How Do Water Fire Extinguishers Work Environmental Sciences Essay

Water asphyxiators are among the most normally used. They are first-class for heat remotion on Class A fires. Extreme cautiousness should be exercised when utilizing a H2O asphyxiator to guarantee that the H2O, which is under utmost force per unit area, does non disperse lightweight stuffs and distribute the fire.

Common features for H2O fire asphyxiators are:

Capacity. Standard size is 2 gallons.

Range. 30-40 pess.

Pressure. 110 lbs per square inch ( pounds per square inch ) .

Dry Chemical Fire extinguishers

Dry chemical asphyxiators are besides normally used. Regular dry chemical asphyxiators have a Na hydrogen carbonate base and are effectual on Class B and C fires. Multipurpose dry chemical asphyxiators have a monoammonium phosphate base and are effectual for Class A, B, and C fires. Both types of dry chemical asphyxiators are atoxic. Both should be inverted monthly to forestall caking. Common features for dry chemical asphyxiators are:

Capacity. Approximately 10-20 seconds discharge clip.

Range. 8-12 pess.

Pressure. 175-250 pounds per square inch.

Other Types Of Fire extinguishers

Although still in usage, C dioxide, halon, and froth asphyxiators are going less common.

Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers are used chiefly on Class C fires and are besides effectual on Class B fires. They have limited usage on Class Angstrom fires because of reflash potency. They suppress fire by displacing or thining O degrees.

Halon Fire extinguishers are best used on Class B or C fires. Halon is a clean agent and is atoxic when used in low concentrations or in non-confined countries. However, halon asphyxiators are being phased out because of possible impact on the environment.

Foam Fire extinguishers are used for particular applications and are less common.

Operating A Fire Fire extinguisher

A portable fire asphyxiator includes the undermentioned constituents:

Pressure gage



Transporting grip and trigger

These constituents are shown in the figure below.

Always operate asphyxiators in an unsloped place. As shown in the figure below, the acronym to retrieve when runing a portable asphyxiator is P.A.S.S. :

Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep. Aim at the base of the fire.

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Steam smothering

The usage of steam smothering in the hydrocarbon industries is typically limited to fires that might happen as a consequence of a tubing leak in furnace or warmer. The steam is most effectual in surrounding fires when they are located in comparatively little confined countries. Steam extinguishes fire by the exclusion of free air and the decrease of available O content to the immediate country, similar to other gaseous suppression agents. Use of snuffing steam requires some cognition in the rule of fire smothering and readily available supplies of steam coevals. Snuffing steam besides presents a personal burn jeopardy from superheated H2O vapor exposure if directed onto or near unprotected tegument. Use of other fire snuff outing agents is by and large preferred over the usage of snuffing steam.

Foamwater Suppression System

Foamwater systems are provided wherever there are big measures of liquid hydrocarbons that pose a high fire hazard. Foam is an sum of H2O, chemical compounds and air filled bubbles that float on the surface of combustible liquids. They are used chiefly to supply a cohesive natation cover on the liquid surface of the liquid stuff it is protecting. It extinguishes a fire by surrounding and chilling the fuel, i.e. , liquid surface, and prevents re-ignition by forestalling the information of combustible mixtures of vapor and air over the liquid surface. Foam will besides chill the fuel and environing equipment involved in the fire. Foams are supplied in dressed ores that are suitably proportioned into H2O supply systems. They are so aspirated with air to bring forth the froth bubbles.

Gaseous systems

Carbon Dioxide Systems

Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 ) is a non-combustible gas that can perforate and distribute to all parts of a fire, thining the available O to a concentration that will non back up burning. CO2 systems will snuff out fires in practically all combustibles except those which have their ain O supply and certain metals that cause decomposition of the C dioxide, CO2 does non carry on electricity and can be used on energized electrical equipment. It will non stop dead or deteriorate with age. Carbon dioxide is a unsafe gas to human life since it displaces O. Concentrations above 9 per centum are considered risky, while 30 per centum or more are needed for fire extinction system. Carbon dioxide systems are by and large uneffective in outdoor applications since air current effects and disperse the bluess quickly. It has a vapor denseness of 1.529 and hence will settle to low points of an enclosure.

For fire extinguishment or inserting intents CO2 is stored in liquid signifier that provides for its ain pressurized discharge.


CO2 systems have the undermentioned disadvantages:

The expelled CO2 gas presents a asphyxiation jeopardy to Humans in the open country. All such countries would necessitate rigorous entree control.

CO2 gas is considered a ‘greenhouse ‘ gas and may in the hereafter be considered an environmental concern.

Fixed CO2 systems require a big storage country and have considerable weight which limits their benefit offshore.

Deep seated fires may non be to the full extinguished by a gaseous fire suppressant agent.

