Cryogenics And Indian Oil Environmental Sciences Essay

Natural gas is an of import beginning of conventional energy which helps in cut downing pollution and keeping a clean and healthy environment. The usage of natural gas offers a figure of environmental benefits over other fossil fuels like coal and oil. Natural gas is composed chiefly of methane along with other burning constituent like C dioxide and H2O vapor, whereas coal and oil are composed of more complex molecules which when combusted release higher degrees of harmful emanations than natural gas.

What is Cryogenics and Why Indian Oil Call it Cryogenic -Bringing LNG at Doorstep?

Cryogenic pertains to liquefied gases which are inert in nature and are highly cold, normally temperature below minus 150 degree Celsius. Such gases include LNG, Helium, Nitrogen and many more other gases.

IndianOil calls this Initiative as “ Cryogenics-Bringing LNG at Doorstep ” because they are the first company in India to open up this engineering for doing LNG make the consumers of Natural Gas through Road Transportation and has opened avenues for the fuel users who are non located on the Natural Gas grapevines. With the development of Cryogenic engineering, the liquefaction of Natural Gas became executable every bit good as feasible, and the Liquefied Natural Gas ( LNG ) became a really effectual solution to the job of Natural Gas transmittal.

International Experience with Cryogenic Road Transportation

Besides usage of cryogenic engineering for transit through oilers, another application of this engineering is in in-land route transit of LNG. Internationally this system has been widely used and has proven to be really safe. The states utilizing this system include USA, Japan, S. Korea, UK, Spain & A ; several other European states, China and now India. In China, gas beginnings are concentrated in North West of the state and the major ingestion is in South E. LNG route oiler trucks are deployed for transporting LNG over 1000s of Kilometers to do it make the user points.

Application of Cryogenics for Natural Gas Transportation in India: IndianOil ‘s Initiative

The erstwhile IBP Co. Ltd. had been in the field of Cryogenics since the twelvemonth 1978, with focal point on Liquid Nitrogen which has temperature of -196 degree Celsius. The company has been fabricating liquid N Dewars, with trade name ‘CRYOCAN ‘ , which are little aluminium two-base hit walled containers used for storage and transit of liquid Nitrogen. It had further diversified in the twelvemonth 1990 to Industrial cryogenic containers which are big unstained steel armored combat vehicles used for storage and transit of industrial gases liquid N, liquid O and liquid Ar. In the twelvemonth 2000, for Business Development, it was proposed to use the experience, cognition and expertness in the field of Cryogenics for functioning Hydrocarbon sector. At that point of clip the programs for import of LNG were already finalized and execution of the LNG receiving and re-gasification terminus at Dahej had got initiated. LNG after re-gasification was planned to be supplied to consumers through the Natural Gas grapevines or by route conveyance.

With the coup d’etat of IBP by IndianOil, in the twelvemonth 2002 in position of IBP ‘s experience in the field of cryogenies, it was proposed that for Natural Gas consumers non located on the grapevines, LNG could be transported with the aid of cryogenic route oilers. IndianOil has the selling rights over 30 % portion of Petronet LNG ‘s imported LNG at Dahej. LNG was to be stored at consumer premises in the cryogenic storage armored combat vehicles and re-gasified there itself without outgo for energy.

This manner of transit of LNG through cryogenic route oilers was being used for the first clip in the state. Its execution was shrouded with batch of apprehensivenesss. In the twelvemonth 2004 IndianOil entered into a ‘Pilot Project Agreement ‘ for the cryogenic transit, storage, and re-gasification of LNG, with universe ‘s prima company of USA in the field of cryogenies.

IndianOil ‘s Pilot Project “ LNG at Doorstep ”

The construct was shared with M/s Petronet LNG Ltd. ( PLL ) , and they expressed enthusiasm on its execution. The ‘Basic Engineering ‘ program was organized from IndianOil Pilot Project engineering spouse and provided to PLL. While PLL proceeded for execution of the Truck burden installations, IndianOil proceeded with the transit, storage, and re-gasification of LNG in safe and efficient mode.

Orders were placed on IndianOil Pilot Project spouse for import of 5 LNG conveyance oilers and 2 LNG storage armored combat vehicles. The following two clients took up the challenge to work proactively for the

execution of Pilot Project and entered into LNG Sale Agreement with IndianOil and placed orders for the re-gasification installations for LNG:

M/s H & A ; R Johnson India Ltd. , Pen, Dist. Raigad, Maharashtra

M/s Schott Glass India Ltd. , Jambusar, Gujarat

Statutory governments were shown the similar undertakings abroad. Meetings were arranged between NFPA ( National Fire Protection Association of USA ) , Chief Controller of Explosives of India, along with IndianOil ‘s squad and several apprehensivenesss sing safety were clarified by NFPA. All the safety features for the undertaking were ensured to be implemented.

