is to supply pupils with the chance for increased specialisation through capable pick to develop a deepness of cognition in peculiar topics or to take training-based vocational topics or to take part in societal life ( MoEYS, 2004, p.12 ) .

The national course of study policy development in 2004 besides included the incorporation of a construction of survey where pupils were required to take a topic major, either scientific disciplines or societal surveies at the terminal of class 10. This was, in a portion, intended to let the pupils to concentrate their surveies in the senior old ages ( Rate 11 and 12 ) as they looked to chances for future instruction and preparation or employment after completion of high school.

Increasingly, pupils are draw a bead oning to go to a university after finishing their senior old ages at high school and from my observations and treatment with other learning staff the pupils appear to be doing the pick of their capable major based on which is most likely to ensue in a high grade in the Grade 12 test instead than on what topics might best fix them for university or farther survey after school. A pupil ‘s consequence in the national class 12 examis the lone factor that is considered when finding if a immature individual may measure up to inscribe in university. Anecdotally it appears that increasing Numberss of pupils are electing to analyze the scientific discipline major in high school in the belief they can accomplish a high grade leting university entry nevertheless merely a little per centum have been found to travel on to farther survey in the scientific disciplines fields.In higher instruction, most pupils enrolled in the societal survey fields74 % in which Business disposal 47 % , Foreign Language 12 % , Law 6 % , Tourism 2 % , and Social Science and Art 7 % morethan scientific discipline plans 18 % with Health 5 % , Agriculture 4 % and Engineering 3 % ( Mak, 2012 ) .

With small or no calling instruction included in the formal instruction plan of Kampuchean secondary and high school for the pupils it is non known how immature people make their choice in grade 10 of which capable major to concentrate on in their concluding two old ages of high school.

Problem Statement

High school pupils confront many determinations about their hereafter when taking a way after finishing high school. For illustration, if they want to go to university or proficient instruction, what their life ‘s ends might be, which career field would they wish to work in, and what tracts do they necessitate to take to accomplish their ends? Some high school alumnuss frequently do non experience confident in looking for employment. Accessing accurate information about higher instruction and farther instruction tracts, callings, and employment chances in Cambodia are a challenge for a immature individual seeking to do an informed determination about their future way. Many striplings do non understand what determinations they needed to do about their hereafter. The recent creative activity of the National Employment Agency is one effort to seek to make full in some of the losing information spread by supplying a great trade of labour market information through two convenient options: ( a ) the on-line service athttp: // and ( B ) occupation centres services such as occupation net service, library service, and advisory and labour market information service.

Literature in the field of calling development and calling instruction stressed the of import function of schools in supplying good quality and timely calling instruction to immature people in the 13 – 17 twelvemonth age groups. It was found that when immature people in this age group were provided with quality calling education their assurance in their ability to do informed picks for their way after school was significantly improved ( Bardick, Bernes, Magnusson & A ; Witko, 2004 ) . Students were frequently non clear when asked what their capable pick and future calling would be and this is as a consequence of a reasonably short-run and narrow position of their lives, they seldom had a position of a hereafter much beyond the terminal of school ( Siann, Lightbody, Nicholson, Tait & A ; Walsh, 1998 ) . Most striplings were at a disadvantage when it came to chances for developing their calling individualities because they had limited entree to function theoretical accounts offering of different calling options. Therefore, school calling pedagogues or calling counsellors were challenged to make every bit much as possible in educating pupils about calling options and exposing them to a broad assortment of businesss. In add-on, the American National Career Development Association ‘s ( NCDA ) guidelines ( 1994 ) were instrumental in supplying more effectual calling development plans for school calling centres in the United States of America. Most striplings were unable to do intelligent calling determinations based merely on life experiences. Consequently, they required support and geographic expedition in the signifier of course of study offerings and counsel plans to assist steer them towards a calling way ( Gysbers as cited in Rowland ) .

Grade 10 pupils in Kampuchean high schools are required to choose their capable major for their concluding two old ages of high school and it is ill-defined why they make the pick they do. It has besides been observed that a figure of pupils in class 11 will alter their capable major for their concluding twelvemonth and it is non understood why some pupils make such a alteration at such a late phase in their schooling.

