Governing The Work Of The Teachers Education Essay

This chapter focuses on the method used for the survey. Initially the research worker has gone through the background of the job by sing assorted municipal schools and thought critically upon the state of affairs of preparation of the rubric of the job. At last, the research worker succeeded in explicating the job.

After the location and definition of the job, the research worker formulated the aims, premises and restrictions. The related literature and assorted researches conducted at assorted degrees in the field of the linguistic communication instruction have been reviewed and the tools for the present survey have been finalized. From the assorted tools, questionnaire and interviews were used for informations aggregation. Then the research worker selected trying design for the present survey.

Methods used for the Present Study

Taking into consideration, the nature of this research work, the research worker has used chiefly the undermentioned two methods –

Descriptive Survey Method

Experimental Method

Descriptive Survey Method

Descriptive research is chiefly concerned with depicting the nature or conditions and grade in item of the present state of affairs ( Landman.1988.59 ) . The accent is on describe instead than or justice or interpret. It assesses the nature of bing conditions.

A descriptive survey describes and interprets what is. It is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist, sentiments that are held, processes that are traveling on, effects that are apparent, or tendencies that are developing. It is chiefly concerned with the present although it frequently considers past events as they relate to rectify conditions.

Descriptive research besides involves events that have already taken topographic point and may be related to a present status ( Best and Khan, 2004. 105-106 ) . Descriptive cogency refers to accuracy in the coverage of descriptive information. ( Bruke – Johnson, 1997.283 ) .

Experimental Research

In an experimental design, the research worker intervenes with a process that determines what the topics will see. In other words, the research worker has some control over what will go on to the topics by consistently enforcing or keep backing specified intercessions which will take for farther research work.

Although the experimental method finds its greatest public-service corporation in the research lab ; it can efficaciously be applied within non laboratory scenes such as schoolroom where important factors or variables can be controlled to some grade. The events can be predicted and variable relationships can be generalized outside the research lab to a wider involvement of population.

Methodology of Investigation

A study of the learning state of affairs at Municipal schools of Vijayawada, A.P. , is taken. This involved a elaborate examination/study of the instructors ‘ behavior in the teaching/learning context.

This survey required to:

Obtain informations refering to the conditions regulating the work of the instructors, i.e. , their general socio-economic environment and the educational clime in which they are required to execute / Teach ;

Make a survey of the instructional programme after roll uping the information on learning techniques, methods and stuffs which are used presently ;

Assess the instructors ‘ attitudes towards scholars and instruction, i.e. obtain informations on their makings – educational every bit good as professional, their instruction experience, learning schemes and linguistic communication competency and the motivational factors which would assist them to go better instructors ;

Analyze the instruction AIDSs used, and measure the sort of aid scholars derive from them and farther aid they need to acquire, to obtain linguistic communication in a better manner.

The Method used for the Research

The research worker has used Descriptive Survey Method to analyze the present jobs faced by the pupils and the instructors while teaching/learning English linguistic communication. The tools were prepared consequently and used by the research worker. Hence, the research worker has chiefly used study method for the present survey.

The Experimental Method has been used for happening out the effects of an in-service preparation programme on instructors ‘ public presentation.

Experimental Design

The same group was used to detect the learning behavior before and after the preparation. Hence it was a individual group design.

Variable

In this research the variable was the In-Service preparation Programme provided to the English Language instructors. It was independent variable and learning public presentation of the instructors was dependent variable.

A Mixed Method

Hence, a assorted method i.e. , descriptive study method and experimental method together was implemented to carry on the research.

The Tools used for Data aggregation

The building of a research instrument or tool for informations aggregation is the most of import facet of a research because anything one says by manner of findings or decisions is based upon the type of information one collects, and the information collected is wholly dependent upon the inquiries that one asks of the respondents. The tools employ typical ways of describing and quantifying the information. Each tool used is peculiarly appropriate for certain beginnings of informations, giving information of the sort and in the signifier that can be most efficaciously used ( Best and Khan, 2004.207 ) .

The undermentioned research instruments were used for the present survey

( I ) Observation of English linguistic communication categories

( two ) Questionnaire

( three ) Interviews

( four ) Study of relevant paperss.

