Economics behind joint-lending using a simple model

Microfinance establishments refer to administrations which provide little sum of working capital to hapless people who are denied recognition entree from the formal loaning sector. This little sum helps them to lift above the poorness line. Microfinance establishments are associated with informational dissymmetries between the two parties. In order to cut down these, the establishments use two different contract designs ; single and group loaning contract.

Under the group loaning contract, loans are provided to group of people who are reciprocally responsible for the recognition provided till all the members have repaid the loan sum. Under the single loaning contract, loans are provided when an single pledges collateral. New testing processs along with the traditional loaning engineering are employed in this contract.

The literature on microfinance is new. Recently many bookmans and development practicians have given attending to loaning establishments that employ unconventional methods to impart to the hapless.

This paper analysis the economic sciences of joint loaning, how joint loaning promotes testing, monitoring, province confirmation and enforcement of refund and depict how the theoretical account of joint loaning helps in covering with jobs associated with loaners. The jobs associated with joint loaning are inauspicious choice, moral jeopardies, scrutinizing costs and enforcement. The joint liability loaning institutes ( JLLT ) can make better than the conventional Bankss due to following grounds:

The members of the community know more about each other than any outside bureau.

The bank can non use fiscal countenance against hapless. ( Maitreesh Ghatak, Timothy W. Guinnane 1999 ) .

The construct of Microfinance establishments is comparatively new. Wenner ( 1995 ) and Wydick ( 1999 ) provide positive result of joint loaning. In their analysis they show that societal coherence and better information about your group member consequences in betterment of refund rates. But these surveies have a few hard econometric jobs. There are besides issues like does joint loaning truly assist hapless. Critics ‘ agrue that non all microfinance institutes have positive consequences with poverty relief. Sing the instance of Grameen bank, it has first-class refund rates but has small impact on poorness.

Theories of joint-liability contracts:

This subdivision discusses the economic theoretical account used by the writer to get the better of the jobs associated with joint loaning. The writer discusses the joint liability facet of the loaning plan ; the statement is similar to the transaction- cost statement. The transaction- cost statement states that under most fortunes, it is merely a little more expensive to pull off n loans in comparing to individual loan. Therefore joint loaning leads to decrease in dealing cost per loan.

Since hapless people can non offer excessively much collateral it becomes hard for formal recognition institutes to impart them. Joint lending trades with the four major jobs faced by the formal recognition institutes when they lend to the hapless. In this paper the writer shows separately how in joint loaning each group member influences the behaviour of the other member, how the loaners can avoid dearly-won audits and how borrowers are encouraged to refund their loan.

Entire paper the writer uses the undermentioned theoretical account: end product takes two values, high ( YH ) and low ( YL ) , we assume YL=0. Output is high with chance P ( 0,1 ) , lender demands to pay back ? & A ; gt ; 1 per loan, chance cost of their labour be µ . Assume pYH & A ; gt ; ? + µ . ( Maitreesh Ghatak, Timothy W. Guinnane 1999 ) . Most of the JLLTs operate in a state of affairs where the borrower has no physical or fiscal plus to supply as collateral. The joint liability takes the signifier, if a borrower is willing and able to refund her loan but the spouse is unable to refund so the borrower should pay an extra sum degree Celsius to the bank. In the undermentioned sub subdivision we show how the writer uses the above economic theoretical account to cover with the job associated with loaning.

Adverse Choice:

Adverse choice can be a job when there is asymmetric information between the marketer and the purchaser ; in peculiar, insurance will frequently non be profitable when purchasers have better information about their hazard of claiming than does the marketer ( http: // ) .

Ideally imparting institutes would desire to divide bad borrowers from good 1s. But because of asymmetric information this becomes impossible. The best manner to divide them is to inquire for collateral. Because the hapless borrowers have no assets to plight as collateral, there is no manner of dividing the two. Joint liability trade with this job by garnering local information about the borrowers from there group members and so offering loans consequently. Logically, all the members would desire safe spouses and safe borrowers would prefer safe spouses. Therefore, in equilibrium, all borrowers of same type terminal up together.

The writer uses the undermentioned theoretical account to picture how the job of inauspicious choice is mitigated. Borrowers are assumed to be risk impersonal. With a undertaking of type I, end product takes two values, YHi and 0 and the chance of high end product pi, i=a, B, assume lead & A ; lt ; dad. When the Bankss do n’t cognize the types, safe borrowers have to traverse subsidise the hazardous borrowers. Under a joint- liability recognition contract, a borrower must refund her loan R whenever her undertaking outputs high returns, and if her spouses project outputs low returns she must pay an excess sum degree Celsius & A ; gt ; 0. The expected final payment is given by:

EUij ( R, degree Celsius ) = pipj ( YiH – R ) + pi ( 1-pj ) ( YiH – R – degree Celsius )

The net expected addition of a hazardous borrower from holding a safe spouse is EUba ( R, degree Celsius ) – EUbb ( R, degree Celsius ) = lead ( pa – lead ) degree Celsius and the net expected loss for a safe borrower holding a hazardous spouse is EUaa ( R, degree Celsius ) – EUab ( R, degree Celsius ) = dad ( pa- lead ) c. If hundred & A ; gt ; 0, the the latter look is larger than the former. Hence a hazardous borrower will non happen it profitable to hold a safe spouse. ( Maitreesh Ghatak, Timothy W. Guinnane 1999 ) .Thus the writer shows that group formation will expose positive assortation matching.

