Exploring The Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction Education Essay

University/ College instructors show broad fluctuations in the satisfaction degrees they enjoy for assorted dimensions of their occupations ( oshagbemi, 1997 ) . It is known to everyone that the quality of an educational institute depends a batch on the quality of the module. Besides the quality of the public presentation of the employees of course depends on whether the employee is satisfied or non. In London it is common phenomenon that the modules from one private establishment switch to another 1. This may go on because of the salary construction or some other ground. Teachers are the employees of instruction organisations, and teacher satisfaction with the working environment can advance instruction and research quality. ( chen et Al, 2006 ) .Therefore, instructor demands must be fulfilled to better the working environment and enable instructors to accomplish outstanding research and learning public presentation. ( chen et Al, 2006 ) . In higher instruction, most surveies focus on pupils as “ clients ” , and measure their degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their plans of survey ( Comm and Mathaisel, 2000 ) . Since employee satisfaction has been found to be every bit of import as client ( pupil ) satisfaction ( Oshagbemi, 1997a ) , research on higher instruction quality has now besides begun to sing academic satisfaction ( Comm and Mathaisel, 2003 ) . So I feel that there is a demand for making a instructor satisfaction study of private colleges in London to guarantee whether there is a important relationship between the studied variables, work environment, wages and benefits, direction system, ensue feedback and motive, ( independent variables ) and teacher satisfaction ( dependent variable ) .

Aim: ( Intended outcomes/significance and range of the undertaking )

The aims of this research is to analyze and show the relationship between work environment, wages and benefits, direction system, ensue feedback and motive, ( independent variables ) and teacher satisfaction ( dependent variable ) in the context of private colleges in London.

Teacher satisfaction is decidedly a really of import facet for any sort of educational establishment. If the instructors are non satisfied than of course it hampers the productiveness of the pupils, quality of the pupils, establishment image and the internal environment of the establishment eventually which consequences into the jobs related with teacher keeping Therefore it is compulsory for the direction to cognize why their employees in other words instructors are dissatisfied and how the direction can cut down the dissatisfaction. Now the research worker initiated this survey to understand whether instructor satisfaction in influenced by work environment, wages and benefits, direction system, ensue feedback and motive and organisation vision in the context of private colleges in London. This type of survey was ne’er conducted before in London harmonizing to my degree of cognition.

Literature Reappraisal:

Definition of Work Environment

In the workplace, it is frequently assumed that employees who are more satisfied with the

Physical environment are more likely to bring forth better work outcomes.

The nature and effects of emphasis might be best understood by stating that some environmental variables ( stressors ) , when interpreted by the person ( cognitive reading ) , may take to emphasize ( Dua, 1994 ) . Dua tried to state non merely do assorted stimulations at work act as stressors, assorted things that happen to people outside their work environment may besides lend to their work emphasis.

For the persons involved the instruction and administrative environment is going an progressively contested one ( Adler et al. , 2000 ; Johnsrud, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Leveson ( 1994 ) , to day of the month there are really few reported surveies into lectors ‘ perceptual experiences of their instruction environment and fewer still into the relationship between these and learning attack. Two surveies, Adler et al. , ( 2000 ) and Prosser and Trigwell ( 1997 ) , have provided some interesting penetrations into the environmental factors that are perceived as impacting learning both positively and negatively. Perceived control, which is defined as “ an person ‘s subjective estimation of his or her capacity to influence and predict results in the environment ” ( Johnsrud, 2002, p. 387 ) appears to be a cardinal factor in both attitude and public presentation. Perry et Al. ( 2000 ) , in a survey of public presentation in university/college modules, found perceived control to be associated with research productiveness among late hired staff. An increasing sum of research in this country has shown that organisational or work-related factors act as stressors that employees in different classs experience different stressors in the same work environment, and that emphasis is associated with hapless physical wellness, hapless emotional or psychological wellness, and high occupation dissatisfaction.