In visible radiation of the deficiency of calling instruction available for pupils in Kampuchean schools, the deficiency of accurate information for doing informed determinations about post-high school tracts available to pupils, their instructors and their households and in position of the tendencies I have observed of pupils doing capable major choices seemingly based on the end of acquiring the highest mark in the class 12 national scrutiny the undermentioned inquiries will be explored.

Research Questions

1. What are the grounds identified by class 10 pupils in high school X for their senior school capable major pick? What influences on their determination devising can the pupils identify when doing their capable major pick at class 10?

2. Why do many rate 11 pupils at high schoolX alteration to a different topic major for their concluding class at school?

Significance of Study

This survey will inform the course of study developers with inside informations on how of import calling instruction is in assisting pupils with decision-making for their future career.It may besides give some penetration into the thought and determination devising accomplishments of pupils which can inform the development of calling planning Sessionss at high school X.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

This chapter discusses the literature which has described some of the research conducted on school capable pick and pupils ‘ determination devising on future calling tracts. It besides discusses some of the literature that has exploredreasons that pupils may alter their capable major in the last class in high school.

The literature in this reappraisal was found by utilizing the web sites of Google, Google bookman, the Hun Sen free diary databases and, an abroad university e-journal aggregation. Key words used to place articles included: capable pick, capable major, calling development, calling instruction, major pick, and calling planning.

Other international literature was identified by the usage of mentions in articles found. Several well- known bookmans such as Elsworth, Beavis, Ainley, Fabris, Krumboltz, Holland have written many articles on calling theory and calling determination making.However there are non any surveies conducted on pupils altering their capable major for the concluding twelvemonth in high school.

This chapter has been structured following several subjects that emerged as literature was reviewed. It will depict the relevant literature focused on the issues environing the research aim. This chapter has been classified into several sub subdivisions based on

subjects. The undermentioned subdivisions will foremost started with national instruction system of Cambodia, following with calling determination doing theories, and importance of calling instruction, so pupils ‘ determination devising, and eventually factors related to pupils ‘ calling determination devising.

National Education System of Cambodia

The national instruction system collapsed during the Khmer Rouge government ( 1975-79 ) . However, since 1979 it has been re-established. The Cambodia instruction system has been continuously reformed to run into the society ‘s demands. Since 1996, the instruction system has consisted of 12 old ages of general instruction ( Primary and Secondary instruction ) . The medium of direction is Khmer linguistic communication and the academic twelvemonth tallies from October to June.

Primary instruction.

Primary Education is the first degree of the instruction system in Cambodia. It lasts 6 old ages ( Rate 1 to 6 ) . Children from the age of six are eligible this degree of instruction.

Secondary instruction.

Secondary instruction lasts 6 old ages. It is divided into lower secondary ( Grade 7 to 9 ) and upper secondary ( Grade 10 to 12 ) . At the terminal of Grade 9 pupils take a national scrutiny taking to a Diploma of lower secondary instruction. In the class 9 test there are 10 topics: Khmer Literature, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History, Geography, Earth Science, Morals-Civics, and a foreign linguistic communication ( either English or Gallic ) . Students are graded in A, B, or C for the national test consequence. Individual capable consequences are non announced for the class 9 test. In the class 12 test, pupils sit 10 mandatory topics such as Khmer Literature, Mathematics, Physics, Foreign Language ( English or French ) , Chemistry, Biology, History, Geography, Earth Science, and Morals-Civics. Students are awarded an overall base on balls ( rate A, B, C, D or E ) . Individual capable consequences ( grade A-E ) are besides shown ( MoEYS, 2004 ) .

Career Decision Making Theories

Career determination devising is an of import issue in the life of any single. Matchinga individual ‘s work to their involvements and accomplishments could lend towards an single life a life of significance and intent every bit good as run intoing their stuff ends. However, taking a calling most suited for an person is non easy thing and is something that has been the focal point of a figure of authors and research workers in the last 100 old ages. Numerous research workers havesought to explicate how and why people make calling picks and they have developed theories as an assistance in explicating the calling determination doing procedure. I have selected two major theories for my reappraisal based on a scan of the extended literature in the field of calling instruction and determination devising because these theories help people with calling determination devising and calling development.