The refund rates are higher under joint- liability contracts because the joint loaning establishments make usage of the information that borrowers have about each other. Hence the job of inauspicious choice is taken attention of.

Moral Hazard:

Moral jeopardy refers to a state of affairs in which there is a hazard that a party to a dealing has non entered into the contract in good religion, has provided deceptive information about its assets, liabilities or recognition capacity, or has an inducement to take unusual hazards in a despairing effort to gain a net income before the contract settees. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // )

Once a loan is taken, the final payment depends on the actions taken by the borrower. When there is no collateral involved the borrower and the loaners do non hold the same aims. In add-on the loaner can non detect absolutely how the borrower is pull offing the sum of loan taken. In joint loaning this job is taken attention by equal monitoring. In group imparting the borrower can take remedial action against a group member if he or she misuses the sum of loan. In this instance the person borrower non merely bears the liability for himself but besides for the other group members. This benefit to the loaners is passed onto a certain extend as decreased involvement rate. Thus group imparting consequences in increased public assistance and refund rates.

The writer uses the same apparatus as earlier to exemplify the thought. When the borrowers choose actions given by attempts, they incur disutility cost of ? ?p2 ( YH & A ; lt ; ? ) . The borrower chooses p to maximise her private net incomes:

P ( R ) = arg soaps { P ( YH – R ) – ? ?p2 } = ( YH – R ) / ?

When p= YH – r/ ? is substituted in the Bankss zero net income status pr= ? , so, ?p2 – YH + ?= 0 and p= YH + [ ( YH ) 2 – 4?p2 ] 1/2 / 2? is derived. If alternatively borrowers decide on project- pick hand in glove they choose: P ( R, degree Celsius ) = arg soap pYH – rp -cp ( 1-p ) – ? ?p2 = ( YH – R – degree Celsius ) / ? – 2c. Substituting this in the Bankss zero net income status, we get, ( ?- degree Celsius ) p2 – YHp + ? = 0 is obtained. This gives, p = YH + [ ( YH ) 2 – 4? ( ? – degree Celsius ) ] 1/2 / 2 ( ? – degree Celsius ) . Since the borrower can non pay more than what his undertaking outputs, it is the instance degree Celsius & A ; lt ; ? , the numerator for the equilibrium value of P under joint liability is higher than the corresponding look under single liability, while the denominator of the former is lower than that of the latter. Thus the writer proves that the value of P and refund rate is higher under joint- liability loaning. ( Maitreesh Ghatak, Timothy W. Guinnane 1999 ) .

The above formation of joint loaning illustrates that the borrower can detect each other ‘s actions absolutely and without any cost.

Costly State Verification:

Costly State Verification ( CSV ) attack in contract theory considers contract design job in which confirmation ( or revelation ) of endeavor public presentation is dearly-won and a loaner has to pay a monitoring cost. ( Definition, the economic expert ) .

Formal loaners find it hard to impart to hapless borrowers because such loaners can non easy verify whether borrower who say they can non refund are so unable to make so. States are dearly-won to verify, therefore state- contingent contract provide inducement to borrower to describe those provinces where his refund would be least. In order to cover with this job, the writer proposes optimum contract that takes the signifier of standard debt contract.

Joint liability contract reduces expected audit cost and improves efficiency. The writer shows this as follows: Since each group member bears a certain grade of liability for the other members, the bank merely bears the auditing cost if all the borrowers in the group are unable to refund.

Assume that all undertakings are indistinguishable and the lone going from the first-best is dearly-won end product confirmation: the outside loaner has to pay ? & A ; gt ; 0 to verify the return of each person undertaking. The chance of an audit ( ?H and ? L ) when end product is high and low. ( Maitreesh Ghatak, Timothy W. Guinnane 1999 ) .

In the theoretical account the writer assumes, everyone is risk impersonal and there is limited liability- restraint. The optimum contract so solves:

Max P ( YH – R ) – µ

Subject to

YH – R & A ; gt ; = max { 0, ( 1- ?L ) YH }

? & A ; lt ; = P ( r – ?H? ) + ( 1 – P ) ( – ?L? )

Since there is no hazard sharing issues, the optimum contract is to minimise auditing costs. From the two restraints the writers get,

R = ?YH

? = ? / pYH – ( 1- P ) ?

