Historical Background Of Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay

Social public assistance can non be achieved without the reference of lodging proviso, lodging is one of the really indispensable basic human demands, and it is merely 2nd to nutrient in the hierarchy of adult male ‘s demand for endurance. Not surprisingly hence, that this has been one of the major precedence of different Government in Nigeria, as it is apparent in creative activity of different lodging policies and even lodging regulative organic structures that has been created over clip. Housing is of paramount importance in poorness relief and economic development of any state. Several states including Nigeria have developed different policies and programme to control the threat of lodging shortage, some of these programmes include concerted lodging, authorities self build programme, mortgage finance, subsidy or grants for lodging, low income lodging, societal lodging and a whole batch of others. Most developed and developing states are now utilizing societal lodging to bring forth non-profit and low income lodging for low income earners in the society as it involves the proviso of lodging for the no-income and low income earners in the society, of which are non-profit driven.

Traveling by the UN declaration on cosmopolitan human right 1948 ( Article 25 ) “ aˆ¦Everyone has the right to a criterion of life adequate for the wellness and wellbeing of himself and of his household, including nutrient, vesture, lodging, and medical attention and necessary societal services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, illness, disablement, widowhood, old age or other deficiency of support in fortunes beyond his controlaˆ¦ ” so if this must be achieved or adhered to, societal lodging proviso will decidedly be a suited scheme that can assist all the stakeholders involved in lodging proviso to do low cost and non-profit oriented lodging available to the clocking population of people in this class, because societal lodging is said to be the proviso of cheap, low-cost, non-profit goaded mass produced houses that could be occupied by low income earners, who may wish to salvage towards finally purchasing such houses with clip.

Traveling by the dismaying rate at which lodging shortage is increasing in Nigeria over the old ages, you agree with me that the desirableness of societal lodging in Nigeria can ne’er be overemphasized. Taking from World Bank ‘s index in 2007, over 70 % of Nigeria population lives below poorness line, which means that over 70 % of Nigeria masses lives on less than $ 1.25 per twenty-four hours. Then there is no uncertainty that this section of people will happen it hard to have a house particularly in a state like Nigeria where a individual ego contain flat goes for 1000000s of Naira.

For the really first clip in many old ages, Nigeria has been able to give a whole chapter to societal lodging in its new National Housing Policy which is presently been scrutinized by the senate. Since Nigeria is making this for the first clip, much attention and preciseness must be our ticker word, particularly in the country of institutional model, finance, execution program etc. Nigeria should be ready to larn from states that have excelled in societal lodging programme e.g. Spain, South Africa and many other, and every bit good take note of their errors or shortcoming in other to get at a strong and efficient policy for societal lodging in Nigeria.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

It is rather good that Nigeria has taken into awareness the importance of lodging proviso for its clocking population of no-income and low income earners which account for approximately 100 million out of the sum of 170 million populations, but development of a policy is merely a small measure taking in the right way, because the majority of the work lies in the execution of the policy from the beginning till the terminal and this requires a batch of expertness and experience. If this must be achieved, so a thorough and nonsubjective analysis of the policy must done in other to do certain that the policy meets its declared ends and aims as the state can non afford to neglect if it ‘s really ready to cut down the lifting rush in lodging proviso particularly among the low income earners in the state.

1.3 AIM

To measure and measure Nigeria ‘s societal lodging policy and supply planning related advice and suggestions that can assist to do the policy a success.

1.3.1 Aim

To find the existent definition of societal lodging in the context of Nigeria ‘s societal lodging policy and in other states across the Earth.

To analyze Nigeria ‘s societal lodging policy as a legal papers.

To compare Nigeria ‘s societal lodging policy with that of other states across the Earth.

To find the booby traps in Nigeria ‘s societal lodging policy.

To supply planning related advice or guidelines that will farther beef up the policy.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This survey will seek to analyze Nigeria ‘s societal lodging policy as a legal papers, and every bit good do comparing with that of other states with such policies in other to find the strength and failing of the policy. The undermentioned countries of the policy will be given much attending ; institutional model, funding agreement, execution program, eligibility standards among others.

