Flooding Problems In Colombo Environmental Sciences Essay

Colombo is one of the most popular metropoliss in the universe for touristry, and commercial activities. In add-on, the major economical constitutions, administrative apparatuss, authorities sections, star hotels, military constitutions, commercial seaport and the bulk of the work force are located in Colombo. The economic activities taking topographic point in Colombo suburbs contribute significantly to the Sri Lankan economic system. Therefore, Colombo plays a important function in the economic system of Sri Lanka.

In the average clip, the economic significance and all other value adding characteristics of Colombo are earnestly under menace due to the ceaseless implosion therapy jobs taking topographic point in Colombo. The suburbs of Colombo have been sing serious implosion therapy jobs for about 200 old ages, get downing from the 1800s, as far back as the Colonial period.

Even though Colombo is economically and administratively important, it has been meeting serious adversities due to deluging issues. Though consecutive authoritiess, many governments and Non-Governmental Organizations ( NGOs ) have been taking many steps to command implosion therapy ; all such attempts have ended in failure. Hence the broader purpose of this survey is to develop a scheme to command deluging in Colombo.

The chief general aim of this survey is to command the implosion therapy jobs in Colombo thereby cut downing effects of deluging on the people of Colombo and adding value to the Sri Lankan economic system.

Colombo suburbs have been affected with increasing inundations degrees during the rainy season, for rather a piece now. As a consequence, civilian lives have been under danger ; and this state of affairs has led to distribute of disease, devastation of economic activities, and many other inauspicious results. Thus the implosion therapy job in Colombo is doing much injury. But so far no research has been done to analyze the unfolding jobs in Colombo, ensuing in a cognition spread. Hence the increasing degree of deluging in Colombo has been considered as the research job for this survey.

Scope of the survey

2.3 This research surveies the increasing degree of deluging in Colombo. As such, the range covers merely civilians in Colombo suburbs. The research has been limited to the civilians of Colombo suburbs, such as Mattakkuliya, Hultsdorf, Grandpass, Maligakanda, Maradana Junction, and the Lotus Road country.

Data aggregation methods

Primary informations

Structured questionnaires were used to roll up informations. These questionnaires consist of two parts, i.e. , Part I – the factors finding increasing degree of deluging in Colombo and Part II – the personal profile. The first portion comprises statements of two major factors which determine the increasing degree of deluging in Colombo ; improper drainage system and unauthorised building. To place the responses, in portion I of the questionnaire, the Likert graduated table of 1 – 5, which ranges from “ Strongly Disagree ” to “ Strongly Agree ” , was applied. The 2nd portion included the personal profile of the respondents associating to age, sex, civil position and the figure of old ages the respondent has been confronting the job.

Secondary informations

Secondary informations besides was used for this research. It was collected from the studies from authorities publications and from assorted public newspapers.

Sample of the survey

This research examines deluging in Colombo. Hence responses were collected from the populace from Colombo suburbs. Thus a sample of 100 people was considered for this survey since all the people could non be contacted within the limited clip. Furthermore these people were selected on a random footing. Therefore the simple random trying method was applied for the sample choice.

Restrictions of the survey

2.7. The undermentioned restrictions were faced in this survey:

2.7.1 Time is limited so that within the limited timeframe research has to be finished.

2.7.2 Researcher is faced with resource restriction.

2.7.3. Sample was limited merely to 100 respondents.

2.7.4 Findingss of this research can non be applied for other countries that are affected by inundations.

Literature reappraisal

2.8. Normally flooding lands are divided into low lying countries and high lying countries ; and low degree lands are under the menace of inundations. Therefore most of the countries of Colombo suburbs face deluging jobs since many countries fall under low lying countries. Many economic constitutions, administrative edifices and star hotels are located in Colombo suburbs, such as Bloemandel, Mahawatta, Orugodawatta, Maligawatta, Parliament Road, Narahenpita, Nawala, Kirimandala Mawatha, Stanley Wijesudera Mawatha and Bullers Road ( Chandrasekera, 2010 ) .

2.9 Normally if it rains, there are a few ways through which rain H2O would be absorbed:

It would be infiltrated into dirt.

