Institute of business and technology

This study put accent in footings of inside informations about the instruction sector in Pakistan and highlighted the major events in instruction history of the universe and so we discuss education policies and programs. The Pakistan instruction is by and large have multiple board system and largely divided into five classs: primary, center, high ( SSC ) , intermediate ( HSSC ) and university plans ( alumnus and advanced grades ) .

Education sector includes analyses of figure of establishments, instructors, registrations and comparing of provision/ regional wise. The chief indexs of instruction are GDP, GNP and budget. The current issue in instruction sector is degeneration of HEC. Government believes in degeneration HEC on probationary degree by amending the act of fundamental law. The members of HEC, modules of establishments, foreign attached institutes, all pupils of the state believe the degeneration of HEC will be great catastrophe for instruction sector of Pakistan.

List Of Tables

Table Of Figures

Chapter: 1 Introduction

The delivering or receiving of cognition, accomplishment, and information is called an instruction. It is the gradual procedure of geting cognition and instruction is a readying for life.[ 1 ]

We need it for conveying up the society that can be called philosophically, psychologically, and sacredly a Civilization1

The educated differ from the uneducated, as the life from the dead. ( Aristotle )[ 2 ]

There are many sorts of instructors in our lives, some Teachs us informally and from some we get formal instruction. The instruction in our day-to-day societal life is besides necessary. Every twenty-four hours we learn something from person, teach something to person. But we do n’t name it an instruction. This sort of instruction is called informal instruction. The self-taught instruction is the most powerful instruction medium in the informal instruction. In this medium we are taught ourselves by hearing, seeing and sing different things.

The consequence of good upbringing particularly cognition of right societal behaviour, possessing positive traits of personality and moral values of a society is called societal instruction.[ 3 ]

The object of instruction is to learn us love of beauty. ( Plato ) 2

The act or procedure of instruction is to get cognition, accomplishment or subject of character by larning, direction and developing under any trained person/instructor.[ 4 ]

You can detect more about a individual in an hr of drama than in a twelvemonth of conversation. ( Plato ) 2

Harmonizing to our faith Islam, the instruction is a subject of organic structure, head and spirit.[ 5 ]There are many sorts of instruction in different educational doctrines. But we divided them into three sorts, these are ;

Informal instruction

Formal instruction

Particular instruction

1.1 Background:

Education starts with the beginning of human life on the Earth. It is a procedure consists of two elements that are, “ instruction ” and “ necessary ” . Although, instructors are necessary for educating the pupils ( scholars ) but in the beginning, we do non hold the thought of proper instruction al institutional institutes. There are several ways of larning. Such as, people do experiments, Tell others, younger learn from seniors and travellers surrounds the information and narratives of different topographic points etc. With the addition in population, we need merchandising, going and communicating for life. As clip base on ballss by, the educational procedure became more civilized in the signifier of educational institutes.

Table.1 Time Line

United arab republic

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

3000 B.C

“ Temple schools ” . Priests Teach faith, Pictographic linguistic communication and scientific disciplines.[ 6 ]

Cong-Fu of the Toa-Tse, book written about massage.[ 7 ]

Mesopotamia ( Cuneiform text in mathematic ) .[ 8 ]

Time of apprenticeships.[ 9 ]

2,000 B.C

First solar-lunar calendar.[ 10 ]

First formal school.6

1500 B.C

Priests teach faith, composing, values, sciences.6

850 B.C

Grecian alphabets use in Egyptian linguistic communication.[ 11 ]

Common people have entree to teachers.9

Homer ‘s Iliad & A ; Odyssey: educating Greek history & A ; fabulous gods.6

530 BC

Pythagoras establishes ethical and political academy at Croton ( now Crotone, Italy ) .[ 12 ]

Socrates Teachs in public squares.6

Plato Developed Platonism and set up the Academy.6

Aristotle set up school in Athens recognized as the Lyceum.6

United arab republic

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

240 B.C

Eratosthenes steps margin of the Earth with accuracy.8

130 B.C

Hipparchus construct up the first perfect star map and star catalogue with more than 850 of the brightest[ 13 ]

214-212 B.C

Archimedes build ancient super

arm ‘s such as the “ Archimedes ‘ Death Ray, ” “ The Archimedes ‘ Claw ”[ 14 ].

90 B.C

Rome-Cicero introduces Grecian philosophical values to Rome and created a vocabulary in Latin.[ 15 ]

45 B.C

Rome Introduces Julian calendar, an wholly solar calendar.8

95 A.D

Invent first compass.[ 16 ]

Ptolemy invents no. of projections that represents Earth as the Centre of the existence on level surface with heavenly organic structures circling around8

Rome-he merely extant work of Quintilian is a twelve-volume text edition on rhetoric entitled InstitutioOratoria, published.6

140 A.D

Ptolemy suggests geocentric theory of the existence in celebrated work Mathematike Syntaxis.8

105 A.D

Invented paper and hard mathematical jobs were resolutenesss.[ 17 ]

400-500 A.D

Nalanda, great Buddhist University6

Greeks include England and India to their maps.