1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

Nigeria is a big state with a population of about 170 million. Over 100 million of this population lives on less than S1.25 dollar per twenty-four hours, while lodging shortage was estimated to be about 16-17million. With this high rate of poorness and lodging shortage in the state, it will be pertinent T have an effectual, efficient and good organized societal lodging policy that would stand the gustatory sensation of clip.

1.6 THE STUDY AREA

1.6.1 Historical background of Nigeria

The name Nigeria was gotten from the River Niger which runs through the state. This name was coined by Flora Shaw, the future married woman of Baron Lugard, who was a British colonial decision maker, in the late nineteenth century. The British colonised Nigeria in the late nineteenth and early 20th century, puting up administrative constructions and jurisprudence while acknowledging traditional heads. Nigeria got her independency in 1960. Nigeria is a state of pronounced ecological diverseness and climatic contrasts. The lowest point is the Atlantic Ocean at sea degree while the highest point is the Chappal Waddi at 2A 419 m. Nigeria has diverse biophysical features, cultural nationalities, agro-ecological zones and socio-economic conditions. It has evolved over clip and infinite in footings of administrative constructions and nature of administration. It started as an coalesced British settlement in 1914, became a federation in 1963 ; so became independent in 1960 as a two-unit part consisting the Northern and Southern states. An extra Mid-Western part was created in 1963. Besides in 1963, Nigeria was proclaimed a democracy. Several old ages subsequently, it had civil war as Biafra tried to set up independency. Military authoritiess in times of crisis have alternated with democratically elected authoritiess. Nigeria is approximately divided in half between Muslims and Christians a really little minority pattern traditional faiths, the Muslims are concentrated largely in the North, and Christians in the South.

1.6.2 Physical features

Location

Nigeria lies between latitudes 4A° and 14A°N, and longitudes 2A° and 15A°E. Nigeria is located in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea with a entire country of 923,768 km2 ( 356,669A sqA myocardial infarction ) , doing it the universe ‘s 32nd-largest state ( after Tanzania ) . It is comparable in size to Venezuela, and is about twice the size of California. To the north the state is bounded by the Niger Republic and Chad ; in the West by the Benin Republic, in the East by the Cameroon Republic and to the South by the Atlantic Ocean, It portions a 4,047 kilometers ( 2,515A myocardial infarction ) boundary line with Benin ( 773A kilometer ) , Niger ( 1497A kilometer ) , Chad ( 87A kilometer ) , Cameroon ( 1690A kilometer ) , and has a coastline of at least 853A kilometer.

Climate

Nigeria, by virtuousness of its location, enjoys a warm tropical clime with comparatively high temperatures throughout the twelvemonth and two seasons – the rainy or moisture season that lasts from mid- March – November in the South and from May to October in the North ; and the dry season that occupies the remainder of the twelvemonth ( Oyenuga, 1967 ) . However, in a state like Nigeria, where the temperatures do non fluctuates on a regular basis, changeless elements such as comparative humidness and rainfall are to a great extent relied on to distinguish between the season and climatic zones. The clime of the state is influenced by the interaction of two air multitudes:

( I ) the comparatively warm and damp tropical Marine mass which originates over the Atlantic Ocean and is associated with Southwest air currents in Nigeria, and

( II ) the comparatively cool, dry and comparatively stable tropical Continental air mass that originates from the Sahara Desert and is associated with the prohibitionist, cool and dust-covered North-East Trades ( harmattan ) .

The seasonal form of the south differs from that of the North and the South has four seasons: ( I ) The long moisture season that starts in mid-March and stopping points till July is a season of heavy rains and high humidness. Plants and grazing land are fresh and green, grasses and weeds grow quickly and look attractive. This is the planting season. ( two ) The short prohibitionist season. This is the August interruption and it starts from July – August and lasts for about one month. ( three ) The short moisture season. It follows the August interruption and stopping points from September to October. During this period rainfall is non normally heavy compared to the first moisture season and the entire sum of rainfall is less ; and ( four ) The long prohibitionist or harmattan season which continues from November to mid-March. Harmattan forenoons are normally cool and misty, nevertheless the mist disappears after dawn. The afternoons are full of haze due to dust in the air brought by air currents from the North. At this period of the twelvemonth grasses die off and foliages of some trees turn brown and later autumn ( Oyenuga, 1967 ; Ileoje, 2001 ) .