Krumboltz ‘s theory.

Harmonizing to Krumboltz ‘s social-learning theory ( as cited in Isaacson & A ; Brown, 2000 ) apersonmakes their calling picks through the position of behaviours he or she had been able to larn. Just as persons had been able to larn the behaviours and accomplishments they possess, and they were capable to larning new 1s. In his theory on people ‘s calling determination devising and calling development, Krumboltz argued that people are influenced by four factors “ ( a ) familial gift and particular abilities, ( B ) environmental conditions and events, ( degree Celsius ) acquisition experiences and ( vitamin D ) undertaking attack accomplishments ” ( pp. 38-39 ) .

Familial gift and particular abilities: refer to those facets of the person that

are inherited or innate instead than learned. These include physical visual aspect, physical unwellness and other features. In add-on, some persons are born with particular abilities in the authorship, art, music, sports, and so on. In general, people born with unconditioned familial abilities can assist them with their acquisition and instruction.

Environmental conditions and events: refer to societal factors, educational and

occupational status affect persons ‘ calling determination devising.

Learning experiences: refer to one ‘s calling penchants are a consequence of her or his

larning experience that will act upon his or her calling determination.

Task- attack accomplishments: is interactions among familial gift, environmental

conditions and larning experiences contribute to accomplishments in making a assortment of undertakings which persons will near is of import to career determination ( as cited in Sharf, 2006 ) .

Krumboltz ‘s social-learning theory is theory that is used to help pupils with their calling picks and development. It is a theory that can assist instructors develop course of study that allow pupils to research their familial heritage, and the societal economic state of affairs in which they live and will be working. Using Krumboltz ‘s theory schools can besides develop work experience and internship plans that will supply experiential acquisition chances which can spread out a pupil ‘s ego apprehension and where they have chances to run into people working in Fieldss that may antecedently non been consciously considered as perchance calling options.

Holland ‘s theory.

Holland ‘s theory ( as cited in Gibson & A ; Mitchell, 2006 ) revealed that an person expressed their personality through their calling pick based on the undermentioned premises:

Most individuals can be categorized as one of six types: realistic, fact-finding, artistic, societal, enterprising, or conventional.

There are six sorts of environments: realistic, fact-finding, artistic, societal, and conventional.

Peoples search for environments that will allow them exert their accomplishments and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable jobs and functions.

A individual ‘s behaviour is determined by an interaction between his personality and features of his environment ( p. 64 ) .

A brief account of Holland ‘s personality manners and occupational environments ( as cited in Osborn & A ; Zunker, 2006, p.11 ) ( see Table 2 ) .

Table 2

Holland personal manner


Personal Manner

Occupational Environment

Realistic ( R )

R types prefer concrete versus abstract work undertakings, work out-of-doorss in manual activities, and like to work entirely or with other realistic people.

Most businesss are blue-collar 1s, such as pipe fitter, electrician, and service businesss.

Investigative ( I )

I types prefer to work in an environment where one is required to utilize abstract and analytical accomplishments, are slightly independent, and are strongly oriented to carry throughing undertakings.

Many scientific professions require high degrees of instruction and are intellectually oriented, such as chemist, life scientist, and research worker. Examples of other fact-finding businesss are laboratory technician, computing machine coder, and electronics worker.

Artistic ( A )

A types include inventive and originative persons who value aesthetics, prefer self-expression through the humanistic disciplines, and are instead independent and extroverted.

Some businesss included in this class are sculpturer, creative person, interior decorator, music instructor, orchestra leader, editor, write, and critic.

Social ( S )

S types are really concerned with societal jobs, prefer societal interaction, are spiritual, take part in community service, are interested in educational activities, and prefer working with people. There is a strong orientation toward working with others and utilizing interpersonal accomplishments.

Occupational classs in this group include those in instruction, such as instructor, school, decision makers, and college professional nurse.

Enterprising ( E )

Tocopherol types are extroverted, aggressive, adventuresome, dominant, and persuasive prefer leading functions. Their behaviour is besides characterized as purposive, and they like to organize others ‘ work.