United arab republic

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

699 -855A.D

Four Imams,[ 18 ]Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh & A ; Punjab.[ 19 ]

Olympic gamess started

959-1000A.D

Al-Azhar University of Egypt, the 2nd oldest university in the universe. It is the Centre for Islamic acquisition ( Sunni ) and Arabic Literature.[ 20 ]

Persian Avicenna “ The Canon of Medicine ” .6

1100-1200A.D

Omar Khayyam ( Jalali Calendar, Algebra, Astronomical Tables & A ; Rubaiyyats ) . Madrassa al Mustansirija in Baghdad medical scientific disciplines and other topics.[ 21 ]

1300-1400A.D

Ulugh Beg observatory astronomical tabular arraies catalogue over 1000 stars13

Printing imperativeness goad invented. Navigation tabular arraies and ships programs distributed around the universe. Geography of Ptolemy published and accepted around the world.8

Printing imperativeness invented. Ptolemy ‘s geographics is introduced in Europe Prince Henry ( Navigator ) established the naval observatory for learning the topics like uranology, pilotage and cartography.6

United arab republic

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

1500-1600A.D

In Mughal Era free of cost instruction in Maktabs and bookmans receives wages from royal exchequer.

Leonardo Da Vinci, Women Education, Bible translated and printed. Shakespeare plays in Theater.6 John Bayer appellation of stars. Galileo ‘s Telescope. Comenius writes first image book for kids[ 22 ].

1700-1800A.D

Sent immature pupils to America to derive leading accomplishments in military and industrial expertness. Emperor Meiji issued the Imperial Rescript on moral rules[ 23 ].

English instruction epoch. Sir Syed started formal instruction, MAO College & A ; Aligarh University.[ 24 ]

Slide Rule. Importance of instruction for all. 1st Kindergarten. Free instruction in U.S.A. Western authoritiess set up formal instruction policies/plans.8

1900

Computers in Universities. . Emphasis on early childhood learning.8

Students protest for democracy. Computers in schools. Foundation of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Emphasis on early childhood learning.8

Computers in Universities. Emphasis on early childhood learning.8

Computers in institutes. Emphasis on early childhood learning8

Electronic math reckoners. Standard Intelligence Test by Alfred Binet. Televisions & A ; Computers in Schools. Emphasis on early childhood acquisition. Study abroad plan of America send pupils to France.8

2000

E-learning Courses, Curriculum Changes. Internet Globalization8

E-learning Courses, Internet globalization8

E-learning Courses, New course of study introduces. Internet globalization8

E-learning Courses. Internet globalization8

E-learning Courses, Stop following standard course of study. Internet globalization.8

1.2 Pakistan:

At the clip of independency Pakistan had 33million population with the literacy 13.2 % along with female literacy rate being merely 8.6 % and there were merely 8,413 primary schools, 2190 in-between schools and 408 high schools, merely three universities, no professional college, 137 seminaries ( madrassas ) and Libraries but the aggregation and edifice of these libraries were in really hapless status.[ 25 ]

Some well-known schools established before the clip of independency were Karachi Grammar School is the oldest school, established in 1847 and had educated many business communities and politicians and some celebrated names are Atta-ur-Rahman, Benazir Bhutto, Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, Hameed Haroon and etc[ 26 ]. The Narayan Jagannath High School 1855 in Karachi was the first authorities school established in Sindh[ 27 ], B. V. S. Parsi High School in 1859[ 28 ], St Patrick ‘s High School in 1861[ 29 ], St Joseph ‘s Convent School in 1870[ 30 ], Aitchison College, Lahore in 1886[ 31 ]and Burn Hall School in Abbottabad was established in1943 later on taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1980s and now known as the Army Burn Hall College.[ 32 ]

Pakistan had three universities at the clip of independency were University of the Punjab established in 1882 in Lahore[ 33 ], University of Agriculture, Faisalabad in 1909[ 34 ], and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore in 1921[ 35 ]. The University of Karachi is Pakistan ‘s largest university and NED University of Engineering and Technology, is the oldest technology institute. Pakistan now has more than 132 universities of which 73 are public universities and 59 are private universities

In 1947, after the independency of Pakistan, Non-Government Organization ( NGOs ) and societal public assistance organisation started working. In 1950s, the NGOs worked for population public assistance prorammes. In 1980s, the NGOs started working in organized mode. The authorities and local givers helped them out in their causes and programmes.[ 36 ]