Physical environmental position below outlook degrees leads to dissatisfaction, but transcending outlook degrees does non increase satisfaction degrees. ( Lee, 2006 ) . Carlopio ( 1996 ) found that employees ‘ satisfaction with their work environment is straight related to their occupation satisfaction and indirectly related to organisational committedness and turnover purpose. Research workers have demonstrated that the physical environmental quality affects occupation perceptual experience, attitudes, and occupation satisfaction ( Zalesny et al. , 1985 ; Ferguson and Weisman, 1986 ; Oldham and Fried, 1987 ; Sundstrom et al. , 1994 ; Carlopio, 1996 ; Leather et al. , 2003 ; Lee and Brand, 2005 ) . Many environmental satisfaction surveies attempt either to find the importance of assorted belongingss or constituents which form portion of a user ‘s environmental satisfaction/dissatisfaction, or to stipulate more complex relationships between people and the environment. For case, attitudes and socio-demographic variables influence appraising hierarchies of environmental facets, therefore lending to the relationship between the individuals and the environment ( Bonnes and Secchiaroli, 1995 ; Varady and Carrossa, 2000 ) .

Relation between work environment & A ; teacher satisfaction

For the persons involved the instruction and administrative environment is going an progressively contested one ( Adler et al. , 2000 ; Johnsrud, 2002 ) . Despite ample anecdotal grounds of increased degrees of emphasis and occupation dissatisfaction, it appears that there are few enterprises undertaken by these establishments to determine, on an empirical footing, the grounds underlying these responses and their effects on work public presentation ( Johnsrud, 2002 ) . There was no important difference in emphasis due to interpersonal traffics at work among staff in different occupations at the university/College. Research staff, followed by staff below senior lector degree and staff below senior proficient officer, reported more work conditions stressors than other staff ( Dua, 2004 ) . Employees are the internal clients of the concern ; they satisfy the current working environment and are willing to collaborate with the concern to carry through concern ends. Teachers are the employees of instruction organisations, and teacher satisfaction with the working environment can advance instruction and research quality. Therefore, instructor demands must be fulfilled to better the working environment and enable instructors to accomplish outstanding research and learning public presentation. ( Chen et al 2006 ) . In educational working environments, instructors are most concerned with the chances for publicity ; nevertheless, the unreal factors in the publicity systems normally cause instructors to experience unfairness, mirroring the findings of research by other bookmans ( Oshagbemi, 1996 ) .

Definition of Pay and Benefits

Persons would take higher-paying private sector occupations and make an inferior category of academic employed at universities. ( Wicks, 2004 ) . As a trade-off for higher wage, term of office allows universities/Colleges to enroll and retain high quality forces and prevent labour market mobility based entirely on pay ( Finkin, 1996 ) . Previous surveies suggest that both wage and publicity chances are of import determiners of committedness. ( Morris et al 2004 ) . Mottaz ( 1988 ) has shown that both chances for promotion and wage have a positive consequence on organisational committedness. Equity theory postulates that perceptual experiences of just wage play an of import function in specifying attitudes and behaviours refering employment because persons attempt to compare their ratios of results to inputs. Johnson and Johnson ( 1991 ) , As a consequence of one-year appraisal employees can either remain at the same wage point, move vertically within a occupation graduated table ( as was ever the instance ) , move horizontally to a higher occupation graduated table ( therefore deriving a wage addition and publicity ) or travel diagonally to a higher occupation graduated table ( publicity ) but non needfully with a wage addition ( Morris et al, 2004 ) . The extent of comparative want experienced by employees – in footings of comparative equity – with respect to both wage and publicity, and the extent to which they “ fault ” direction for their place will hold far making effects for the organisation ( Kelly, 1997 ) .

Research workers such as Herzberg ( 1966, pp. 71-90 ) classified wage as a “ hygiene factor ” in the work environment and maintained that wage can merely take to feelings of dissatisfaction, but non to satisfaction. Pay satisfaction happens when bing wage corresponds to, or is greater than, desired wage while wage dissatisfaction occurs when bing wage is less than the coveted wage. ( Oshagbemi, 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Taylor and Vest ( 1992 ) , when make up one’s minding if they are reasonably paid, people look at both the absolute and the comparative sum of wage.