Occupational classs are managerial and including workers in charge of production and in assorted gross revenues places.

Conventional ( C )

C types are practical, good controlled, sociable, and instead conservative. They prefer structured undertakings and are comfy when working with inside informations.

Occupations include office and clerical workers, comptroller, bookkeeper, receptionist, Teller, and key-punch operator.

Holland ‘s RIASEC theoretical account is illustrated in Figure 1 below

Figure 1

Holland ‘s RIASEC Model

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Holland ‘s theory is a trait-factor theory and is widely used in school instruction and

calling planning activities in states where the course of study includes calling development plans or services for pupils. A assortment of instruments have been developed that are easy for pupils to utilize, for illustration, the Career Explorer for in-between classs and the SDS-Form R for senior classs. There are besides instruments available online for pupils to utilize as they explore their calling options and penchant, see for illustration hypertext transfer protocol: // there are several Holland based self-tests freely available for usage.

Importance of Career Education

Career instruction is defined as “ encompasses the development of cognition, accomplishments and attitudes through a planned plan of larning experiences in instruction and preparation, scenes that will help pupils to do informed determinations about their survey and/or work options and enable them to take part efficaciously in working life ” . ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

In Canada, a research undertaking was conducted by Bardick, Bernes, Magnusson andWitko ( 2004 ) that revealed that junior high pupils perceived calling planning to be of import for them when they reached high school or when they made a determination about a calling, or when they looked for a occupation. The research workers argued that presenting the procedure of calling planning to pupils at the junior high degree would function to increase pupils ‘ consciousness of the relevancy of calling decision-making and influenced their willingness to research possible options, instead than wait until the pupils were forced to do a determination in senior high school.

Similarly, another survey that focused on in-between classs pupils by Schaefer, Rivera andOphals reported that:

During the critical center classs old ages, pupils need chances to derive greater self-awareness, entree information about their educational and calling options, and develop the accomplishments and competences they will necessitate to do of import determinations about their hereafter ( 2010, p. 31 ) .

And harmonizing to Arrington, Trusty, Niles & A ; Carney ( as cited in Schaefer, Rivera & A ; Ophals, 2010 ) the in-between school classs ( ages 12-15 ) were of import times to pupils ‘ calling development, here pupils started to do determination that would impact non merely their high school educational chances and experiences but besides their post-high school educational and calling options.

A similar survey by Trusty and Niles ( 2004 ) on high school variables had strong effects on degree completion and deductions for assisting immature people in their educational calling development. They revealed the importance of single instruction, calling planning to long-run calling development because systematic planning would assist pupils build larning experiences and develop necessary accomplishments that lead to finish a unmarried man ‘s grade. Students could recognize their possible or lost endowment in educational calling. Furthermore, pupils truly needed aid with single planning in in-between school and before, because in-between school classs are involved in high school.

In Canada, a survey by Bardic, Bernes, Magnusson and Witko ( 2006 ) on junior high school pupils with calling programs for the hereafter. Many inquiries related to their calling program were asked to happen out the calling ends. The consequences of the survey indicated that junior high school pupils were ready, willing and able to see their hereafter plans earnestly because they were involved in a calling plan planning that leaded them to greater penetration and involvement in calling geographic expedition, and besides helped them to do positive calling determination. Furthermore, prosecuting pupils in calling planning plan would let pupils to run into more efficaciously fitting striplings ‘ calling development demands.

In an Australian survey by Watson, Creed and Patton ( 2003 ) on the influence of contextual factors on the calling determination provinces of 429 South African and 623 Australian male and female pupils in classs 8 to 12. Their findings found that there was different calling determination behaviour of states. Both schools provided pupils with career instruction plan in a portion of curricular activities from classs 8 to 12 and the content of scrutiny plan emphasized on cognitive geographic expedition refering capable and calling pick information. However, the South African calling instruction plan provided pupils with uncertainness and indecisiveness compared to those of Australian because it provided calling information, but failed to turn to deeper issues refering persons ‘ feelings about their capacities to do determinations.