First instruction conference held in 1947, no educational system or policies were introduced. Subsequently, Urdu was made official linguistic communication and accent was laid on compulsory Islamic instruction, proficient instruction and advanced instruction. Harmonizing to National instruction policy of 1979, Arabic was made compulsory topic in schools. The definition of literacy was first clip defined in the first nose count 1951 and continually alterations till 1998.[ 37 ]

Presently, instruction in Pakistan has multiple board system and divided into five classs. These are:37

Primary ( Grade One to Five )

Middle ( Grade Six to Eight )

Secondary School Certificate ( SSC ) / High ( Grade Ninth and Tenth )

Higher Secondary School Certificate ( HSSC ) / Intermediate ( Grades Eleven and Twelve )

University ( It includes the graduation and advanced grades plans. )

There are alternate instruction system are ;

General Certificate of Education ( GCE )

International General Certificate of Secondary Education ( IGCSE )

Ordinary Level ( O-Level )

Advanced Level ( A-Level )

International Baccalaureate ( IB ) World School

Chapter: 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 EDUCATION POLICIES

2.1.1 Pakistan Education Conference, 1947:

The first instruction policy was held in 1947, the aim of this policy was set up instruction policy harmonizing the message of Quaid-e-Azam ‘s and the commission agreed on free and mandatory primary instruction, gap of pre-primary schools and proviso of proper preparation of instructors.[ 38 ]

2.1.2 Commission on National Education 1959:

The committee was selected by the Government in order to better instruction system and the committee presented the study which was known as “ Shareef Report ” . The recommendations of this study were separation of intermediate categories from the universities to the Boards of Secondary Education, acknowledgment of Higher Education, and increase in the continuance of the class of survey for Bachelor ‘s Degree in Arts and Science from the predominating two to three old ages and constitution of complete agribusiness university in the country.38

The recommendations of that study which were implemented are Muslim surveies were made compulsory for category 1 to 8 and optional in 9 and 10, short term flushing categories were started, Board of Intermediate and Secondary instruction were established intermediate instruction and figure of technology colleges were established in the country.38

2.1.3 The New Education Policy 1970:

The New Education Policy was announced in 1969 and the recommendations of policy were decentalisation of educational establishment, national research family and national chair to be financed by the cardinal authorities and higher wage graduated tables for module members harmonizing to their makings and research output.38

2.1.4 Education Policy 1972:

The recommendations of Education Policy 1972 were similar to the New Education Policy 1970. Its recommendations were specifically to the higher instruction which includes the constitution of new universities at Multan and Sukkur, convert Jamia Islamia Bahawalpur into complete university, raise agribusiness colleges, add under-graduate modules, set up the university grants committee and set up country survey Centres for research in general universities.

The recommendation of that policy which were implemented are the outgo on instruction were raised, nationalisation of in private managed establishments, six new universities were established and registration in universities increased by 56 % .38

2.1.5National Education Policy, 1979:

The aims of National Education Policy 1979 were to better the quality of teacher instruction ; train educational decision makers and supervisors ; and better the scrutiny system and on-the-job preparation would be necessary for technology and agribusiness graduates.38

2.1.6 National Education Policy 1992:

The aims of National Education Policy 1992 were that reformation of the bing instruction system harmonizing to new methods and bring alterations through the instructions of Islam. This policy was prepared for the 10 twelvemonth period but this policy was failed due to political instability.38

2.1.7 National Education Policy 1998-2010:

The aims of National Education Policy 1998 were that to accomplish cosmopolitan primary instruction, achieve instruction criterions harmonizing to international criterions through promotion in instruction, larning and research procedures.

The recommendations of this policy were funding on instruction should be raised, entree to higher instruction should be expand, introduce 3 old ages unmarried man ( awards ) degree, set up foreign linkages, universities to bring forth their ain financess, particular financess for research and scholarships to be increased.38

2.1.8 New Education Policy 2009:

The aim of New Education Policy were that the literacy mark should be 86 % by 2015, GDP on instruction raised to 7 % by 2015, raised registrations in higher instruction, cut down dropout rates and instructors minimal making should be graduation.[ 39 ]

2.2 FIVE Year Plans

2.2.1 First Five Year Plan ( 1955 – 60 ) :

Government of Pakistan introduces the First Five Year Plan in 1956. The aims of this program were that the cosmopolitan free primary instruction, increase registration, betterment in the quality of instruction, preparation of instructors and set up 4000 schools.[ 40 ]

The developmental spending was Rs. 9.3052 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 6.2 % and per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 1.88 % . 38

2.2.2 Second Five Year Plan ( 1960 – 65 ) :

The Second Five Year Plans ‘ aims were to increase the registrations, revision course of study and on-job instructor preparation and imagine set uping 15,200 new primary schools.40

The developmental spending was Rs. 19.0 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 7.5 % and per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 1.0 % . 38

2.2.3 Third Five Year Plan ( 1965 – 70 ) :

The Third Five Year Plans ‘ aims were to set up 42,500 schools in West Pakistan and increase registration in primary schools.40