It would be collected into inland lakes

It would stop up in the sea ( Chandrasekera, 2010 ) .

2.10 But if we were to see Colombo, the dirt conditions are non suited for absorbing rain H2O, due to many economic constitutions situated in Colombo, etc. Meanwhile there are no inland lakes to roll up rain H2O in Colombo. Therefore there are no possibilities of absorbing rain H2O into the dirt or lakes. Hence, the lone option available to pull off rainwater in Colombo is to direct it to the sea. Therefore there is a demand for a decently established drainage and canal system to transport rain H2O into the sea.

But at present, there are merely two drainage systems in Colombo ( Chandrasekera, 2010 ) , viz. :

Kittanpahuwa Canal

Kirillapona ( or Wellawatta ) Canal

2.11 Kittanpahuwa Canal falls into Kelani River, with drainage H2O from countries Maligawatta, Grandpass, Panchikawatta, Kotahena, Madampitiya, etc. This canal conveyances drainage from around 25 % of the sum of 3, 800 hectares of land in the Colombo Municipal Council ( CMC ) are.

2.12 Kirillapona Canal screens Dematagoda, Wanatamulla, Heen Ela, Rajagiriya, Parliament country, Royal Golf links, Open University, etc. It covers 45 % of the CMC country ( Nanayakkara, 2010 ) .

Reasons for the implosion therapy job in Colombo

2.13 Even though several factors contribute to deluging in Colombo, literature has identified two chief factors. ( Chandrasekera, 2010 ) .

They are:

Poor drainage system

Unauthorized building

Poor drainage system

2.14 Even though there is a drainage system, it covers merely about 65 % of the Colombo suburbs. Furthermore the bing canal system does non cover all necessary countries and vulnerable countries. There is a developed expression and proven system to place low prevarication and vulnerable countries susceptible to deluging ( Demirkesen, Evrendilek, Berberoglu and Kilic, 2007 ) . But so far such a system is non applied in Colombo. Hence when planing a drainage system in Colombo, due attending was non paid on the weak and vulnerable countries that can easy travel under H2O. Therefore the current drainage system has non considered the implosion therapy related issues satisfactorily. In add-on it is non sufficient to absorb all the rain H2O. The three-dimensional infinite of the canals can non roll up the entireness of the rain H2O from all of the Colombo suburbs. Say for an case, Kirillapona Canal needs to roll up and breathe rain H2O at a rate of 48,000 three-dimensional metres per hr to forestall implosion therapy ; these two canals are non capable plenty to make so. Furthermore the bing canals are besides non maintained in a proper manner. Thus the several authorised organic structures such as the CMC, National Water Supply & A ; Drainage Board, etc. , do non take sufficient attention and diligence in guaranting that proper conditions prevail in the drainage system in Colombo suburbs.

Similarly people every bit good as concern constitutions besides do non widen their support in keeping the bing canal system. They do non hold consciousness and involvement in guaranting satisfactory conditions in the canal system in Colombo. Therefore canals in Colombo have become distressing and it has led to increasing deluging jobs in Colombo.

Unauthorized building

2.15 The following important factor identified as the subscriber for deluging in Colombo is unauthorised and illegal building. It has been noted that there are many unauthorised edifices such as lodging strategies, concern topographic points, etc. CMC, Urban Development Authority ( UDA ) , Road Engineers, Drainage Engineers or Hydrologists do non take sufficient attention, and deficiency diligence in giving blessings for such development ( Jayawardene, 2010 ) . Thus a proper legal system and precautional steps are non followed. In add-on, no well developed land protection policy, land renewal policy, or legal frame work for land direction was formulated ; and unauthorised buildings have been established. In add-on the populace every bit good as concern community do non hold consciousness on unauthorised building. It has been experienced that the legal system and authorities governments entirely can non command unauthorised buildings wholly. Public support is indispensable to guarantee safety and conformity of land issues. But in the context of Colombo, public involvement in procuring land and forestalling land menaces such as implosion therapy and landslides have been less ( Nanayakkara, 2010 ) . Likewise denseness of edifices, crowds and heavy weight machines and vehicles such as container paces, paved, heavy machineries are located in Colombo suburbs. As a consequence of all these factors the lift of land has come down and it has farther reduced the detainment capacity. And these lands besides face deluging jobs at present ( Chandrasekera, 2010 ) . Hence it is necessary to see legal and institutional facets before O.K.ing any new undertakings.