Observation of the category

To acquire reliable and proper information about instructors ‘ public presentation, observation of their instruction is rather utile. As the present survey particularly trades with the ‘process of larning English at school degree ‘ , it is of import to cognize the instructors ‘ jobs while learning English in the existent schoolrooms. The experimental method was used for some portion of the present survey. In it, the research worker observed the categories sporadically. This observation was considered as the pre-test apart from the questionnaire. The observation agenda was used as a text to mensurate the alteration in the public presentation of the instructors. ( The lesson observation agenda is given in appendix ‘C ‘ ) .

Questionnaire

As the present survey was related to happen out instructors ‘ jobs while learning English, the research worker has decided to utilize the questionnaire as the chief device to roll up information from the respondents.

There are certain grounds for utilizing questionnaire as a chief device to roll up information:

Nature of the Subject

The instruction of the English linguistic communication depends on assorted factors. The

factors like instructors ‘ instruction, experience, pre-service, in-service preparation, mention books, usage of magazines, his/her household background, educational ambiance, learning AIDSs, course of study etc. are straight or indirectly related to learning – acquisition procedure. Hence, these factors should be studied at a clip. It shows that the topic has a batch of range and many dimensions. Therefore, in order to acquire information relation to all these factors, the best technique of the questionnaire was used by the research workers.

Teacher as a chief beginning of information

The instructor merely can give information as they face the jobs straight in the schoolroom while learning. Hence, the research worker had used questionnaire for the instructors to roll up the information related to the position of English linguistic communication instruction.

Procedure to fix the Questionnaire

Proper attention was taken in bordering all the points included in the questionnaire. Double-barreled inquiries ( Best, 1978.161 ) and dual negatives were avoided and equal options provided. Provision was made for the systematic quantification of response. Care was taken to do the waies precise, define of import points, word the inquiries merely and clearly, inquiries were presented in a sequence proceeding from general to specific responses.

A brief readying of the Questionnaire

The first questionnaire has three subdivisions – A, B and C. and twenty five inquiries in all. Some inquiries have farther subdivisions inserted for the intents of having Fuller feedback on all the facets of the issues raised.

Structure of the questionnaire

It was divided into two parts:

General information of the instructor

This portion one consisted of the instructor ‘s general information sing instructors ‘ personal informations, educational and professional makings. The intent behind roll uping such information was to happen out instructor ‘s overall academic accomplishment.

Classroom Teaching

This 2nd portion of the questionnaire consisted of the undermentioned points:

Methods used learning English at high school degree.

Teacher ‘s thoughts to develop lingual accomplishments.

Pre-service and in-service preparation and instructor ‘s suggestions about them.

Techniques and the instructional stuffs used for learning English.

Teacher ‘s administrative and academic jobs.

Troubles faced by the instructors while learning English.

Redresss to get the better of these troubles.

[ The questionnaire is given in appendix ‘A ‘ ]

Administration of the Pilot Study Questionnaire

The 10 questionnaires were given to ten different instructors of municipal schools to make full in. Brief interviews – more of the nature of informal negotiations were conducted before passing over the questionnaires to the respondents. The instructors filled in the questionnaires carefully and besides counted the clip required for make fulling in the questionnaire.

The pilot survey was helpful for the research worker to understand the undermentioned things sing the nature of the questionnaire –

Which inquiry was hard to understand?

How much clip was required to make full in the questionnaire?

Which were irrelevant inquiries?

Were the inquiries with proper sequence?

In this manner the information related to the questionnaire was collected and alterations were made consequently.

Findingss of the Pilot Study

The research worker found that the undermentioned findings were utile for the major survey of this research:

All the respondents were at least alumnuss equipped with a learning grade as sheepskin. However, merely 50 % of them had English as a major topic of survey at the undergraduate or station alumnus degree and merely 50 % had specialized in English linguistic communication learning in their preparation class. This shows that most of the instructors recruited to English hold non had adequate English at School or University and proper preparation in English learning methodological analysis.

The respondents had an mean 10 old ages of learning experience. They taught about 5 periods a twenty-four hours, largely to categories VI to X. Besides learning English, they have to learn other topics like Social Studies, Science or Mathematics in L1.