The developmental spending was Rs. 52.0 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 5.14 % and per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 0.76 % . 38

2.2.4 Fourth Five Year Plan ( 1970 – 75 ) :

The Fourth Five Year Plan was well-innovative program which remains unimplemented due to war with India.40

The developmental spending was Rs. 75.0 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 4.9 % and per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 0.94 % . 38

2.2.5 Fifth Five Year Plan ( 1978 – 83 ) :

The Fifth Five Year Plan ‘s aims were to better the quality of course of study, free text books, extension of on occupation preparation installations and improved instruction system.40

The developmental spending was Rs. 215.0 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 4.8 % per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 0.68 % . 38

2.2.6 Sixth Five Year Plan ( 1983 – 88 ) :

The Sixth Five Year Plan was chiefly focal point on the cosmopolitan primary instruction, addition registrations, launch mass literacy plan and separate miss ‘s schools.40

The developmental spending was Rs. 490.0 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 4.0 % per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 0.70 % . 38

2.2.7 Seventh Five Year Plan ( 1988 – 93 ) :

The Seventh Five Year Plan recommendations were to supply entree to school with in the radius 1.5 kilometer and compulsory primary education.40

The developmental spending was Rs. 642.4 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 3.5 % per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 0.37 % . . 38

2.2.8 Eighth Five Year Plan ( 1993 – 98 ) :

The Eighth Five Year Plan recommended a primary and mosque schools for smaller colonies and raised primary participation.40

The developmental spending was Rs. 1700.5 billion out of which per centum of instruction entire developmental spending was 4.0 % per centum of higher instruction entire development spending was 0.39 % . 38

Fig2.2.1 Five Old ages Plans Developmental Outlay

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Chapter: 3 Analysis

EDUCATIONAL Institution

3.1.1 Primary Schools:

In 1947 Pakistan had 8,413 primary schools which rose to 9,411 with the growing rate of 11.86 % in 1949-50 after that figure of primary schools quickly increased till1999-00 but growing rate somewhat declined merely in 1969-70 and 1999-00later on figure of schools declined to 156,400 from 162,521 in 2009-10 and the mean growing rate of primary schools is 59 % .

Figure: 3.1.1.1 No. of Primary Schools

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Figure: 3.1.1.2 Growth Rate of Primary Schools

3.1.2 In-between Schools:

In 1947 Pakistan had 2,190 in-between schools which reduced to 2,134 with the negative growing rate of 2.56 % in 1949-50and continued cut downing till 1959-60after that it get down increasing invariably and continued increasing boulder clay now but at that place was a immense addition from 1999-00 to 2009-10 with the growing rate of 121.9 % and the mean growing rate of in-between schools is 62 % .

Figure: 3.1.2.1 No. of Middle Schools

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Figure: 3.1.2.2 Growth rate of Middle Schools

High Schools:

In 1947 Pakistan had 454 high schools which increased to 528 with the growing rate of 16.30 % in 1949-50 and continued increasing boulder clay now with the mean growing rate of 80 % .

Figure: 3.1.3.1 No. of High Schools

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Figure: 3.1.3.2 Growth rate of High Schools

Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges ( XI-XII ) :

In 1947 Pakistan had 40 higher secondary/ Inter colleges which increased to 46 with the growing rate of 16.30 % in 1949-50 and invariably increasing boulder clay 1999-00 after that it started increasing quickly till now and entire higher secondary/ Inter colleges were 3,399 in 2009-10 with the growing rate of 282.34 % . The mean growing rate of higher secondary/ Inter colleges is 105 % .

Figure: 3.1.4.1 No. of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

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Figure: 3.1.4.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

Degree Colleges ( XI-XIV ) :

In 1949-50 Pakistan had 19 grade colleges which increased to 40 with the growing rate of 110.53 % in 1959-60 and invariably increased boulder clay 1999-00 after that it start increasing quickly till now and entire grade colleges in 2009-10 were 1,275 with the growing rate of 293.52 % . The mean growing rate of grade colleges is 125 % .

Figure: 3.1.5.1 No. of Degree Colleges

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Figure: 3.1.5.2. Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

Universities:

In 1947 Pakistan had 3 universities which increased to 4 in 1959-60 and started increasing bit by bit till 1999-00 after that universities besides started increasing quickly and entire Numberss of universities in 2009-10 were 132 with growing rate of 407.69 % . The mean growing rate of universities is 99 % .