Recommendations to work out deluging jobs in Colombo

2.16 It has been already discussed that the hapless drainage system and unauthorised buildings are taking to deluging jobs in Colombo. Chandrasekera ( 2010 ) has suggested some steps to command deluging in Colombo. Some of these steps are discussed below:

Separate land has to be allocated where all container paces, warehouses, shops, paved paces used by vehicles and machinery can be stationed.

Further building of any industrial or lodging strategy in Colombo must non be approved.

If possible some of the bing commercial activities and industrial activities should be relocated to countries less vulnerable to deluging, such as Kesbewa, Talawathugoda, Meepe, Kirindiwela, Avissawella, etc. , where sufficient land with proper drainage can be obtained.

Storm H2O soaking cavities have to be established in commercial every bit good as residential strategies.

Open canals have to be redesigned as piped drains, or covered with slabs.

All bing canals have to be cleaned up and maintained in a timely and efficient mode.

Specific pipes and pumps could be installed in particularly identified countries to let go of rainwater fast, in add-on to the drainage system.

Conceptual theoretical account

2.16 From the literature reappraisal, a conceptual theoretical account can be developed as derived below:

Figure 2.1 Conceptual theoretical account

( Source – Developed for this research survey )

2.17 The above conceptual model shows that the increasing implosion therapy job in Colombo is caused by two factors – an improper drainage system and unauthorised building. This was extracted from Chandrasekera ( 2010 ) . These two factors have sub factors as good. Hence, they are considered as the independent variables. The increasing implosion therapy job in Colombo can be considered as the dependant variable. Through this research analyze one needs to cognize which factor ( s ) cause the increasing implosion therapy job in Colombo suburbs.

Table 2.1 Operationalization of variables

Concepts

Variables

Indexs

Degree of Measurement

Question No.

Factors finding

the increasing implosion therapy job in Colombo suburbs

Improper drainage system

Drain screen in my country.

Likert

Q1

Drain is sufficient to take rain H2O in my country.

Likert

Q2

Drain is maintained clearly.

Likert

Q3

I have awareness sing drainage system in my country.

Likert

Q4

I know how to keep drainage in my country.

Likert

Q5

I support the care of drainage system.

Likert

Q6

When edifice drainage, our positions are considered.

Likert

Q7

We are provided instructions on drainage direction system.

Likert

Q8

Unauthorized building

We have no unauthorised building in our country.

Likert

Q9

We have no heavy edifice or machinery in our country.

Likert

Q10

Unauthorized building has non brought land degree to lower degree.

Likert

Q11

We have no land renewal job in our country.

Likert

Q12

Politicians do non allow unauthorised buildings in our country.

Likert

Q13

We have awareness on land protection policy.

Likert

Q14

We take attention on unauthorised buildings

Likert

Q15

We have a system to forestall land abuse and harmful actions.

Likert

Q16

( Source – Developed for this research survey )

Data Evaluation

2.18 The mean and standard divergence ( SD ) were derived for informations analysis. In add-on the standards shown in the tabular array below was adopted for mensurating average values.

Table 2.2 Evaluation standards for mean values

Scope

Degree

1 & lt ; X1= & lt ; 2.33 2.34 & lt ; X1= & lt ; 3.66

3.67 & lt ; X1 & lt ; 5

Low degree

Moderate degree

High degree

( Source – Developed for this survey )

Chapter THREE

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

3.1 This chapter covers informations presentation, analysis and treatment.

Descriptive Statisticss

3.2 This subdivision gives average and SD for the factors impacting increasing deluging job in Colombo. Mean values have been distributed based on Likert ‘s Scale of one to five which represents “ Strongly Disagree ” to “ Strongly Agree ” . Meanwhile, average values were measured based on the already established appraising standards which ranges from “ Low Degree ” to “ High Level ” .