A study of the instruction methods, techniques and processs followed by the instructors to learn English revealed that they followed greatly diverse methods and no peculiar method could be identified as the major method. The respondents chiefly used the convenient methods of learning like interlingual rendition into female parent lingua, lecture, ordering notes from the market ushers.

Poems are largely taught through recitation, explicating the cardinal thought and the subject of sum uping the verse form followed by inquiry and replies ( as per the demands of scrutinies ) . Grammar is taught technically giving the regulations and boring the construction, short narratives through narrative which created entire silence in the category.

The respondents could non propose much betterment in the instruction methods, techniques, processs they followed to learn prose pieces, verse forms, grammar and short narratives. At the most they try to convey some obscure thoughts by utilizing the popular ELT slang which they seemed to hold come across during their long instruction experience. However, they strongly felt that proper motive of the pupils and the usage of other teaching-aids with proper preparation could assist them to learn much better.

It was found that the whole procedure of schoolroom instruction was context oriented instead than linguistic communication oriented. Language work was paid scant or no attending at all.

The respondents are really much aware of their deficiency of command of written and spoken English due to the hapless hearing and reading wonts. Most of them specified that they would wish to analyze written English, Spoken English, English grammar and use as the chief constituents of the proposed preparation programme. Some of them stated that they would wish to analyze the utile instruction techniques.

The respondents ‘ deficiency of involvement in bettering their instruction accomplishments seems either to hold been conditioned by the macro jobs they face ( such as big categories, non handiness of text books, excessively much course of study, and teacher ‘s enchiridion, deficiency of able counsel, learning AIDSs, decision makers ‘ unhealthy attitudes towards them ) on their long instruction experience or their being unaware of the improved/developed instruction methodological analysis.

A batch of spelling and grammatical mistakes were detected in the respondents ‘ usage of English in make fulling in the questionnaires. Most of the instructors misspelt the word grammar as ‘grammer ‘ . There are many other such errors in their responses.

The above analysis of the respondents ‘ competency of the linguistic communication supported the research worker ‘s premise that the instructors should be given proper ‘in-service preparation ‘ to do them competent instructors. The acute desire to go competent instructors on the portion of the respondents indicates the consciousness of their failings in the linguistic communication they teach and the insufficiency of their instruction methodological analysis.

The findings of the pilot study seem to corroborate that the English teaching/learning state of affairs has to be improved sufficiently.

The pilot survey helped the research worker to better the questionnaire. A few more points were incorporated. The attending was paid to the systematic presentation of the points and the overall visual aspect of the questionnaire.

A brief description of Questionnaire II

The 2nd questionnaire had 32 points in all. Most of the points had parts and subparts. The questionnaire consisted of 7 pages. The points in the questionnaire may be classified as under.

Items seeking information on personal informations: These points sought information on respondents ‘ age, work loads in footings of clip spent daily on household personal businesss, professional related activities, reading wonts, and the clip spent in talking English day-to-day. And besides their personal wonts with respect to the usage of English in their day-to-day life and their survey wonts.

Items seeking information on professional makings: These points sought information on the respondents ‘ educational makings, their teaching experience and learning degree, how much clip they spent on readying for instruction, rectification of note books, taking excess categories and existent instruction periods in the school daily.

Items seeking information on the respondents ‘ learning behavior: These points sought information on how the instructors taught prose pieces, verse forms, grammar, short narratives and composing to their students ; which countries out of the 1s mentioned here the respondents preferred to learn and why, which were some of the utile schoolroom learning techniques harmonizing to them.

Items seeking information on motivational factors/morale hiking factors/the respondents ‘ attitudes: These points sought to place ( I ) the factors that would actuate the instructors to take up the proposed ‘training programme ‘ , ( two ) the factors which would hike the morale of the respondents as instructors of English and ( three ) their attitudes towards virtue evaluation in learning ( Best, 1978. 164-166 and 173 ) .

Care was taken to adequately actuate the respondents before administrating the questionnaire. The responses were collected from them before their preparation started. The questionnaire was given to eighty English linguistic communication instructors working in Municipal Corporation Schools in Vijayawada, A.P. Sufficient clip was given to them. Out of 80, the research worker was able to roll up 70 five filled in questionnaires. Out of these 75, merely 70 are used in the present survey as the responses of 5 instructors were uncomplete. The wider range of this questionnaire enabled the research worker to analyze the jobs in greater deepness and broader prospective. The questionnaire, therefore, assumed the place of the major research instrument for garnering information from the respondents for the intent of the chief study.