In the North, the long dry season starts earlier and ends subsequently. Here there is nil like the August interruption, therefore the two wet seasons become one. Therefore two seasons are outstanding – a long dry season that spans from October to April, and a moisture season for the staying five months. ( I ) The long dry season: there is deficiency of rainfall and the dry conditions that prevail cause clefts to develop on clay dirts. However, this season is welcomed because the darks are cool and the afternoon haze helps to wade off the Sun ‘s heat ; and ( two ) the moisture season that is ushered in by frequent storms. This is the seting season in the North.

Rainfall varies from topographic point to topographic point and from season to season. In the moisture season, the full consequence of the tropical maritime air mass is the chief ground that brings rainfall, while in the dry season the rainfall is less. The entire one-year rainfall lessenings from the South to the North. The southern two-thirds of the state have dual extremum rainfall while the northern tierce has a individual extremum.

Topography

Nigeria is dominated by pyrogenic constructions that form most of the Highlandss and hills. The stones of the cellar are chiefly of pyrogenic beginning. The landforms can merely be classified into Highlandss, tableland, hills, fields and river vale systems. The landforms are more profoundly dissected in the South than in the northern parts. The topography of the state shows that Nigeria is highest along the eastern boundary line and rises to a upper limit of 2,040 m above sea degree at Vogel Peak, South of the river Benue. The Jos tableland, that is located near to the Centre of the state rises to 1780 m at Sphere hill and 1,698 at Wadi Hill. The Plateau is besides the watershed, from which streams flow to Lake Chad and the rivers Niger and Benue.A The land declines steadily northerly from the tableland and this country, known as the High Plains of Hausaland, is characterized by a wide sweep of degree sandy fields, interspersed by bouldery dome outcrops. To the south-west, across the Niger River similar alleviation is represented in the Yoruba Highlandss, where the bouldery outcrops are surrounded by wood or tall grass and organize the major watershed for rivers fluxing due norths to the NigerA and due souths to the sea. Elsewhere in theA state, lowlands of less than 300m stretch inland from the seashore for over 250 kilometers and go on in the trough-like basins of theA Niger and Benue rivers. Lowland countries besides exist in theA Rima and Chad basins at the utmost north-west and north-east ofA the state severally. These Lowlandss are dissected by countless watercourses and rivers fluxing in wide flaxen vales. The low-lying countries are by and large below 300 m and these are found in the Centre and the South ( Iloeje, 2001 ) . The Udi Plateau for case attains a tallness of over 300 m, and this seems to interrupt the humdrum of the surface in the low lands.

Dirt

Nigerian dirts is classified into four ( climatic ) zones that are soil associations. The groups are: ( I ) Northern zone of sandy dirts ( two ) Interior zone of laterite dirts ; ( three ) Southern belt of forest dirts ; and ( four ) zone of alluvial dirts ( Oyenuga, 1967 ; Ileoje, 2001 ) .

Northern zone of flaxen dirts: This country lies in the really northern parts of the state. In some countries like the Sahel savanna belt, the dirts are true to type, being formed under fruitlessness and by the deposition of sand by the air current. These dirts might hold been formed from wind-sorted desert littorals that accumulated over long periods of clip when the Sahara desert encroached several kilometers south of its present bounds. The dirts of this zone produce much of the Indian potato harvest, some of the sorghum, black-eyed peas and big measures of millet. For case in Kano, Northern Kaduna, Zamfara and Sokoto provinces they have all right sandy loam, crumbly and comparatively easy to cultivate dirts. The dirt is small leached and hence ideal for groundnut cultivation. Whereas in southern Kuduna is found a mixture of dirts that disintegrated from local granite, and loess dirts that were brought down by air currents from the North. The dirt is in fact non sandy.A These dirts are the Zaria loam that produces the largest output of cotton in Nigeria.