Statements

Mean

South dakota

Improper drainage system

2.10

.42

Unauthorized building

3.89

.32

Table 3.1 Valuess of mean and SD of factors lending to deluging job

( Source – Survey informations )

3.3 Table 3.1 nowadayss values of SD of factors taking to increasing deluging job in Colombo. The improper drainage system has taken a average value of 2.10, and SD is 0.42. Since the average value of the improper drainage system ( 2.10 ) is less than 2.33, it falls into the class of “ Low Level Satisfaction ” .

3.4 At the same clip, average value of unauthorised building is 3.89 and SD is 0.32. Therefore average value of unauthorised building ( 3.89 ) is more than 3.66, falling under “ Higher Degree of Influence ” .

Statements

Mean

South dakota

Drain screen in my country

1.23

.89

Drain is sufficient to take rain H2O in my country.

1.75

.81

Drain is maintained clearly.

1.97

.69

I have awareness sing the drainage system in my country.

2.14

.61

I know how to keep drainage in my country.

1.88

.86

I support the care of the drainage system.

2.25

.91

When edifice drainage, our positions are considered.

2.01

.55

We are provided with instructions on the drainage direction system.

2.10

.45

Table 3.2 Mean and SD values for the statements in the improper drainage system

( Source – Survey informations )

3.5 Table 3.2 nowadayss average and SD for the single statements sing the improper drainage system. As shown in the above tabular array, all eight statements refering to the improper drainage system have taken the average values of less than 2.33. Hence, it can be inferred that people ‘s satisfaction in relation to on all the statements fall into the class of “ lower Level Satisfaction ” .

Table 3.3 Mean and SD values for the statements related to unauthorised building:

Statements

Mean

South dakota

We have no unauthorised building in our country.

3.89

0.52

We have no heavy edifice or machinery in our country.

4.11

0.55

Unauthorized building has non brought land degree to a lower degree.

3.66

0.69

We have no land renewal job in our country.

4.21

0.44

Politicians do non allow unauthorised building in our country.

3.71

0.36

We have awareness on land protection policy.

3.81

0.48

We are cautious about unauthorised building

4.02

0.66

We have a system to forestall land abuse and harmful actions.

3.67

0.28

( Source – Survey informations )

Table 3.3 reveals the values of mean and SD for the statements sing unauthorised building. Consequently, all the statements that measure unauthorised building have taken the average values of more than 3.66. From these values, it can be derived that, people in Colombo have “ Higher Degree of Satisfaction ” in relation to all the statements on unauthorised building.

Personal profile

This subdivision highlights the personal profiles of the respondents from the suburbs of Colombo considered for this survey – age, sex, civil position and figure of old ages of sing deluging in Colombo, etc.

Age Distribution

Fig 3.1 Age distribution of people in Colombo suburbs

( Source – Survey informations )

Table 3.4 Age distribution of people in Colombo suburbs

A Age class

Frequency

Percentage

Less than 25

35

35

26 – 35

30

30

36 – 45

25

25

Above 45

10

10

Entire

100

100

( Source – Survey informations )

3.8 Fig 3.1 shows the age distribution of respondents in Colombo suburbs. Thirty five per centum of the respondents are less than 25 old ages and the respondents falling into the class of 26 – 35 and 36 – 45 are 30 % and 25 % , severally. Ninety per centum of the respondents are less than the age of 45. Merely 10 % of the respondents in Colombo suburbs are above the age of 45. As such, the bulk of people in Colombo suburbs are less than the age of 45.

3.9 Therefore it can be concluded that most of the immature people in Colombo suburbs are found to be faced with an increasing degree of implosion therapy.

Sexual activity Distribution

Fig. 3.2 Sex distribution of people in Colombo suburbs

( Source – Survey informations )

Table 3.5 Sex distribution of people in Colombo suburbs

A Sex class

Frequency

Percentage

Male

71

71

Female

29

29

Entire

100

100

( Source – Survey informations )

3.10 Fig 3.2 presents the sex distribution of people in Colombo suburbs. Seventy one per centum of those who responded are males and 29 % females.

3.11 This shows that most of the males in Colombo suburbs are affected by the increasing implosion therapy job in Colombo.