Interview

It is really flexible and can be used to roll up big sum of information. The interview is superior to other tools because people are more willing to speak than to compose. The research worker can research issues, and investigation as the state of affairs requires.

Validity and dependability of the interview

The interviews are used to set up or otherwise the cogency of the responses.

If the interview is based on decently designed construction, it is more valid.

Dependability of the interview can be evaluated by associating the inquiry in a different mode.

The research worker has interviewed some of the instructors and schoolmasters and obtained information about the undermentioned points:

The present criterion of the linguistic communication competency of their students-

The jobs faced by the English linguistic communication instructors.

The function of the decision makers, school and the milieus in learning linguistic communication.

Positions about the ‘in-service preparation ‘ programme.

[ The interview questionnaire is given in appendix ‘C ‘ ]

The findings of the Informal interviews with the Teachers

Most of the instructors are non cognizant of the purposes and aims of the text books they are learning. Very few instructors work towards clearly defined ends. Teaching for them is merely dispatching their responsibility. They do non utilize the ‘Teachers Handbook ‘ which provides counsel to the instructors on how to utilize the Reader, the Workbook, and the Supplementary Reader ‘ efficaciously. They merely go on learning the same topic, with the same tone ; with same methodology- “ Theory is different from pattern ” seems to be their stance when it comes to experimenting with new techniques.

The instructors are blind to the world that their scholars are the first coevals scholars. They do non look to understand the fact that these scholars need to put excess clip and attempt to hold on and absorb the things that they study, because of the many jobs they face in twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life as deprived scholars. Teachers, besides neglecting to see the world, seek to compare the public presentation of the first coevals scholars with that of scholars with good educational background. Such comparing makes the deprived scholars feel ashamed of themselves and sometimes leads to dire effects such as dropping out from school, jumping the linguistic communication categories, developing negative attitude towards linguistic communication acquisition.

The instructors do non look to understand why the parents of these pupils can non maintain a cheque on the advancement of their wards. They do non look to bear in head the fact that the parents are nonreaders and day-to-day pay workers. They complained that the parents ne’er enquire after their kids ‘s academic advancement.

The instructors besides expressed their in-adequacy of learning English expeditiously. The acute desire to go competent instructor on the portion of the respondents indicated their consciousness of their failings in the linguistic communication they teach and the insufficiency of learning methodological analysis.

Inspite of their busy agenda of work and completion of the course of study, the respondents expressed their willingness to take an intensive ‘training programme ‘ in order to better their competency in the linguistic communication instruction and develop the acquisition procedure of English of their pupils.

The Sample Design

A Sample is little proportion of a population, which represents the population decently.

Population

The survey extends in range to all the municipal corporation schools where the English linguistic communication is taught and learnt at high school degree. Since the English course of study and the text books for Telugu medium are same through out Andhra Pradesh and most of the instructors of English continue to follow traditional methods of learning, they have more or less same degree of linguistic communication competency, though ; they are placed in diverse scenes and come from widely different backgrounds.

The research worker found that the recommendations made in the survey on the footing of the study are non specified to the schools/teachers which are examined, but are generalized.

All the same the research was limited to the Municipal Corporation Schools of Vijayawada, A.P. There are 29 high schools ( including 1 Urdu medium, 2 schools both English and Telugu medium and 1 Tamil medium ) and 15 Upper Primary Schools ( including 3 Urdu medium ) and 75 Elementary schools dwelling of 28,450 pupils ( as on 30.06.2009 ) . However, the research worker selected merely 25 Telugu Medium High Schools and 12 Upper Primary Schools. They are wholly 37 Telugu medium Municipal Corporation Schools in Vijayawada. These schools were situated both urban and semi-urban countries.

Choice of Respondent Teachers

The survey was limited to the instructors learning English at Upper Primary and High Schools of Municipal Corporation Schools of Vijayawada, A.P. Hence, the sample for the survey included English instructors.