Figure: 3.1.6.1 No. of Universities

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Figure: 3.1.6.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

Teachers:

3.2.1 Primary School Teachers:

In 1947 Pakistan had 17,800 instructors which increased to 19,900 with the growing rate of 11.80 % in 1949-50 and invariably increasing boulder clay now and entire figure of primary instructors in 2009-10 were 469,200 with the growing rate of 28.06 % . The mean growing rate of primary instructors is 65 %

Figure: 3.2.1.1 No. of Primary School Teachers

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Figure: 3.2.1.2 Growth Rate of Primary School Teachers

Middle School Teachers:

In 1947 Pakistan had 12,000 in-between schools instructors which increased 12,100 with the growing rate of 0.83 % in 1949-50 and bit by bit increasing till 1999-00 than there was a drastic addition in 2009-19 from 91,500 to 323,800 with the growing rate of 253.88 % . The mean growing rate of in-between school instructors is 76.62 % .

Figure: 3.2.2.1 No. of Middle School Teachers

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Figure: 3.2.2.2 Growth Rate of Middle School Teachers

3.2.3 High School Teachers:

In 1947 Pakistan had 6,800 high school instructors which increased to 8,000 with the growing rate of 17.65 % in 1949-50 and bit by bit increasing boulder clay 1979-80 after that it start increasing quickly till now and entire Numberss of instructors in 2009-10 were 447,100 with the growing rate of 142.59 % . The mean growing rate of high school instructors is 88.4 % .

Figure: 3.2.3.1 No. of High School Teachers

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Figure: 3.2.3.2 Growth Rate of High School Teachers

Higher Secondary/ Inter College Teachers:

In 1969-70 Pakistan had 7,950 higher secondary/ Inter college instructors which increased to 12,077 with the growing rate of 51.91 % later it bit by bit increases till 1999-00after that there was a immense addition from 27,662 to 78,685 with the growing rate of 184.35 % in 2009-10. The mean growing rate of higher secondary/ Inter college instructors is 88.84 % .

Figure: 3.2.4.1 No. of Higher Secondary/ Inter College Teachers

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Figure: 3.2.4.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter College Teachers

Degree Colleges Teachers:

In 1969-70 Pakistan had 1,737 degree college instructors which increased to 3,563 with the growing rate of 105.12 % in 1979-80 after that it increased bit by bit till 1999-00 and subsequently on there was a drastic addition in 2009-10 and entire figure of degree college instructors in 2009-10 were 21,385 with the growing rate of 136.48 % .

Figure: 3.2.5.1 No. of Degree College Teachers

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Figure: 3.2.5.2 Growth Rate of Degree Colleges Teachers

University Teachers:

In 1959-60 Pakistan had 382 instructors in universities which increased to 1373 with the growing rate of 105.12 % after that it bit by bit increased till 1999-00 but there was rapid addition in 2009-10 from 5914 to 56,839 with the growing rate of 861.09 % .

Figure: 3.2.6.1 No. of University Teachers

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Figure: 3.2.6.2 Growth Rate of University Teachers

3.3 Registrations

3.3.1 Registrations at Schools and Colleges Level:

3.3.1.1 Primary School Registrations:

Figure shows that registration increased invariably from 2000-01 to 2004-05 and reduced in 2005-06 after that enrollments once more started increasing but with the slow growing rate.

Figure: 3.3.1.1.1 No. of Primary School Registrations

Beginning: Economic Survey 2009-10

Figure: 3.3.1.1.2 Growth Rate of Primary School Registrations

3.3.1.2 In-between School Registrations:

Figure shows that figure of in-between school registrations invariably from 2000-01 to 2006-07 after that registration started cut downing.

Figure: 3.3.1.2.1 No. of Middle School Registrations

Beginning: Economic Survey 2009-10

Figure: 3.3.1.2.2 Growth Rate of Middle School Registrations

3.3.1.3 High School Registrations:

Figure shows that high school registrations were increasing invariably from 2000-01 and continued boulder clay now.

Figure: 3.3.1.3.1 No. of High School Registrations

Beginning: Economic Survey 2009-10

Figure: 3.3.1.3.2 Growth Rate of High School Registrations

3.3.1.4 Higher Secondary/ Inter College Registrations:

Figure shows that Numberss of registrations were equal in 2000-01 and 2001-02 later registrations started increasing and declined in 2004-05 after that registrations increased quickly in the following twelvemonth and continued increasing with gradual growing rate.

Figure: 3.3.1.4.1 No. of Higher Secondary/ Inter College Registrations

Beginning: Economic Survey 2009-10

Figure: 3.3.1.4.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter College Registrations

3.3.1.5 Degree College Registrations:

Figure shows that figure of degree college registrations reduced in 2001-02 later on registrations started increasing and once more declined in 2005-06 with the negative growing rate 21.5 % after that registrations started increasing once more.

Figure: 3.3.1.5.1 No. of Degree College Registrations

Beginning: Economic Survey 2009-10

Figure: 3.3.1.5.2 Growth Rate of Degree College Registrations

3.3.2 Registrations at Degree Level:

3.3.2.1 Bachelors Registrations:

Figure shows that the figure of registrations invariably increased from the twelvemonth 2001-02 to 2008-09.