A survey by Lee and Martin ( 1996 ) found that employees ‘ loss of high-tier position perchance explained their wage dissatisfaction when they changed from hightier to low-tier occupations. This is despite the fact that their wage was increased in the low-tier occupations. Klein and Maher ( 1966 ) in their sample found that higher instruction is associated with comparative dissatisfaction with wage. In a survey by Oshagbemi ( 1997b ) , overall occupation satisfaction was positively and significantly related to rank but non gender or age. Among other things, that in the country of wage, workers in private administrations received higher absolute degrees and were more satisfied with their pecuniary compensation compared with workers in public organisations. ( Kovach,1993 ) . The overall decision of our findings is that gender and rank are correlatives of employee satisfaction with wage but non age. The deductions of these consequences are explored. In decision, it is appropriate to foreground the fact that the relationships found in this survey are lone associations, non cause-and-effect relationships. For illustration, happening that female faculty members are more satisfied with their wage does non connote that gender is the cause of their satisfaction with that facet of their work. Possibly, as a way for future research, more extended surveies can be carried out to analyze other correlatives of occupation satisfaction such as length of service in present university or length of service in higher instruction as a whole.

Relation between wage and benefits & A ; teacher satisfaction

When rank was examined in relation to pay, senior lectors were most satisfied, followed by professors, lectors and readers in that order. The differences in satisfaction degrees with rank and gender are statistically important. However, there are no statistical differences with regard to age fluctuations associating to satisfaction with wage. ( Oshagbemi, 2000 ) . This is despite the fact that their wage was increased in the low-tier occupations. Klein and Maher ( 1966 ) in their sample found that higher instruction is associated with comparative dissatisfaction with wage. An penetration from some of the factors which university/ College academic listed as lending most to their dissatisfaction on wage was obtained in a content analytical survey ( Oshagbemi, 1997 ) . It was revealed that on wage, ailment seems to center on the processs for finding salary additions, the insufficiency of the salary degrees to enable respondents to hold the coveted criterion of life, and authorities policy towards wage degrees in the universities/colleges ( along with other organisations in the public sector ) . Although both male and female faculty members are dissatisfied with their wage, the work forces are significantly more disgruntled compared with the adult females. One possible account is that in some households, it is merely the work forces that work all the clip while the adult females stay at place some of the clip to give birth to and rise up their kids. From this position, wage and calling may be less of import to adult females compared with the work forces ( Oshagbemi, 2000 )

Definition of direction system

The duty of the section chair in this direction procedure is three times. First, the section chair assumes primary duty with respect to faculty development in his or her section. It is this person ‘s duty to roll up module IC information, and in bend, advocate and direct the scholarly accomplishments of the coverage persons. A 2nd function of the section chair is to roll up, measure and document each module member ‘s IC parts. Finally, under the current system, the section chair has the duty to make up one’s mind whether a peculiar module member is “ academically qualified. ” Ultimately, this recommendation is passed on to the dean of the college for concluding blessing. ( Jack McKenna and Marc Siegall, 2001 ) Another chief concern when re-engineering a procedure is doing certain that organisational and direction patterns are in topographic point that support and reenforce the stated methods and aims. There exist, deliberately or accidentally, several cardinal ties between what the AACSB encourages and the salient issues rose by Champy ( 1995 ) in his book, Reengineering Management. These include: “ procedures should be supportive, non punitory ” ( p. 145 ) ; “ Measurement and wages procedures must reenforce the civilization you want to make ” ( p. 144 ) ; “ everyone must cognize how they are making if we are to anticipate them to presume answerability ” ( p. 105 )