Civil position

Fig 3.3 Civil position of people in Colombo suburbs

:

( Source – Survey informations )

Table 3.6 Civil position of people in Colombo suburbs

A Civil position

Frequency

Percentage

Single

32

32

Married

68

68

Entire

100

100

( Source – Survey informations )

3.12 Fig 3.3 shows the civil position of the respondents. Consequently, 68 % are married and 32 % individual.

3.13 Hence, it is clear that most of the married people in Colombo suburbs are found to be confronting the job of deluging in Colombo.

Distribution of old ages in experience

Fig. 3.4 Number of old ages of sing deluging in Colombo

( Source – Survey Data )

Tab 3.7 Number of old ages of sing deluging in Colombo

Number of old ages of experience

Frequency

Percentage

Less than 3

25

25

3-5

56

56

6-10

14

14

Above 10

5

5

Entire

100

100

( Source – Survey Data )

3.14 Fig 3.4 shows the figure of old ages of sing deluging in Colombo. Accordingly, 25 % of the respondents in Colombo suburbs have less than 3 old ages ‘ experience ; 56 % falling into the class of 3 – 5 old ages, and 14 % into 6 – 10 old ages. Merely 5 % have the experience of above 10 old ages. Hence around 95 % of the respondents in Colombo suburbs have the experience of less than 10 old ages confronting the implosion therapy job in Colombo.

3.15 Therefore it can be stated that that most of the people in Colombo suburbs who have the experience of less than 10 old ages are found to be meeting deluging in Colombo.

Chapter FOUR

DISCUSSION AND ARGUMENTS

4.1 This chapter provides a treatment on analysis. It presents the mean and SD of the two factors lending to deluging in Colombo.

Table 4.1 Mean and SD values for the statements in the drainage system:

Statements

Mean

South dakota

Drain screen in my country

1.23

0.89

Drain is sufficient to take rain H2O in my country.

1.75

0.81

Drain is maintained clearly.

1.97

0.69

I have awareness sing the drainage system in my country.

2.14

0.61

I know how to keep drainage in my country.

1.88

0.86

I support the care of the drainage system.

2.25

0.91

When edifice drainage, our positions are considered.

2.01

0.55

We are provided with instructions on the drainage direction system

2.10

0.45

( Source – Survey informations )

4.2 As presented in Table 4.1 people in Colombo suburbs have indicated a lower degree of satisfaction in relation to all the statements because all average values are between 1 – 2.33.

4.3 Therefore the first statement, “ Drain covers my country, ” is with the average value of 1.23 which signifies that people in Colombo suburbs are non extremely satisfied with the drainage system since it is non available in all countries of Colombo Suburbs.

4.4 Similarly the 2nd statement, “ Drain is sufficient to take rain H2O in my country, ” has taken mean a average value of 1.75 and this besides comes under “ Lower Level of Satisfaction. ” Hence this reflects that the available drainage is non sufficient to take all the inundation H2O in the country and this leads to deluging in Colombo.

4.5 The 3rd statement, “ Drain is maintained clearly, ” has taken a average value of 1.97 which indicates that people in the Colombo suburbs are non satisfied with the drainage care system.

4.6 The 4th statement, “ I have awareness sing the drainage system in my country, ” has taken a average value of 2.14 which reveals that people in Colombo Suburbs are less satisfied with the consciousness sing the drainage system in Colombo.

4.7 The 5th statement, “ I know how to keep drainage in my country, ” has obtained a average value of 1.88 which can be interpreted that people in Colombo Suburbs do non hold sufficient understanding on how to keep the drainage system. Therefore such a deficiency of understanding affects the deluging state of affairs in Colombo.

4.8 The following statement, “ I support the care of the drainage system, ” is takes the average value of 2.25 which indicates that people in Colombo suburbs do non back up the care of drainage in Colombo and as a consequence they face deluging jobs.

4.9 The 7th statement, “ When edifice drainage, our positions are considered, ” takes a mean of 2.01, bespeaking that the positions and thoughts of people in Colombo suburbs are non considered in building drainage in Colombo.