All of the surveies described above stressed the importance of calling plan planning which assisted pupils to research their possible and do right determination to develop their calling development to finish their grade in order to accomplish their calling ends ( Bardick, Bernes, Magnusson & A ; Witko,2004 ; Arrington,2000, Trusty, Niles & A ; Carney,2005 ; Trusty & A ; Niles, 2004 ; Bardick, Bernes, Magnusson & A ; Witko, 2006 ; Watson, Creed & A ; Patton,2003 ; Scaefer, Rivera & A ; Ophals, 2010 ) . Researchers besides claimed that calling planning would be introduced to school from in-between school ( Scaefer, Rivera & A ; Ophals, 2010 ) , and from junior school ( Bardick, Bernes, Magnusson & A ; Witko, 2004 ) .

Students ‘ Decision Devising

In Australia, a survey on generic involvements and school capable pick was conducted by Elsworth, Beavis, Ainley, and Fabris ( 1999 ) . Their findings revealed that there were strong and relentless associations between the gender and societal background of pupils and their capable engagement. Males were more likely to be enrolled in Agriculture, Computing, Mathematics, Physical Education, Physical Science and Technology, whilst females were more likely to be enrolled in Biology and Other Science, Creative Arts, Health, Home Science and Languages other than English. Higher socio-economic position pupils were seemingly enrolled in greater Numberss in Mathematicss and the Physical Sciences ; while more lower socio-economic position pupils were enrolled in Computing, Economics and Business, Health, Home Science, Physical Education, and Technology.

Similarly, Smyth and Hannan ( 2006 ) researched school effects and capable pick with a focal point on the consumption of scientific topics in Ireland. In their research, the analysis drew on elaborate information of about 4000 pupils in 100 secondary schools in the Republic of Ireland. It was found that pupils were seen to take topics that were utile for their hereafter callings, topics they found interesting, and those in which they performed better academically.

Similarly, the ground for pupils taking their major was that they liked the topics found the most influencing ( YEP, 2008 ) .

In Britain, Francis, Hutchings, Archer and Melling ( 2003 ) besides conducted a survey on capable pick and occupational aspirations among students at misss ‘ schools. In this survey, they found that females chose their preferable topic in footings of the quality of instruction, or the accomplishment of instructor, and analyzing with animating instructors instead than tiring 1s. They enjoyed instructors who were encouraging, motivation and could do the topic and lesson interesting. Furthermore, the nature of the topic could be portion of their capable pick.

However, in a Chinese survey by Siann, Lightbody, Nicholson, Tait and Walsh ( 1998 ) argued that Chinese pupils chose their capable pick non based on their involvement, but on the school model imposed by the school for pupils ‘ picks. They besides stressed that pupils made picks in the context of a reasonably short-run and narrow position of their lives ; they seldom had a position of a hereafter much beyond the terminal of school.

Through the reappraisal of literature, surveies revealed that the grounds lending to pupils doing determination were generic capable involvement and household socio-economic position ( Elsworth, Beavis, Ainley, & A ; Fabris,1999 ) , utile for their future calling, they performed good in a topic ( Smyth & A ; Hannan, 2006 ) , and the quality of learning frequently described as instructors ‘ passion for capable ( Francis, Hutchings, Archer & A ; Melling, 2003 ) . While YEP argued that pupils chose their major with merely their involvement, but in another survey, pupils chose capable major non for their involvement but it was a school demand ( Siann, Lightbody, Nicholson, Tait & A ; Walsh,1998 ) .

Factors Related to Students ‘ Career Decision Making

The literature reviewed identified several factors that were identified as act uponing a pupil ‘s pick of farther survey or work. The undermentioned subdivision described the major subjects found in the study of the international literature such as household, teacher, friend, gender and school factor.


In a Kenyan survey by Kithyo ( 2002 ) it was reported that pupils were under force per unit area from their parents in certain callings. There seemed to be an opposite thought between what the parents wanted and what the pupils wanted. Some parents threatened non to supply the pupils with fiscal support if they did non take what they desired. Some pupils did non discourse callings with their parents because the pupils thought the parents themselves non holding any or a batch of formal instruction and being uninformed about calling, could non assist their kids because they could non understand the demand of assorted callings. However, the pupils depended on their parents ‘ abilities to assist them take callings in footings of their relationship and assurance. Similarly, in the United States other research conducted by Constantine, Wallace and Kindaichi ( 2005 ) found that household support could help many African American striplings in doing determinations about their educational and vocational hereafter.