Finally on 10th August 2007, the first LNG oiler was filled at PLL Dahej in the presence of IndianOil ‘s squad, Pilot Project spouse representative, and PLL squad. The Pilot Project was run for several months to set up the safe and efficient transit on Indian roads, and storage and re-gasification at

consumer sites, and the system was officially inaugurated by Chairman, IndianOil on 12th April 2008.

The Rs. 29-crore undertaking covers investings at the tap-off-point at Dahej, a dedicated on route ‘LNG train ‘ of specially designed cryogenic oiler trucks between Dahej and Pen.

Basic Technical Information

Cryogenic Tanks

Since the cryogenic temperature is below minus 150 grade Celsius, cryogenic armored combat vehicle needs to retain the cold temperature of LNG, which is minus 161 degree Celsius. The armored combat vehicle is designed in such a manner that all three manners of heat transportation are brought to minimum or near to zero. The three manners of heat transportation are: –

Conduction Mode – It refers to heat transportation that occurs across the medium. Medium can be solid or a fluid.

Convection Mode – It refers to the heat transportation that occurs between a surface & A ; traveling fluid when they are at different temperatures.

Radiation Mode – It refers to the transportation of heat between two surfaces at different temperatures in the signifier of electromagnetic moving ridges. This manner takes topographic point in the absence of any medium.

The armored combat vehicle consists of the interior vas which holds the cryogenic liquid and the outer vas is exposed to the ambiance. The interior vas is made of particular steels which withstand the cryogenic temperature. Here normal C steel vas is non used because it cracks at such a low temperatures. Even the welding of the vas is done with particular electrodes, which withstands the impacts at such low temperatures. The interior vas is assembled with the outer vas with specially designed composite supports which allow bare minimal heat transportation through conductivity.

In order to minimise the convection manner of heat transportation from atmosphere to the interior vas, really high vacuity of the order of 10^3 Torr is created in the annulate infinite between the inner and outer vass. This ensures that there are practically no air molecules to transport the heat through convection from outer vas to the interior vas.

Finally to minimise the radiation manner of heat transportation, which even transmits heat through vacuity ( like heat from Sun to the Earth ) , either Multi Layer Super Insulation ( MLSI ) or Perlite Insulation is used, which ensures that heat of radiation practically gets lost within the insularity, instead than making the interior vas.

Many people, who are non associated with cryogenies field, sometimes carry a impression that a regular chilling or infrigidation is required to maintain LNG cool. But this is non true. The chilling of LNG is done as explained above by maintaining all the three manners of heat transportation as negligible. This is the lone manner to maintain LNG in liquid signifier.

IndianOil is the lone crude oil company holding its ain expertness in Cryogenics. The combination of experience in Hydrocarbons sector and Cryogenics has given manner for the execution of the innovator undertaking of ‘LNG at Doorstep ‘ .

Re-gasification Facilities

The site installations include LNG pumps for droping LNG from the route oilers to the storage armored combat vehicle. The complete procedure is to the full automated and all safety systems are kept in topographic point, including Gas and Flame sensors, ESD system, etc.

The vaporisers to change over LNG to Natural Gas are normally ambient air vaporisers, non necessitating any outgo on energy for vaporisation. LNG is made to go through through the aluminium finned tube vaporisers. This absorbs heat from the atmospheric air and gets vaporized to Natural Gas for the applications. Besides the force per unit area regulator system is kept in topographic point to guarantee that Natural Gas is made available to the user point at the needed force per unit area. Vaporizer utilizing H2O as heat transportation medium can besides be used, which may ensue in acquiring chilled H2O, which can be used in other systems at the user terminal.

Commercialization of the Undertaking

The ‘LNG at Doorstep ‘ undertaking was implemented as a commercial activity right from the twenty-four hours one of Pilot

Undertaking, and the undertaking has continued as commercial activity since August 2007 with moderately good

borders. Till day of the month more than 25,000 MTs of LNG has been delivered in the state by route safely. While

the two clients are satisfied with the system, many more clients have shown acute involvement in the system, particularly those who are non located on the grapevines.

By February 2010, IndianOil have entered into LNG Sale Agreement with two more clients located at Sinnar ( Nasik, Maharashtra ) and Silvassa ( Dadra and Nagar Haveli ) while several other clients are in advanced phase of treatments to finalise the LNG Sale Agreement.

Analysis of Cryogenics-Bringing LNG at doorsill

Though in this end term paper we are speaking about Cryogenics engineering and how IndianOil brought LNG at the doorsill, we besides have to analyse the ground behind this that why IndianOil took this enterprise when already there is a simple and inexpensive beginning of transit of other fuels available.