Interior zone of laterite dirts: This zone is made up of littorals and clays. They are gray to black clays ill drained and seasonally flooded organizing the “ fadama ” . Soil in this zone is profoundly corroded, by and large gluey and imperviable to H2O and has low birthrate. When the virgin forest on them is cleared it reduces the birthrate farther, therefore doing available dirt of small agricultural value. When the dirt is exposed to the surface, it become every bit difficult as brick and for this ground, the dirt here is most suited for route pavement and wall building than for farming. However, non merely laterite dirts are found in this zone. The Biu Plateau has rich dirt that is productive and offers chances for the enlargement of the countries of cotton production.

Southern belt of forest dirts: Dirts in this zone loosely represent those of the humid, tropical wood clime zones of the South where the moisture season is long, the harmattan season short and forest screen is heavy. Local dirt types depend mostly on parent stone. Where the implicit in stones are granite or clay, the dirts is a rich clayey loam. The forest soils output chocolate, oil thenar, gum elastic and they are of considerable importance in Nigerian agribusiness.

Zone of alluvial dirts: These dirts are found on the afloat fields of rivers or on deltas, or along the coastal flats. This zone extends from the coastal inland and runs along the vale of the Niger and the Benue rivers, therefore cutting across the vegetal zones. The dirts found in this zone do non depend extremely on clime and flora for their formation. The implicit in parent stone is the most of import factor in their formation. Soils in this zone are characteristic of fresh-water dirt of Grey to white sand, gray clay and flaxen clay with humic surface soil. Another group consists of chocolate-brown to black saline Rhizophora mangle dirts, with a mat of rootlets.

Vegetation

The natural flora zones resulted from the interaction of the clime, humidness and rainfall ( Oyenuga, 1967 ) , and dirts ( Iloeje, 2001 ) . These factors have been modified by human activities and adult male ‘s form of land usage ( Oyenuga 1967 ; Iloeje, 2001 ) . Based on the above, Oyenuga ( 1967 ) classified Nigeria into nine ( 9 ) agro-ecological zones viz: – ( I ) The Rhizophora mangle wood and coastal flora, ( two ) the fresh water swamp communities, ( three ) the tropical high wood zone, ( four ) the derived Guinea savanna with relict wood, ( V ) the Southern Guinea savanna zone, ( six ) The northern Guinea savanna zone, ( seven ) The Jos tableland, ( eight ) The Sudan savanna, and ( nine ) The Sahel savanna. However, Iloeje, ( 2001 ) grouped the state into ( A ) woods and ( B ) savanna zones. These two major zones were farther sub-divided into three zones each such as ( A ) Forests that consist of ( I ) salt-water swamp, ( two ) fresh-water swamp, ( three ) high wood ; and ( B ) Savanna zone that consist of ( I ) guinea savanna ( two ) Sudan savanna, and ( three ) Sahel savanna.

The Rhizophora mangle wood and coastal flora: This occupies the coastal countries and consists of tidal swamps, interspersed with legion brooks and lagoons.A The Rhizophora mangle swamp is noted for the Rhizophora mangle species of trees ( Rhizophora ) that dominate the swamp and to a much less extent by Conocarpus erectus and Laguncularia racemosa ( white Rhizophora mangle ) .

The fresh water swamp communities: This country which originally occupied 18A 130 km2 lies instantly inland of the Rhizophora mangle swamp but on a somewhat higher land. The lagunas or the rivers that overflow their Bankss in the moisture season supply it with fresh H2O because the country is low lying, therefore it is flooded with rain H2O and lies under rain for sometimes eight or nine months of the twelvemonth. This zone consists of a mixture of trees. Important among the flora of this zone are the assorted thenar and fibre workss such as Raphia spp. , Raphia common grape vine, the wine thenar and Raphia hookeri, the roof-mat thenar. They are used for thatching mats and for supplying balk, poles and stiff piassava fiber for the production of brooms.