Harmonizing to the work of Simpon ( as cited in Sharf, 2006 ) female parents were found to hold influenced the calling pick of their kids in untechnical college big leagues, whereas the male parent supported proficient college big leagues. Mothers frequently did this by being emotionally supportive of their kids. A female parent ‘s emotional and occupational position had an of import influence on the kid ‘s occupational pick. Another survey ( Morgan, 2009 ) found that amongst immature people aged 15-24 old ages, parents were an importance influence in promoting pupils to finish their instruction, and they were the chief influence on pupils ‘ programs for the hereafter, with female parents more influential than male parents.

Through a reappraisal of literature, surveies revealed that parents were viewed as an of import influence in taking their kid ‘s calling ( Kithyo, 2002 ) , and doing determination about their educational and vocational hereafter ( Constantine, Wallace & A ; Kindaichi,2005 ) , and female parents were more influential than male parents in help their kid ‘s to be after for the hereafter ( Simpon as cited in Sharf, 2006 ; Morgan, 2009 ) .


In the survey by Smyth and Hannan ( 2006 ) described earlier, they found that instructors may act upon in pupils when they were faced with doing determination about their capable major. Similarly, another survey by Osoro et Al. ( 2000 ) found that instructors in the rural school played an of import function in steering pupils in calling determination devising.

Whilst instructors were reported in several surveies as being of import influences on their calling determination devising of pupils, it was non a cosmopolitan determination. Smyth and Hannan ( 2006 ) reported that instructors may be an influence on pupils when doing capable pick determinations, whether the pupils enjoys the manner of learning in a topic ( which is an indirect signifier of influence ) or whether it was a more direct signifier of influence is ill-defined. In a national study of Australian high school pupils ( Alloway, Dalley, Patterson, Walker & A ; Lenoy, 2004 ) pupils ‘ parents were identified as an of import influence of what the pupils would analyze in senior classs in high school and post-school option. Similarly, in Kenya, a Canadian survey by Osoro, Amundso, and Borgen ( 2000 ) claimed that the rural pupils tended to seek aid from parents and teacher more than urban pupils, and parents more than the calling instructors played a critical function in the calling decision-making.

The Cambodia-based YEP ( 2008 ) survey reported that the instructors were less influential on a pupil ‘s pick of whether to go on to higher instruction than that of their parents and friends. Obviously instructors in Cambodia have less influence than those in states in other surveies.


In the Canadian survey by Bardick et Al. ( 2004 ) on junior high calling planning they found that pupils were more likely to trust on friends instead than their instructors or school counsellors for aid with calling planning. Their survey besides found the pupils showing the demand for aid with calling decision-making, obtaining relevant information and support, and taking appropriate classs. Similarly, in a survey by Patton and McMahon ( 1997 ) found that friend factor is a 1 of powerful influence on determinations which were made, non made, or even considered. Consequently, if friends showed small involvement in be aftering for callings beyond school ; in working to accomplish academically, or in taking topics carefully, or even in finishing secondary instruction. They were suffered from their friends. Whilst friends were less influenced than parents on pupils in doing determination on higher instruction, but the same in doing determination in taking the topic major or accomplishment ( YEB, 2008 ) .


In a survey by Paa and Mc Whirter ( as cited in Wilgosh, 2002 ) found that three factors act uponing both female and male high school pupils on calling outlooks and development were function theoretical accounts, media and ethnicity. Particularly, for female pupils there were strong influences from same-sex function theoretical accounts such as female parents, instructors and friends.

Another survey in England by Francis et Al. ( 2003 ) who found that gender played an of import function than ability in pupils ‘ picks of future business on school capable major.