Figure: 3.3.2.1.1 No. of Bachelors Registrations

Beginning: HEC

Figure: 3.3.2.1.2 Growth Rate of Bachelors Registrations

3.3.2.2 Masters Registrations

Figure shows that the figure of Masterss registrations besides invariably increased from 2001-02 to 2008-09.if we compare the registration of Masterss to unmarried mans it shows that figure of Masterss registrations were fewer than unmarried mans registrations.

Figure: 3.3.2.2.1 No. of Masters Registrations

Beginning: HEC

Figure: 3.3.2.2.2 Growth Rate of Masters Registrations

3.3.2.3 M.Phil. Registrations:

Figure places that the figure of registrations increased bit by bit and M.Phil registrations were a batch fewer than Masterss and unmarried mans registrations

Figure: 3.3.2.3.1 No. of M.Phill. Registrations

Beginning: HEC

Figure: 3.3.2.3.2 Growth Rate of M.Phill. Registrations

3.3.2.4 Ph.D. Registrations:

Figure shows that the PhD registrations besides increased bit by bit from twelvemonth 2001-02 to 2008-09 and besides figure of registrations reduced in PhD as comparison to M.Phil. If we compare the registrations in all four grade degree the Numberss of registrations were reduced as they preceded the following degree of grade.

Figure: 3.3.2.4.1 No. PhD. of Registrations

Beginning: HEC

Figure: 3.3.2.4.2 Growth Rate of PhD Registrations

the figure of PhD produced besides increased in twelvemonth from 2000 to 2009.

Figure: 3.3.2.4.3 No. of PhD Produced

Beginning: HEC

3.3.3 Registrations at Universities / DAI + Constituent Colleges by Sector:

There was gradual addition in registrations at universities/ DAI +constituent colleges by sector of distance acquisition, public and private from 2001-02 to 2008-09 and there was merely lessening in public registrations in 2005-06. The norm of distance acquisition is 21.7 % , public is 144.8 % and private is 15.0 % .

Figure: 3.4.1 Registrations at Universities / DAI + Constituent Colleges by Sector

Beginning: HEC

3.4 Comparison Provisional/Region Wise 2006-07 to 2008-09:

3.4.1 Schools:

Comparison of school provisional/region wise Punjab has the bulk schools than any other state which somewhat decreased in 2008-09 and Sindh is on 2nd figure. The figure of schools in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, Balochistan AJK, Gilgit-Baltistan and FATA were at steady

Figure: 3.4.1 Schools Comparison Provisional/Region Wise

Beginning: Pakistan Education Statistics 2008 – 09

3.4.2 Teachers:

Comparison of instructors ‘ provisional/region wise as the Punjab has the most schools, it besides has most figure of instructors than any other state and Sindh is on 2nd figure. Number of teacher somewhat increases in 2008-09 in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, Balochistan AJK, Gilgit-Baltistan and FATA and Gilgit-Baltistan has the lowest figure of instructors.

Figure: 3.4.2 Teachers Comparison Provisional/Region Wise

Beginning: Pakistan Education Statistics 2008 – 09

Registrations:

Comparison of registrations provisional/region wise as the Punjab has the most schools ; it besides has most figure of registrations than any other state which decreases in 2008-09. The registrations in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, Balochistan AJK, Gilgit-Baltistan, FATA is at steady degree.

Figure: 3.4.3 Registrations Comparison Provisional/Region Wise

Beginning: Pakistan Education Statistics 2008 – 09

Indexs

3.5.1 GDP:

The outgo on instruction as per centum of GDP tendency from 2000-01 to 2008-09 shows that the GDP on instruction somewhat increase and diminish twelvemonth by twelvemonth boulder clay 2004-05 and get down increasing from 2005-06 to 2.21 % till 2007-08 to 2.5 % but so once more lessening to 2.10 % in 2008-09.

Figure: 3.5.1.1Expenditure on instruction & A ; GDP

Beginning: Ministry of Education & A ; Handbook of Statistics on Pakistan Economy

But the tendency of public disbursement on instruction as the per centum of entire GDP shows that the public disbursement on instruction bit by bit increasing from 1971 to 1995 than lessening to 1.82 % in 2000 and go on addition and lessening after that.

Figure: 3.5.1.2Expenditure on instruction 1971 – 2008

Beginning: Handbook of Statisticss on Pakistan Economy & A ; www.tradingeconomics.com

Comparison with Neighboring States:

Pakistan comparing with adjacent states in per centum of GDP and literacy rate, harmonizing to UNESCO ‘s Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009 Malaysia has the highest literacy rate with 91.90 % and Bangladesh has the lowest literacy rate with 53.50 % . And Iran has the highest per centum of GDP on instruction with 5.20 % while Pakistan has the lowest per centum of GDP on instruction with 2.10 % . Harmonizing to this Pakistan has the lowest Gross domestic product on instruction with an mean literacy rate.