Goal difficulty/specificity/achievability is another of import facet of the current survey. To the extent that employees recognize that witting planning and treatment has gone into the development of prescribed public presentation outlooks, they seem to be more willing to accept these ends and work toward their accomplishment. Alternatively, if employees are under the feeling that direction has been arbitrary and/or freakish in the constitution of public presentation aims, they may really be encouraged to overthrow the full procedure. This was clearly the instance in the current survey. The writers recognized, early on, that public presentation outlooks needed to take into consideration both the worlds of the new accreditation criterions every bit good as the feelings of the module. Again, employee engagement was a critical variable in this procedure redesign. The importance of feedback to faculty can non be overstated. Additionally, the function of the first-line supervisor ( in this case, the section chair ) was critical to the success of the procedure. These persons were extremely instrumental in both the elucidation of the procedure to module and, more significantly, supplying them with feedback on how good they were run intoing public presentation outlooks. For this ground, it was critical that these first-line supervisors both understood and accepted the new procedure, and to some grade served as title-holders of the alteration procedure. The passage of the post-1991 AACSB Standards for accreditation asked concern schools to re-evaluate many of their basic organisational procedures and to follow some methods that had been successful in the for-profit sector. In the present survey, the specific charge was to develop an employee public presentation theoretical account based around ( and prosecuting ) a set of rules ( criterions ) that have been historically reported in the literature. The instance consequences are consistent with those documented in the for-profit sector in several cardinal countries: define

Performance outlooks, set come-at-able ends, create a measuring system, involve employees and clearly specify the new procedure with a method of feedback. In entire, the findings that are reported here tentatively suggest success and show that the net income motivation does non needfully play the dominant function in successful re-engineering of direction patterns. ( Jack McKenna and Marc Siegall, 2001 )

Relation between direction system & A ; teacher satisfaction

Perkins ( 1973 ) proposed that university instructors fulfill three major maps, viz. learning, researching and disposal and direction. Consequently, university instructor satisfaction is related to the maps of higher instruction. As organisations focus on client relationship direction, they should non bury that employees are besides internal clients. Organizations have satisfied their clients merely if they have besides satisfied their employees. If considered wants of the instructors, which include fiscal satisfaction, related public assistance and just publicity systems ; teacher satisfaction with schools direction can profit both instructors and schools ( Chen et al, 2006 ) . Management system sometimes plays a immense impact on the satisfaction degree of the employees of an organisation. And in service organisation like university, direction system is considered as one of the most of import variable sing the satisfaction of the modules as dependant.

Definition of Result feedback and motive

Student feedback systems have been the topic of increasing involvement in UK Higher Education ( HE ) in recent old ages. This is in portion due to a general clime of demands for quality confidence in the populace sector, with the accent on information from quality indexs such as client satisfaction. The formation of the Higher Education Quality Council ( HEQC ) to scrutinize the quality of universities ‘ instruction proviso and the Subsequent Higher Education Funding Council for England ( HEFCE ) TQA appraisals Raised the profile of instruction and larning quality in HE. While the “ new ” , post- 1992, universities/ Colleges already had experience of quality systems from the CNAA construction, the remotion of the binary divide meant that “ old ” universities now joined them in puting up systematic quality processs. Recent old ages have seen both “ old ” and “ new ” universities/ Colleges developing and re-designing steps of learning quality, and systems to present grounds at that place from. ( Malcolm King, Ian Morison, Gary Reed and Grazyna Stachow, 1999 )

While the usage of feedback questionnaires is recognized pattern in North America and elsewhere, with the informations lending to staff assessment, questionnaires have been less readily accepted by learning staff in the UK. Research in the UK has concentrated on the scope of methods available for roll uping feedback, and the usage of feedback for the intent of measuring learning quality, particularly with the purpose of promoting brooding pattern among lectors, instead than as a beginning of informations for the usage of academic directors ( Ramsden, 1992 ) .