In a Bahamidan survey by Rowland ( 2004 ) on the confident degree and factor influencing in calling decision-making of Bahamian striplings in the high schools in Nassau and Bahamas. The findings revealed that pupils sing their school counsel counsellor to discourse calling or college programs would more assurance in their calling decision-making accomplishments than those pupils who did non see their school counsel counsellor. The research worker besides recommended that sing the school counsel counsellor to discourse future programs was important influence on striplings ‘ assurance degree in calling decision-making, peculiarly in the country of calling certainty.

A similar survey by Jepsen ( as cited in Patton & A ; McMahon, 1997 ) stated that “ School is an of import influence on the calling determination devising of striplings ” ( p.131 ) . In Australia, Patton and McMahon argued that one of import manner in which the calling development of all immature people can be deliberately influenced by school is through the proviso of systematic development calling instruction plans ( 1997, p. 132 ) . Australian Education Council ( as cited in Patton & A ; McMahon, 1997 ) found that:

calling instruction in Australia schools is concerned with the development of cognition, accomplishments and attitudes through a planned plan of larning experiences, which will help pupils to do informed determination about school and post-school options and enable effectual engagement in working life and urge that calling instruction be embedded in the course of study from kindergarten to twelvemonth 12 ( p. 132 ) .

Through a reappraisal of literature, the surveies argued that pupils were influenced by many factors such as household, friends, genders, and schools, particularly schools supplying calling education.Among above factors household and school are the most often reported in surveies, following by friends and instructors ( YEP, 2008 ) , and pupils perceived their parents as holding more influence on their calling pick and determination devising than their instructors ( Osoro et al. , 2000 ) , and the least genders in calling determination devising. Meanwhile, schools offer pupils with calling instruction to assist them do informed determination about school and post-school so as to maintain pupils on calling development in farther instruction toward calling tracts. As mentioned in the literature, calling instruction is of import for pupils in doing right determination ; hence, it is needed to prosecute in school course of study ( Patton & A ; McMahon, 1997 ) .

Chapter 3


In this chapter I have described the trying methods, and informations aggregation methods. I intend to utilize in carry oning this little research undertaking. It will include a description of some strengths and restrictions of the assorted methods and a treatment of ethical issues that may originate in carry oning the survey.

The survey will be conducted in one high school in a regional town. The survey will utilize a mixture of qualitative and quantitative informations aggregation attacks and is basically explorative.

Sampling Methods

Location trying method.

Convenience sampling is the trying method selected for placing the location of the school in this survey, because the school to be used will be the one where I work as a class 10 instructor, and it is easy for me to derive permission to hold entree to the pupils because I am a instructor in this school.

A strength of this sort of trying method is that the research worker can take any location where there is easy entree to respondents without necessitating to go distances. However, a limitationfor this trying method is that the findings can non be generalized to other schools ( Cohen, Manion & A ; Morrison, 2007 ) .

Focus group participant trying method.

Self-selection sampling will be used to enroll focal point group pupil participants. This attack is besides needed because the class 11 pupils altering their capable major are in all categories. Therefore, I have to entree to all the categories and can inquire them to take part in the survey voluntarily.

Focus group interviews will be conducted with voluntary class 11 pupils from the 16 categories. The information will be collected utilizing sound recorded focal point group interviews with some of the pupils from grade 11 who are altering their capable major for class 12. I will explicate the intent of the group interview and that it is voluntary to all the pupils in each class 11 category during a brief presentation in each schoolroom. All those be aftering to alter their capable major for class 12 will be invited to take part and if they are willing to fall in to give me their contact inside informations and I will reach them to set up a clip and location for treatment.

Self choice is a trying method where participants select themselves to take part after hearing about the research undertaking and they have non been straight approached by the research worker to take part. I will talk to all rate 11 categories about the little research I am making and will supply a written invitation for those who are altering their capable major which they can return to me via a box I have placed in the school library.

The strengths of this sampling method are that the research workers spend less clip to seek for appropriate units ( an person or organisation ) and participants are willing to take part in the survey voluntarily. However, restrictions of this sampling method are determination to take part in the survey may reflect some built-in prejudice in the features or traits of participants because the research worker and participants can be instructors with pupils or employers with employees, and it can non be representative of the population being studied, or overstating some peculiar determination from the survey ( http: // ) .

Questionnaire participant trying method.