The really first ground could be the Significant Usage of Natural Gas –

Natural Gas has the lowest C to hydrogen ratio and therefore, it burns wholly, doing it the cleanest fuel among fossil fuels. The major usage of Natural Gas in industrial and other applications are summarized below: –


Use of Natural Gas

Coevals of Electricity

Fuel for base burden power works in combined rhythm & A ; besides cogeneration

Fertilizer Industry

As a feedstock for Ammonia and Urea Production

General Industries

As a boiler fuel to raise steam & A ; furnace fuel for warming applications


For warming of H2O and besides for cooking

Automotive Industry

As a green fuel


As natural stuff to deduce a assortment of chemical merchandises

Petroleum Refining

As a replacement of liquid fuel & A ; feedstock for H production

Second ground could be the deficient grapevines laid for LNG in India –

With the turning rate of Gas power workss in India, demand for natural gas is besides increasing. As of now we are unable to provide LNG to the gas terminuss because of scarceness in grapevines laid. This is why IndianOil chose this alternate manner of conveyance to make its clients.

General statistics shows that in the XI five twelvemonth program ( till now ) , 10800 Km of bing transmittal grapevine is laid with a capacity of 270 mmscmd and 7450 kilometer of grapevine is planned with a capacity of 248 mmscmd. More natural gas grapevines are planned in following topographic points: –

Mehsana – Bhatinda Pipeline – 1670 Km

Bhatinda – Jammu – Srinagar Pipleline – 740 Km

Surat – Paradip Pipeline – 1680 Km

Mallavaram – Vijaypur – Bhilwara Pipeline – 1585 Km.

Below figure shows the aerial position of grapevines laid in India.

Source – Vijay Duggal Sir PPt

Third ground would be the Competitiveness of this type of conveyance over other fuels transport –

The system is economically attractive compared to liquid fuels such as HSD, Naphtha, LDO or even FO. The existent cost workings depend upon the distance of the consumer from the beginning and the measure required by them. Therefore, we can state that distance and measure is straight relative to the figure of LNG oilers to be deployed and therefore the running cost of the oilers could be estimated.

Fourth ground could be the turning demands of energy in World every bit good as India – Lashkar-e-taibas have a expression on Current World ‘s Energy Outlook

Turning energy demands of states and consuming natural militias have started a race among states to look for new beginnings of energy in order to fulfill future energy demands. As a consequence energy concern has been the cardinal issue of treatments for several ongoing planetary concerns. Today, when we look into the chances of future energy concern either globally or at a national degree, some of the issues we can non afford to disregard are Accessibility, Affordability and Availability of energy. Energy monetary values, pick of determiners of Energy demands, CO2 emanations are few of the critical indexs that will find the hereafter energy scenario.

Beginning: World Oil Outlook, 2009 Report

Briefly we can state that dependable, efficient and economic supply of energy is required to achieve and prolong sound economic and societal growing. Currently, bulk of primary energy demand is being satisfied by non-renewable energy resources. Although, renewable are turning at fast rates but their portion as of now is little. As per OPEC ‘s World Oil Outlook-2009, Oil, Coal & A ; Gas will go on to fulfill more than 80 % of the universe ‘s energy needs over the period of following 20 old ages as given above.

Therefore, we need to concentrate on such type of fuel which produces the heat energy similar to that produced by non-renewable energy resources. Natural Gas serves this intent.

Fifth ground could be the lifting chances of Natural gas in India –

Trend graph drawn on the footing of informations given in IndianOil Energy Digest Magazine

Trend graph drawn on the footing of informations given in IndianOil Energy Digest Magazine

If we see the tendency on LNG ingestion in India every bit good as Sector wise ingestion ( sectors listed in point 1 ) , there is a 46 % addition in the demand of LNG in India and about 27 % addition in sector wise demand from the old twelvemonth.

This shows that gas plays a significant function in bettering the economic system of India and hence, there are concern chances in the field of conveyance by route which IndianOil has tapped.

Professionals and Cons of LNG oilers

Advantages –

LNG does non necessitate a heavy fuel armored combat vehicle.

The filling clip is less compared to other traditional fuel conveyance armored combat vehicles.

LNG Tankers offers safer operation until and unless met with the ruinous collision/accident.

LNG needs a smaller gas armored combat vehicle than CNG and therefore increasing the bole infinite of a vehicle.

Disadvantages –

LNG evaporates if a oiler is non used for a drawn-out period of clip

Filling of oilers demands to be handled by specialised people.

Filling engineering is complicated and dearly-won compared to other armored combat vehicles.

One has to be cautious while make fulling LNG as it involves hazards.

The cost of cryogenic oiler is much more than that of other fuel oilers.


The system of ‘LNG at Doorstep ‘ has opened avenues for the fuel users who are non located on the Natural gas grapevines. This is lending towards more just distribution of Natural Gas, to get down within a little manner. The high pureness of LNG gives several advantages to the user. More avenues of the applications are in procedure and are being developed. The system will travel in a long manner to spread out the Natural Gas applications in the state.