Oxygen Deficient Gas Inerting Systems

To cut down the hazard of detonation and fires from enclosed infinites of volatile hydrocarbon storage armored combat vehicles, a gas with that would be considered deficient in O is provided to except O from come ining the enclosure. Large ocean traveling oiler vass are equipped with a uninterrupted inert gas system that blankets storage holds or armored combat vehicles with an O deficient gas ( burning exhaust gases from the premier mover ) . Similarly some rough oil storage armored combat vehicles are provided with a processed gas as a method of excepting O from come ining the vapour infinite of some roof storage armored combat vehicles.


Halon is a halogenated compound that contains elements from the halogen series – F, Cl, Br and I. Halogen atoms from non-combustible gases when they replace the H atoms in hydrocarbon compounds such a methane or C2H6. Except for Halon 1310, bromotrifluoromethane, most halogenated hydrocarbon compounds are caustic when wet is present. Halon will besides interrupt into caustic and toxic by merchandises in the presence of a sustained electrical discharge.

Halon systems were the ideal fire suppression agent before their deductions of environmental impact due to ozone depletion. The industry is bit by bit phasing out use of halon systems for this ground. A flow chart to analyse mechanism to supplement or extinguish Halon systems for electrical or computing machine processing countries. Some of the premier grounds to extinguish the usage of Halon system is that the installation may be invariably manned with a comparatively low fire hazard. Other installations may hold a really low combustible burden and can be supplemented by extremely sensitive fire sensing means, such as a VESDA fire sensing system.

Fixed fire protection system

Some of the fixed fire protection systems can stamp down the fire and to defying the fire spread.

Dry Risers

Dry risers, so called because they contain no H2O in the pipes, are installed within a edifice and provided with a set downing valve in the stairway anteroom. The riser terminates at the street degree in the signifier of a fire brigade connexion.

The connexion enables the fire-brigade to link the fire-brigade connexion either to a street fire-hydrant straight or to a fire-brigade pumper and bear down the dry riser with H2O. The H2O can so be drawn off at any floor above from the landing valve. Dry risers help to extinguish the long tally of hose lines through the edifice staircases. It besides eliminates the danger operation of stop deading the standing H2O in the dry riser.

Wet Risers

Wet risers are fixed pipe-installations, installed within a edifice and for good charged with H2O under force per unit area from a dependable H2O supply beginning.

Hydrant Stationss are provided to function an country of 926 sqm. It is advisable to put it in fire protected countries near each fire flight stairway or anteroom so that it can be located easy.

Each water faucet station comprises:

A first-aid hosiery reel with 20mm diameter rubber-hose about 30-36 m long with a 6 millimeter diameter nose.

Single or double headed 63 millimeters diameter set downing valve

Using non-flammable stuffs or fire-stopping stuffs as the edifice ‘s component to command the fire spread, it can supply adequate clip to allow the occupants run off when fire occur. Besides that, it besides provides adequate clip for fire section reach the topographic point of fire within the period. Install fire door is an illustration normally we find inside the edifice. Extra, Windowss can besides be chosen to be protected by fire-rated shutters that close automatically at high temperatures.

Fire doors

Doors which are fire-retardant and self-closing are normally referred to as ‘fire doors ‘ . Fire doors are a critical portion of a fire defense mechanism system as their intent is to keep back fire and fume.

They are usually provided to transport out one of two maps:

to protect the unity of a structural fire compartment by keeping back fire and fume

to protect the agencies of flight for the residents of the edifice for a sufficient period of clip for them to get away from the edifice.

Fire doors can give fire protection for periods runing from 30 proceedingss to 4 hours.

At last, we need use non-combustible stuffs in hidden infinites inside a edifice, such as the infinites over suspended ceilings, under raised floors, within pipe service canals, etc. Besides that, can besides put in automatic fire sensing and suppression systems in these uninhabited infinites to strip O, replace it utilizing another gas ( C dioxide, halon ) or cover by the fuel ( froth, dry chemicals ) . Compartmentation besides is a method to interrupt up the continous of a fire spread.

Fire Suppression System

Typical Application

Portable Fire extinguishers




All works countries

Water faucets ( if fire brigade available )

All procedure and public-service corporation countries

Hydrocarbon storage countries



Hose Reels

Process countries




Firewater proctor

Process countries

Hydrocarbon storage countries

Hydrocarbon lading countries

Wet pipe sprinklers




Dry chemical systems


Loading or droping racks ( largely when H2O system is wasteful or unavailable )

Double agent systems

Aircraft operations

( fixed wing and traffic circle )

Dry pipe sprinklers


Critical overseas telegram vaults

Cooling towers

Water spray or flood

Process vas chilling

General country coverage


Critical or high value transformers

Foamwater flood and proctors

Hydrocarbon spill potencies

Truck and rail racks ( lading and droping )

Ship docks

Pump Stationss

CO2 systems

Electrical switchgear installations

Gas turbine enclosure

Communication panels or racks

Halon Substitutes

Critical computing machine assets or operations