The figure of pupils in each category is about 60 pupils, so with a big figure of population random sampling will be used to choose the pupils in each category with males and females that there are the same per centum to that of an original population. I will choose 10 pupils from each category, so the sum of complete studies will be 140-grade 10 pupils. They will be asked to finish the questionnaire during a lesson clip. I will explicate that the questionnaire is anon. and they are free to non finish it if they choose non to.

Harmonizing to Berg ( 2009 ) random sampling is the procedure where every person has equal chance to be selected and take part in the survey. It must stand for a whole population.

Strengths of random trying method are unbiased statistic and when a sample is done indiscriminately, and thenevery point in the population has an equal opportunity of being selected.Nevertheless, the restriction of random trying method is that a complete list of all the members of the population is needed and the list of population must be up-to-date. This list is normally non available for a big population ( http: // ) .

Data Collection Methods

For this survey, the research worker will utilize a researcher-designed questionnaire to place the grounds and factors act uponing class 10 pupils ‘ determinations about their senior high school capable major. The questionnaire will be used to roll up informations from class 10 pupils in the 14 categories. Focus group interviews will besides be conducted with class 11 pupils who are altering their capable major for class 12.The figure of pupils in each category is about 60 pupils, so with a big figure of population the random sampling will be used to choose the pupil in each category with males and females that there are the same per centum to that of an original population.The selected pupils will be asked to finish the questionnaire during a lesson clip. I will explicate that the questionnaire is anon. and they are free to non finish it if they choose it if they choose non to.

Focus group interview will be conducted with class 11 pupils from the 16 categories. The information will be collected utilizing recorded focal point group interviews with the pupils from grade 11 who are altering their capable major for class 12.


Cohen, Manion and Morrison ( 2007 ) stressed that there were many methods for informations aggregation “ Questionnaires, interviews, histories, observation, trials, personal concepts and role-play “ ( pp. 317-456 ) . Other the techniques selected are determined by the type of research being taken- whether qualitative or quantitative in design. Two techniques used to roll up informations in this survey will bequestionnaires ( pen and pencil study ) and concentrate group interviews method.

A questionnaire is a information aggregation attack in which the research worker is be able to utilize a big figure of inquiries, and provides the respondents an chance to show their ain positions and remarks. Furthermore, the research worker can roll up a big sum of informations in less clip with a great population of participants compared to that of interview ( Anderson & A ; Arsenault, 1998 ) .

Anderson and Arsenault ( 1998 ) stated that there arelimitationsto the usage of questionnaire as a information aggregation method if the participantdoesnot understand the inquiries, they can non reply inquiries. Furthermore, the participants can merely react based on the set inquiries.

Focus group interviews.

The focal point group is used in qualitative research and is the most common method used

to roll up informations. Harmonizing to Downs, Adrian, Edumunds, Marshall, Rossman and Salkindthe

( as cited in Berg, 2009 ) the research worker could garner much information from the participants in

ashort period of clip, and it can supply critical penetration into the peculiar subject that research worker

doesnot understand in a old clip. In add-on, it is extremely flexible with a big figure

ofparticipant group, costs and continuance.

The restrictions of the focal point group are that the research worker may get the consequences as

group sentiment, non an single one, and the clip is limited in group treatment

approximatelybetween 30 to 60 proceedingss ( Berg, 2009 ) . In add-on, when utilizing the focal point

group it is impossible to vouch confidentially ( Anderson & A ; Arsenault, 1998 ) .

Ethical Considerations

To roll up the informations, ethical issues have been considered when developing the sample.

This survey aims to roll up informations from pupils who are presently analyzing in a province school in

Cambodiawhere I am besides a instructor. The issue of my function as a instructor with possible

perceptual experience of my place being used to act upon a pupil ‘s classs if they do non take part


Consent to utilize the school as the base for my research will be gained from the school


Information will be clear and given to participants explicating about the intent of

the survey, and how they could help to take part, and the information included who am I, why I do this research, and the subject of the survey.

The informations aggregation process will besides be explained to pupils who have studied Grade 10 and 11. However, in the procedure of roll uping informations, participants will non be given any wagess to finish the questionnaires or take part in group treatment.