4.10 The concluding statement, “ We are provided with instructions on the drainage direction system, ” indicates a average value of 2.10 which signifies that people in Colombo Suburbs do non acquire regular instructions on how to keep drainage in Colombo. Consequently people are unable to forestall implosion therapy by decently keeping their canal system.

Table 4.2 Mean and SD values for the statements of unauthorised building in Colombo suburbs

Statements

Mean

South dakota

We have no unauthorised building in our country.

3.89

0.52

We have no heavy edifice or machinery in our country.

4.11

0.55

Unauthorized building has non brought land degree to a lower degree.

3.66

0.69

We have no land renewal job in our country.

4.21

0.44

Politicians do non allow unauthorised buildings in our country.

3.71

0.36

We have awareness on land protection policy.

3.81

0.48

We are cautious about unauthorised buildings

4.02

0.66

We have a system to forestall land abuse and harmful actions

3.67

0.28

( Source – Survey Data )

4.11 As in Table 4.2 people in Colombo suburbs have expressed a higher degree of satisfaction related to all the statements on unauthorised building in Colombo suburbs because all average values are above 3.66.

4.12 Therefore the first statement, “ We have no unauthorised building in our country, ” has taken a average value of 3.89 and this means that people in Colombo suburbs do non allow unauthorised building in their country. Hence this is non doing deluging in Colombo suburbs.

4.13 Second statement, “ We have no commercial edifices or heavy machinery in our country, ” has taken mean a average value of 4.41 and this besides signifies a higher degree of satisfaction. Hence this indicates that people in Colombo suburbs are non confronting the job of heavy edifices or machinery ; and, as a consequence there is no deluging caused from heavy edifices or machinery.

4.14 The 3rd statement, “ Unauthorized building has non brought land degree to lower degree, ” has taken a average value of 3.66 saying that unauthorised building has non affected their land degree. Therefore this does non take to or do implosion therapy in Colombo.

4.15 The following statement, “ We have no land renewal job in our country, ” has taken a average value of 4.21 and it means that people in Colombo Suburbs are non confronting land renewal jobs in Colombo. Therefore this does non take to deluge related job in Colombo Suburbs.

4.16 The 5th statement, “ Politicians do non allow unauthorised buildings in our country, ” has indicates a average value of 3.71, intending that people in Colombo suburbs are extremely satisfied with the behavior of the politicians in their country ; since they do non allow unauthorised buildings. Hence, unauthorised building is non a factor taking to deluging in Colombo.

4.17 The 6th statement, “ We have awareness on land protection policy, ” has obtained a mean of 3.81 which indicates that people in Colombo suburbs have sufficient cognition on the land protection system and policies refering to set down issues. Therefore they can continue their land from unauthorised entree and as a consequence implosion therapy would be prevented.

4.l8 The 7th statement, “ We are cautious about unauthorised buildings, ” has received a mean of 4.02, bespeaking that people in Colombo suburbs take maximal attention about unauthorised building. As such, this has non resulted in implosion therapy in Colombo.

4.19 The concluding statement, “ We have a system to forestall land abuse and harmful actions, ” shows a average value of 3.67 which indicates that people in Colombo suburbs have good established systems to forestall land abuse and other harmful actions impacting land. As a consequence this is non doing deluging in Colombo.

Chapter FIVE

FINDINGS/RESULTS

This chapter presents the findings and a treatment. Thus it chiefly focuses on mean and SD of the two chief factors lending to deluging in Colombo suburbs ; and so it considers hypotheses proving.