Figure: 3.5.1.3Comparison with adjacent states

Beginning: Economic Survey 2009-10 & A ; UNESCO

Gross national product:

The per centum of GNP, entire outgo on instruction sector was 1.5 % in 1981-82 and increased to 2.2 % in 1991-92, which remains same for the following two old ages and get down increasing somewhat by 2.7 % in 1996-97. In 1999 – 2000 GNP on instruction was 2.1 % which was a immense lessening and in 2008 harmonizing to World Bank Pakistan spends less than 2 % of its GNP on instruction.

Budget:

The outgo on instruction as per centum entire Government budget shows that the Government were passing more on instruction in 2006-07 with 1.53 % and after that it get down diminishing and once more it raise to 1.25 % in 2009-10 but so once more there is a immense lessening in instruction budget in 2010-11 with 0.64 % . Show that the Government is passing less on instruction.

Figure: 3.5.3Government disbursement on instruction

Beginning:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.friendsmania.net/forum/ma-economics-notes-assinments/58209.html

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pakistantimes.net/pt/detail.php? newsid=1520

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.geo.tv/important.events/2010/budet2010/paes/points_eng.asp

Inferences:

3.6.1 During 50 ‘s:

In 1951 Ghulam Mohammad was the 3rd Governor General of Pakistan and so Iskandar Mirza was the 4th Governor General and so became the first President of Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated and Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin became the 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan and six Prime Ministers were changed with the term of office of two old ages from 1951 to1958.[ 41 ]

The first nose count was held in 1951 and the entire population was 34 million.[ 42 ]The definition of literacy was “ One who can read a clear print in any linguistic communication ” and for All Age Groups. The literacy rate was 16.4 % which increases from 13.2 % in 1947.[ 43 ]

The impact on instruction during this clip was that primary instruction becomes mandatory and secondary schools were increased and there was besides a rapid addition in figure of colleges and universities like Peshawar University was established in North West Frontier Province and Karachi University started working in Federal Capital. The bing universities expand by adding new sections. Teaching methods were besides modified by the usage of audio/visual assistance as the instruction methodological analysis. At that clip scientific discipline and engineering promotion and constitution of young person inns was started.

The job in this epoch is that while with the enlargement, the demand is non met consequently. It means that Teaching Personnel should be train in order to run into the instruction demand. Lack of technological equipment was present in this peculiar epoch.

During 60 ‘s:

In 1958 Ayub Khan imposed foremost Soldierly Law in the state and became the president. It was the military regulation so there was no Prime Minister of Pakistan.41

The 2nd nose count was held in 1961 and the entire population was 43 million42. The definition of literacy was “ One who is able to read with understanding a simple missive in any linguistic communication ” and for Age 5 and supra. The literacy rate was 16.3 % which lessening from 16.4 % in 1951. It ‘s because of the alteration of definition and the age group43.

The impact on instruction during this clip that intermediate instruction was separated from universities, the publicity of research patterns in agribusiness sector and short term flushing categories were started.[ 44 ]

During 70 ‘s:

In 1971, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto becomes the President of Pakistan so Prime Minister in 1973 and Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry becomes the President.41

The 3rd nose count was held in 1972 and the entire population was over 63 million42. The definition of literacy was “ One who is able to read and compose in some linguistic communication with understanding ” and for Age 10 and supra. The literacy rate was 21.7 % which addition due to alter in the definition of literacy and age group because the per centum of literacy was applied on the population of age 10 and above43.

The impact on instruction during this clip was that the universalization of primary instruction for male childs and misss. Six new universities were established, entire authorities outgo on instruction was raised to 4.93 % and the 4th five twelvemonth program remain unimplemented due to war with India.[ 45 ]

During 80 ‘s:

In 1978, General Zia-ul-Haq declared Martial Law in the state and becomes the 6th President of Pakistan. It was the military regulation hence was no Prime Minister present.41

The 3rd nose count was held in 1981 and the entire population was over 84 million42. The definition of literacy was “ One who can read newspaper and compose a simple missive ” and for Age 10 and above43. The literacy rate was 26.2 % which shows the gradual addition in the literacy rate.