When decently designed and administered, and used in concurrence with other pupil feedback methods, questionnaires are believed to be an efficient and effectual manner of garnering informations from big Numberss of pupils and allowing year-on twelvemonth comparings. Numerous surveies on feedback questionnaires, including Marsh ( 1987 ) and Ramsden ( 1991 ) ,

Relation between consequence feedback and motive & A ; teacher satisfaction

Motivation is really of import for the instructor which was found is several empirical surveies. In the employee satisfaction theoretical account for higher instruction it was found that motive is given a batch of importance by the instructor. Motivation was found in two different facets which is before fall ining the organisation and another one is the existent experience at the clip of occupation. Again the feedback from the direction carries a immense importance for the instructors as the research of Chen et Al ( 2006 ) shows that there is a really important relationship between the consequence feedback and motive and the instructor satisfaction. Result feedback and motive straight effects whether the instructor is satisfied with his or her occupation or non.

Definition of Teacher Satisfaction

When occupation satisfaction surveies associating to university/ College instructors were specifically sought, the Institute of Scientific Information Social Sciences Database revealed that there were none between1981 and 1997. In fact, instructors at all degrees do non look to pull much attending from research workers. About half a twelve occupation satisfaction related surveies conducted with university instructors as topics were, nevertheless, reported before 1981 ( Oshagbemi, 1996 ) . Although Mackay ( 1995a, 1995b ) found that forces policies within the two types of universities differ, old and new. Possibly, this factor may hold some relevancy in explicating the occupation satisfaction of faculty members within the two classs of universities It is interesting to cognize that the directors in academic establishments derive more satisfaction from learning than the other faculty members, although it is likely that the directors do non learn for every bit many hours as the other faculty members. ( Oshagbemi, 1999 ) .

Research Question:

This survey proposes to look into the undermentioned research inquiries:

1. Be at that place any important relationship between work environment and instructor satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

2. Be at that place any important relationship between wage & A ; benefits and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

3. Is at that place any important relationship between direction system and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

4. Be at that place any important relationship between consequence feedback & A ; motive and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

5. Be at that place any important relationship between organisation vision and teacher satisfaction in the context of private colleges in London?

Operational Definition:

From the literature reexamine the operational definition of the mensural variables are identified as follows:

Table: 1

Operational Definition of Measured Variables

Measured Variables Operational Definitions

Work Environment Will be operationally defined by Chen et Al ( 2006 )

Pay and Benefits will be operationally defined by Chen et Al ( 2006 )

Management Systems Will be operationally defined by Chen et Al ( 2006 )

Result Feedback and Motivation Will be operationally defined by Chen et Al ( 2006 )

Teacher Satisfaction Will be operationally defined by Chen et Al ( 2006 ) ____________________________________________________________________

Methodology: ( Details of techniques, informations aggregation, informations entering etc. )

Research Design

The survey will look into the relationship the relationship between work environment, wages and benefits, direction system, ensue feedback and motive, organisation vision ( independent variables ) and teacher satisfaction ( dependent variable ) in the context of private colleges in London. Harmonizing to ( Cooper, D.R & A ; Schindler 1998 ) refers the relationship between two or more variables as a correlational survey. This correlational survey will be done to acquire the replies of the research inquiries and to prove the hypothesis. In the theoretical account it can besides be found that a correlational survey design is needed where work environment, wages and benefits, direction system, ensue feedback and motive, organisation vision as the independent variables and teacher satisfaction stands as the dependant variable. We will utilize a correlational survey to set up the being relationships between the mensural variables. In this research, the research workers try to happen out whether there is any relationship between the mensural variables or non. A correlational survey proves the relationship between two or more variables. Therefore, the present survey will be considered as a correlational survey.

Research Approach

In order to acquire answer of research inquiries, the research workers will roll up information from the full clip and portion clip modules of different private colleges in cardinal London. These colleges will include St. Patrick ‘s College, Holborn College, Regents College, Oxford House college, Cavendish College. The context and the intent of the research will be explained to the participants. Besides the interviewer will explicate the questionnaire to the respondents. The respondents will be chosen in a simple random sample choice mode so that every module gets the equal opportunity of being selected as a respondent.