Table 5.1 Valuess of mean and SD of factors lending to deluging in Colombo

Statements

Mean

South dakota

Improper drainage system

2.10

0.42

Unauthorized building

3.89

0.32

Source – Survey Data

As presented in Table 5.1, the improper drainage system in Colombo suburbs has taken the average value of 2.10. Here average value of an improper drainage system falls under “ Low Level Satisfaction ” since the average value is less than 2.33. Then it means that people in Colombo suburbs have a low degree of satisfaction related to the statements refering the drainage system. People face huge adversities and troubles as a consequence of the hapless and bedraggled conditions of the drainage system in Colombo Suburbs ; taking to deluging in Colombo. Furthermore, people have expressed that drainage does non cover the full country. In add-on drainage is non sufficient to take rain H2O wholly. Furthermore drainage is non maintained decently. Peoples in Colombo suburbs have deficient consciousness sing the drainage system. Furthermore, people do non cognize how to keep drainage. Likewise people ‘s support given to the care of the drainage system is besides non satisfactory. Furthermore, people ‘s positions are non considered when constructing a drainage system. Peoples in Colombo suburbs are non provided with instructions refering to the drainage direction system. Therefore all such negative statements and responses have led to the lower degree of satisfaction with respect to the drainage direction system. This has led to deluging in Colombo. Hence the first hypothesis ( H1 ) which states that “ H1: Improper canal and drainage system leads to deluging in Colombo ” can be accepted.

Unauthorized building in Colombo suburbs has taken the average value of 3.89. This average value comes under the class of “ Higher Degree Satisfaction ” since the average value is less than above 3.66. It shows that people in Colombo suburbs have shown a higher degree of satisfaction in relation to the statements refering unauthorised building in Colombo. Therefore people in Colombo suburbs have stated that there are no unauthorised buildings in their country. In add-on they have no heavy edifice or machinery in their country. Furthermore in their countries unauthorized building has non brought land degree to low lines. Similarly people have expressed that they have no land renewal job in their countries. Similarly politicians in their country do non allow unauthorised buildings. Likewise they have adequate apprehension and consciousness about the land protection policy ; and, in add-on, people are cautious about unauthorised buildings. Further they have a system to forestall land abuse and harmful actions. These statements have proven that people in Colombo suburbs are extremely satisfied about the building system in Colombo suburbs. Hence building in Colombo does non take to deluging in Colombo. As such, the 2nd hypothesis ( H2 ) which says that “ Unauthorized edifices have led to deluging in Colombo ” is rejected.

Chapter SIX

Decision

It was found out during the informations analysis that people in Colombo suburbs face jobs related to hapless drainage system. Hence they have highlighted that the drainage system does non cover their countries and the current drainage system is non sufficient to cover full countries. In add-on drainage is non maintained good and people do non hold good consciousness sing the drainage system. Furthermore people do non cognize to keep drainage in their several countries and therefore they do non give the needful support for a drainage care system. Furthermore people ‘s positions are non considered in building drainage and they are non given instructions on the drainage direction system. Therefore, the drainage system seems to be unsatisfactory and therefore it can be concluded that hapless drainage has caused implosion therapy in Colombo.

It has to be besides stressed that the 2nd contributory factor for deluging identified in conceptualisation is unauthorised building. In the interim informations analysis revealed that people have expressed that there are no unauthorised building in their country. Furthermore they have controlled heavy edifice or machinery in their country ; and unauthorised building has non reduced land degree and they have assured that there is no land renewal in their country. Furthermore politicians besides have supported to command unauthorised building and people have an apprehension and consciousness of land protection. In add-on they are cautious plenty to forestall unauthorised buildings and have a system to forestall land abuse and harmful actions. Hence finally people are satisfied about building in their country and therefore it does non take to deluging in Colombo.

Based on the findings above, it can be concluded that the drainage system is the chief factor lending to deluging in Colombo.

Chapter SEVEN

Recommendation

This subdivision emphasizes recommendations to cut down the jobs caused by inundations.

As discussed it the old chapter the hapless drainage system has caused implosion therapy in Colombo. Hence the undermentioned recommendations can be made to turn to deluging jobs in Colombo caused chiefly by drainage system.

The drainage system has to cover the full country vulnerable to implosion therapy, and countries under low degree.

The drainage system has to be sufficient to take all the inundation H2O.

Government governments every bit good as CMC have to take necessary stairss to keep the drainage system in Colombo.

Peoples have to be given necessary consciousness, preparation and instructions as to how they can keep their drainage in their several countries.

The support of occupants in the country has to be sought to keep the drainage system.

In add-on positions and thoughts of occupants have to be received in building the drainage system in several countries. Therefore people besides would be portion and partial of the drainage system.

The above recommendations will better the drainage system in Colombo ; and, as a consequence, deluging in Colombo can be controlled.