The tropical high forest zone: This zone is the major beginning of lumber for all big constructional and cabinet devising lumber. Of all the zones it contains the most valuable species of flora. However due to human activities, this erstwhile forested country has been drastically reduced. Bush fallows, small towns and farms are found scattered throughout the zone. Soon the dry terminal of its inland side is going reduced to deduce guinea savanna because of felling and glades. In the humid rain wood are found economic hard currency harvests such as oil thenar, ( Elaeis guineensis ) , chocolate ( Theobroma chocolate tree ) , Rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) banana/plantain ( Musa spp. ) and cola nut ( Cola nitida ) . Besides found are some chief staple nutrient harvests such as yam, taros, sweet murphy, maize, rice, Indian potato, black-eyed peas and beans every bit good as a figure of fruits.

The derived Guinea savanna with relict wood: This was originally the dry portion of the high wood. Due to bush combustion and overgrazing, cultivation and hunting activities over a long period in the zone, the high wood trees were destroyed and the wood that used to be is now replaced with a mixture of grasses and scattered trees. However, along the watercourses and in wet low-lying countries were surface H2O accumulates there are still some hints of woods. The Guinea savanna is characterized by grasses such as Pennisetum, Andropogon, Panicum, Chloris, Hyparrhenia, Paspalum and Melinis. These tall grasses are characteristic of the Guinea savanna proper.

The Guinea Savanna: This zone consists of the larger portion of the savanna zone and is sometimes divided into the southern Guinea savanna and northern Guinea savanna. It is the broadest flora zone in the state and it occupies about half of its country. It is located in the center of the state, extends due souths to southern Nigeria and pushes northerly beyond Zaria. It covers an country that has 100 – 150 centimeter of one-year rainfall and where the moisture season lasts for 6 – 8 months. The false balsam Copaiba ( Daniellia oliveri ) , used for carving howitzers and stamps for thumping yam, Terminalia, Lophira, Afzeila, Daniellia and Vitex, Khaya senegalensis ( the hapless mahogany ) are the species found in the southern Guinea savanna. In the northern guinea savanna species such as Isoberlinia doka and I. tomentosa organize the majority of the scattered forest. Besides found are locust bean tree ( Parkia filicoidea ) , shea butter tree ( Butyrospermum parkii ) and Mangifera indicas ( Mangifera indica ) . Relatively, there are fewer trees in the northern Guinea savanna than in the southern Guinea savanna and the trees are non every bit tall as those found in the southern Guinea savanna. Most of the tall grasses found in the derived Guinea savanna, are besides found in the Guinea savanna, nevertheless, they are less elaborate.

The Sudan savanna: This zone is chiefly associated with Indian potatos, sorghum and millet cultivation. Grasses found in this zone are non by and large as tall, coarse or midst on the land as those found in the Guinea savanna zone. Here there is uninterrupted grass screen of the short and featherlike grasses on a big graduated table. The grass flora is interspersed with farms and thick shrub trees such as shea butter tree ( Butyrospermum parkii ) and Acacia albida. The genus Acacia and Combretum, particularly Combretum micranthum are good represented and prolific in the Sudan savanna zone. Besides found in the zone are locust bean tree ( Parkia filicoidea ) , tamarind tree ( Tamarindus indica ) and mango ( Mangifera indica ) . A big part of this zone falls within the tzetze fly fly free belt of West Africa and it is first-class for the raising and genteelness of ruminant farm animal ( cowss, caprine animals, sheep, donkeys, Equus caballuss and camels ) . The mobile Fulani roam about this zone in hunt of fresh fish and H2O for their farm animal.

The Sahel savanna: Occupies about 18A 130 km2 of the utmost nor’-east corner of Nigeria and is the last flora zone of the savanna type between the Sahara and the northern frontier of the Sudan savanna. The one-year rainfall is low and the rainy season stopping points between three to four months. Here the flora is non merely sparse but the grasses are really abruptly. This zone is characterized by workss such as Cenchrus biflorus, and Acacia raddiana. The bush that are preponderantly scattered in the zone are African sweet cicely ( Commiphora africana ) and Leptadenia spartum. As a regulation this zone is non cultivated without irrigation. The people found in this zone are the mobile herders, and they are careful non to fire the grass found because thin as it is it provides the lone grazing land available for their graze farm animal.