The research worker got the list of schools from the Municipal Corporation office and contacted the schoolmasters of these schools and requested to give a list of English instructors learning at upper primary and high school degree.

She could acquire a list of 80 English instructors. All 80 instructors were selected for the survey.

Choice of instructors for in-service preparation

It was decided to choose 40 instructors wholly stand foring all the upper primary and high schools. English instructors were selected indiscriminately from the selected schools. Hence, there were 40 English instructors in the sample for the experiment. ( A list of 40 instructors is given in appendix Tocopherol )

Choice of the pupils for the Pre-test and Post-test

The research worker decided to choose 200 pupils analyzing in high schools of Municipal Corporation Schools of Vijayawada, A.P. The VIII and IX category pupils were selected indiscriminately from these schools. The Pre-test was given before the in-service preparation programme for the instructors and the post-test after the preparation programme.

Procedure of the Research

The process was divided into following two parts:

Visit of the Municipal Schools

The research worker foremost prepared a missive to the Municipal Corporation office to acquire the blessing for carry oning the present survey and appealed the schoolmasters to Co-operate with the research worker.

[ The missive is given in appendix ‘D ‘ ]

In the first portion i.e. the Survey, the research worker used two of import tools i.e. the questionnaire and the interview. [ See 3.3.2 & A ; 3.3.3 ]

The research worker personally went to each Municipal Corporation School and handed over the questionnaire to English linguistic communication instructors. Adequate clip was given them. Some of the filled in questionnaires were instantly received. At the same clip the research worker besides had treatment with the instructors about the present position of learning English in these schools.

The questionnaires were given to 80 instructors in entire. They were given ample clip to make full in the questionnaires. Out of them, 70 duly filled in questionnaires were received by the research worker. These instructors comprised the major portion of the sample. The response was more than 85 % .

Table No.3.1: Percentage of respondent instructors

Entire No. of Teachers selected

No. of Teachers Responded

Percentage of Responses

80

70

85 %

The information collected through the questionnaires was classified, analyzed and interpreted. The reading was taken into consideration while fixing in-service preparation programme.

As the research worker personally visited these schools, interviewed some of the headmasters/headmistresses and observed the schoolroom conditions, the research worker could roll up the present place of the schools sing instruction of English, substructure installations that the schools have and the jobs instructors face while learning English linguistic communication. ( See 1.5.2 )

The information collected through the interviews was besides utile to explicate in-service preparation programme.

The Experiment

The research worker observed the lessons of a few English linguistic communication instructors with the aid of the experts utilizing observation agenda.

[ The observation agenda is given in appendix ‘C ‘ ]

From the lesson observations, following things were observed

The Classes were wholly teacher centred.

No reliable stuff or instruction AIDSs were used for schoolroom instruction.

Teachers followed the old methodological analysis for learning. Emphasis was on interlingual rendition into female parent lingua.

Classs were non active. There were really less interactions in the categories.

Teachers did non hold communicative competency.

The pupils were really inactive in the category.

There was no resonance between the instructor and the pupils.

After sing all these drawbacks the research worker came to the decision that the instructors should be given a kind of in-service preparation to develop communicative competency and for that intent she arranged an in-service preparation programme for the instructors.

Necessity, Importance and Relevance of In-Service preparation for the English instructors

Not long ago, it was the map of the ‘teacher to learn ‘ and the responsibility of the pupils to larn. ‘ Teachers had nil to make with acquisition. Good instruction was synonymous with the sound cognition of one ‘s capable and ability to ‘speak out ‘ the information in the category. The construct of instruction has undergone a rapid alteration since so. Teaching is recognized as a accomplishment. With the turning organic structure of research in the Fieldss of instruction and acquisition, greater accent is being laid on developing the instructors in the usage of new methods and techniques of learning which have their foundation in theories of acquisition, human motive, observation of learning behavior, etc. This occupation is non merely to bring forth larning but to guarantee their scholars become skilled users of the linguistic communication.

Hence, an effort will be made to give an in-service preparation programme for the English linguistic communication instructors of Municipal Corporation Schools of Vijayawada, A.P. In this preparation, the research worker along with her co-workers, enable instructors to place and analyse jobs related to their ain instruction, to develop solutions for some of these jobs and to use the solutions arrived at in their ain schoolrooms.