The 2nd restraint provinces that if the borrowers own undertaking outputs high returns and the spouses project outputs low returns, she has the inducement to describe this province truthfully and refund her ain loan every bit good as joint liability for her spouse. Therefore merely the 2nd restraint binds. The Bankss zero net income status now becomes:

p2r + P ( 1-p ) 2r – ? ( 1-p ) 2? = ?

Solving the restraint and the above equation the writers obtain,

R = ?YH/ 2

?= ? / { pYH – ( 1-p ) ? } – ? P { pYH – 2 ( 1-p ) ? }

As [ pYH – ( 1-p ) ? ] & A ; gt ; [ pYH – 2 ( 1-p ) ? ] & A ; gt ; ? p [ pYH – 2 ( 1-p ) ? ] , the equilibrium involvement rate is lower under the joint liability. Thus the writers show that audit takes topographic point less frequently under joint liability, so the expected audit costs are lower. ( Maitreesh Ghatak, Timothy W. Guinnane 1999 ) .


The concluding job arises from the loaners inability to use countenance to the borrower who defaults. The borrower may decline to refund even if he has the resources to make so if the legal system does non work decently. Besley and Coates ( 1995 ) demo how joint loaning has two opposing effects on refund rates. On the positive side, the member who has high returns can pay off the loan for a spouse with low returns. On the negative side, the borrower with moderate returns may non be able to run into his duty because of the load of holding to take attention of his spouse ‘s loan. With sufficient societal capital, joint liability enforces repayment better than single liability.

The writer uses the undermentioned theoretical account to explicate the above statement ; in this instance the borrowers are risk averse. The penalty a bank can enforce on a defaulting borrower is limited and consequences in no loan granted to the borrower once more. If a borrowers project outputs end product Y & A ; gt ; = R, she will refund merely if the benefit from defaulting is less than the net benefit of continued entree to recognition, B ; in other words, the refund will go on merely if the public-service corporation derived from refund is greater than the public-service corporation derived from defaulting ;

U ( Y ) – U ( Y- R ) & A ; lt ; = B.

For a given value of R, there will be some critical Y ( R ) such that the borrower will refund if Y & A ; gt ; = Y ( R ) . Under a joint liability, every group member is considered to be in default unless the full loan sum is repaid. A borrower will take to refund even if her spouse defaults if:

U ( Y ) – U ( Y- 2r ) & A ; lt ; = B ( Maitreesh Ghatak, Timothy W. Guinnane 1999 ) .

The joint liability good consequence lies in the state of affairs that even if one group member is unable or unwilling to refund, and the other member might be willing to refund both her and her spouse ‘s duty

Institutional execution of joint- liability:

This subdivision reviews the institutional construction of successful joint- liability loaning plan to exemplify how these plan work in pattern. Two establishments that were successful in this respect were Germany ‘s Historical Credit Co-Operatives and Grameen Bank. Both of these illustrate the basic articulation liability model. There are a few differences in the two establishments as pointed out by the writer. Largely the German co-ops relied on local financess, which were a combination of the concerted assets every bit good as retained net incomes. The Grameen bank on the other manus obtained most of their financess from external beginnings.

The writer has pointed out to certain jobs originating with joint loaning, one of them being the group size. When the group sizes are little, joint liability works better than other fiscal job because group members have better information sing one another and can enforce non fiscal countenances on each other. But when the group size becomes big it can ensue in free equitation on some activities.

The writer besides raised concerns over the grade to which group members know each other and interact. Sometimes the institutes keep the group but abandon the joint liability that makes it valuable. A major hinderance in the joint liability occurs when the societal ties among the members are excessively weak.

Other booby traps of joint loaning are as follows. First, members of the group dislike the sum of tenseness caused by joint liability. Tensions can ensue in dropouts of members from the group and besides have a harmful consequence on societal capital among members. Second, joint liability is more expensive for good hazard borrowers since they engage in refund for their low hazard spouses. These defects in joint liability have late led to a displacement in single loaning. Many writers have found that the refund rates under single loaning and joint loaning do non differ but single loaning leads to farther outreach. This displacement towards single loaning may ensue in more flexible and advanced microfinance merchandises for the hapless.


The given paper illustrates the economic sciences behind joint- loaning utilizing a simple theoretical account. The cardinal issues in joint loaning market are, foremost, there is asymmetric information between the loaner and the borrower and secondly, since the borrowers are hapless the loaner can non implement fiscal countenances to retrieve the loan sum. The article showed how joint liability helps in pull offing the major jobs associated with imparting the hapless.

Empirical treatment focused on jobs of institutional execution. Given the developing province of this empirical literature, Maitreesh Ghatak and Timothy W. Guinnane do non claim that joint- liability loaning is the most of import characteristic of successful micro- loaners like Grameen Bank. Joint liability besides has certain defects which resulted in many writers switching their focal point to single loaning. This might ensue in flexibleness of microfinance merchandises for the hapless.

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