Montane flora: There is no true montane type flora in Nigeria, but little fluctuations in the prevailing works screen introduced by alleviation. For case the Jos tableland, the Bauchi Highland and the Adamawa Plateau prevarication in the guinea savanna zone, nevertheless, the grasses found on these Highlandss are shorter and the trees are fewer than at lower degree. The Fulani who live in great Numberss in the country turn the available Fieldss into good grazing land for their graze animate beings.

1.6.3 Population Features

Nigeria histories for about one sixth of African population ( or one fifth of Sub-saharan African population ) . Approximately 50 % of Nigerians are urban inhabitants. At least 24 metropoliss have populations of more than 100,000. The assortment of imposts, linguistic communications, and traditions among Nigeria ‘s 389 cultural groups gives the state a cultural diverseness. Nigeria suffers from a population detonation, with a current population in surplus of 170 million ( 2012 ) and a growing rate of more than 2 % p.a. ( or a doubling clip of about 30 old ages ) , with all the associated jobs such as young person bump, offense, cultural tenseness and high out-migration.

The most legion cultural group in the northern two-thirds of the state is the Hausa-Fulani, the overpowering bulk of whom are Muslim. Other major cultural groups of the North are the Nupe, Tiv, and Kanuri. The Yoruba people are the most legion in the sou’-west. Over half of the Yorubas are Christian and about a one-fourth are Muslim, with the balance hold traditional Yoruba positions. The preponderantly Christian Igbo are the largest cultural group in the sou’-east. Roman Catholic is the largest denomination, but Pentecostal, Anglican and other Evangelical denominations are besides strong. The Efik, Ibibio, Annang, and Ijaw ( the state ‘s fourth-largest cultural group ) communities besides consist a significant section of the population in that country. Persons of different linguistic communication backgrounds most commonly communicate in English, although cognition of two or more Nigerian linguistic communications is widespread. Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo are the most widely used Nigerian linguistic communications

1.6.4 Economic Features

Nigeria is classified as a assorted economic system emerging market, and has already reached in-between income position harmonizing to the World Bank, with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed fiscal, legal, communications, conveyance sectors and stock exchange ( the Nigerian Stock Exchange ) , which is the 2nd largest in Africa. Nigeria is ranked 31st in the universe in footings of GDP ( PPP ) as of 2011. Nigeria is the United States ‘ largest trading spouse in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil ( 11 % of oil imports ) . It has the seventh-largest trade excess with the U.S. of any state worldwide. Nigeria is presently the 50th-largest export market for U.S. goods and the 14th-largest exporter of goods to the U.S. The United States is the state ‘s largest foreign investor. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) projected economic growing of 9 % in 2008 and 8.3 % in 2009. The IMF farther undertakings a 8 % growing in the Nigerian economic system in 2011.

Previously, economic development had been hindered by old ages of military regulation, corruptness, and misdirection. The Restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms has successfully put Nigeria back on path towards accomplishing its full economic potency. It is now the 2nd largest economic system in Africa ( following South Africa ) , and the largest economic system in the West Africa Region.

During the oil roar of the 1970s, Nigeria accumulated a important foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investings. With the autumn of oil monetary values during the 1980s oil oversupply Nigeria struggled to maintain up with its loan payments and finally defaulted on its chief debt refunds, restricting refund to the involvement part of the loans. Arrearss and punishment involvement accumulated on the unpaid chief which increased the size of the debt.

However, after dialogues by the Nigeria governments, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an understanding in which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a price reduction of about 60 % . Nigeria used portion of its oil net incomes to pay the residuary 40 % , liberating up at least $ 1.15A billion yearly for poorness decrease programmes. Nigeria made history in April 2006 by going the first African Country to wholly pay off its debt ( estimated $ 30A billion ) owed to the Paris Club.

1.7 Restriction of the Study