Sampling Method

The population would be the modules of the above mentionedPrivate college in London. The entire sample size will be 200 ( including both male and female modules ) . From each college 20 respondents will be selected in a random mode. First the names of the modules will be collected from the database of the college. Than each name will be given a alone figure which will be written on a paper entirely ( each figure on different paper ) . Than the research worker will pick any 20 documents and travel to modules whose figure came up.

Survey Instrument

Questionnaire had been adapted from old empirical surveies some specific inquiries were altered to acquire the existent apprehension about the relationship between the independent variables work environment, wages and benefits, direction system, ensue feedback and motive, organisation vision and the dependant variable instructor satisfaction. The Psychometric Properties of the Scale points were assessed utilizing Cronbach ‘s Coefficient Alpha ; In general, the acceptable scope of the alpha value is greater than 0.50 which proves the genuineness.

Data Collection Procedure

The questionnaire study is the most effectual method for this survey to roll up the information for the undermentioned reasons-

aˆ? Respondents ‘ individuality can be kept concealed & A ; secured.

aˆ? The research workers will carry on study on 200 respondents. The research worker will travel to the respondent personally at the office clip but at the questionnaire the personal information of the respondent will non be given. Therefore, the respondents will be able to reply the questionnaire without any vacillation or any sort of fright.

aˆ? As mail study will necessitate huge sum of clip and the genuineness can non be ensured the research worker will non see this option for current survey. Besides in mail study sometimes the respondents do non answer quickly and sometimes do non answer at all so for the hazard of non acquiring the expected figure of responses and the clip restraint research worker is non sing the mail or e-mail study for this peculiar research. Questionnaire provides informations in a mode which is easy to analyse for the quantitative apprehension.

The full questionnaire will be divided into four parts for the simpleness of the research. Organizational Vision will be measured by utilizing 7 points ( quest 1-7 ) harmonizing to Chen et Al ( 2006 ) .Result feedback and motive will be measured by utilizing 5 points ( quest 8-12 ) developed by Chen et Al ( 2006 ) . Management system will be measured by utilizing 8 points ( quest 13-20 ) developed by Chen et Al ( 2006 ) . Pay and benefits will be measured by utilizing 6 points ( quest 21-26 ) harmonizing to Chen et Al ( 2006 ) . Work environment will be measured by 9 points ( quest 27-35 ) harmonizing to Chen et Al ( 2006 ) ) . Teacher satisfaction will be measured by 5 points ( quest 36-40 ) harmonizing to Rogers et Al ( 1994 ) .

MBA Dissertation:

Key Activities

( Milestones )

Time-scale

( Plan of action )

Resources required

( Equipment, package, forces etc )

Surfboarding and reading literature

Week 1-week 3

Online beginning, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, Personal computer, MS word, Internet connexion

Research aim

Week 3

Online beginning, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, Personal computer, MS word, Internet connexion

Draft of Literature Review

Week 2- hebdomad 4

Online beginning, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, Personal computer, MS word, Internet connexion

Draft Research Methodology

Week 4- Week 5

Online beginning, Library database, University Database, Publication, Journals, Books, Online Newspaper, Personal computer, MS word, Internet connexion

Plan and develop Research questionnaires

Week 5-Week 6

Personal computer, MS word, Email, Telephone, Internet connexion

Conduct Filling questionnaires

Week 6- Week 7

Personal computer, MS word, Employee feedback, Internet Connection, Telephone

Analyse Data

Week 7

Personal computer, MS word, Excel, Internet connexion

Decision and Recommendation

Week 8

Personal computer, MS word

Revise the whole research

Week 8

Personal computer, MS Word, Visio, Excel

Draft Copy of Dissertation

Week 7- Week 9

Personal computer, MS Word, Visio, Excel

Print, Bind and entry

Week 9

Personal computer, Printer, Binding Materials

Supervisor Remarks ( Any remarks or amendments appropriate to the undertaking should be recorded here )