The impact on instruction during this clip was that primary school dropout rates remained consistent, in-between school dropout rates were raised, increase in figure of proficient institutes in the state and outgo on instruction was raised to 7.4 % in 1985.[ 46 ]

During 90 ‘s:

In 1990, Ghulam Ishaq Khan was the president and Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was replaced by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi and Nawaz Shairf becomes the Prime Minister. But Prime Minister continues changed with the period of two old ages and was managed by the caretaker.41

In 1998, the entire population was over 132 million42. The definition of literacy was “ One who can read newspaper and compose a simple missive, in any linguistic communication ” and for Age 10 and supra. The literacy rate was 43.9 % which shows that the literacy rate was bit by bit increases from 1972.43

The impact on instruction during this clip was that primary engagement was raised, instruction policy were failed to implement and there was no addition in Government outgo on instruction.[ 47 ]

During 2000 ‘s:

In 1998 Nawaz Sharif Government was replaced by Chief of Army Staff Pervez Musharraf and so becomes President and Zafarullah Khan Jamali was the Prime Minister. In 2009, Asif Ali Zardari becomes the President of Pakistan and Mr. Syed Yousuf Raza Gillani becomes the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Both of them belong to Pakistan People ‘s Party.41

The entire population in 2009 was 175 million42. The definition of literacy was “ One who can read newspaper and compose a simple missive, in any linguistic communication ” and for Age 10 and above remains same from 1998 boulder clay now. The literacy rate was increased by 57 % .43

The impact on instruction during this clip was that seminaries systems were changed and syllabus and course of study approved by the federal board of instruction and the subject of Jihad has been eliminated. In English linguistic communication talking Pakistan came at 9th figure and 3rd in Asia.[ 48 ]

In twelvemonth 2009 Punjab Government launched the undertaking of Danish Schools for hapless people and besides provided them books nutrient and abode to the kids ‘s of free of cost.[ 49 ]

Year 2009 becomes hard twelvemonth for the instruction sector in Pakistan. There become hard for the citizens to last in the state due to jurisprudence and order state of affairs. There was duplicate suicide onslaught in International Islamic University Islamabad. A figure of schools in the state were made to shut specially misss ‘ schools. And besides other schools were closed due to suicide bombardments.[ 50 ]

There is major development in relation to professional makings like MBA, ACCA or similar in this twelvemonth of clip. People become more and more cognizant of these grades and besides go accepted its importance in the corporate world.47

Table 3.6.1 Definitions of “ LITERATE ”

Year of Census

Literacy Rate

Definition of being “ literate ”

Age Group

1951

16.40 %

One who can read a clear print in any linguistic communication

All Ages

1961

16.30 %

One who is able to read with understanding a simple missive in any linguistic communication

Age 5 and above

1972

21.70 %

One who is able to read and compose in some linguistic communication with understanding

Age 10 and Above

1981

26.20 %

One who can read newspaper and compose a simple missive

1998

43.9 %

One who can read a newspaper and compose a simple missive, in any linguistic communication

2004

54 %

2009

57 %

Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.notesmela.com/pakistan-education/

Table 3.6.2 Population from 1947-2009

Year

Population

1947

33,000,000

1951

33,740,167

1961

42,880,378

1972

65,309,340

1981

84,253,644

1998

132,352,279

2009

174,579,000

Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.census.gov.pk/ProvinceRegion.htm

Figure: 3.6.1 Population Growth Rate

Figure: 3.6.2 Literacy Growth Rate

Chapter: 4CURRENT EDUCATION ISSUE

4.1 Degeneration of Higher Education Commission ( HEC )

The Higher Education Commission ( HEC ) was formed in 2002 during President Pervez Musharraf ‘s disposal under the Higher Education Commission Ordinance 2002 and its first and former president was Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman and now besides a PhD. Javaid Leghari.[ 51 ]The Higher Education Commission ( HEC ) is widely recognized internationally as extremely successful establishment that has able to convey radical alterations to higher instruction of Pakistan. The establishment reforms the educational criterions at public and private universities throughout all over the state with better schemes. The institute provides extra financess for universities and scholarships for local and foreign university pupils. Approximately, 5,000 Pakistani pupils are analyzing in foreign universities on HEC scholarships. HEC besides finances research plans in universities. The recognition of HEC by the 133 universities can be seen in this declaration: “ Our universities are the prime research establishments in Pakistan, and with the support of the HEC through assorted plans such as the research grant plan, conference support, digital library plan, autochthonal PhD scholarships, travel grants etc. , have been able to put Pakistan steadfastly on the research and invention map of the universe. ”[ 52 ]

The HEC ‘s function, as defined by the regulation mandating its creative activity, is the “ rating, betterment and publicity of higher instruction, research and development. ”[ 53 ]

On March ‘ 2011 the federal authorities announced the degeneration of HEC to provincial degree, and ceased as federal establishment harmonizing to the 18thamendment to fundamental law. It has been considered present authorities as singular add-on of instruction establishment in provincial authoritiess. Formation of action commission by the frailty Chancellor of the Exchequers of public universities in Headquarters of HEC, Islamabad, which is headed by Imtiaz Gillani, the president of University of Engineering and Technology ( UET )

The universities, all pupil and overseas attached institutes of Pakistan are non hold on the degeneration of HEC as it will be a great error in the instruction history of the state. Students and institutes are protesting against the affair sing the HEC degeneration. The instance of degeneration has been challenged in the Islamabad High Court ( IHC ) under 18th amendment of Constitution. No strong points represented during the hearing on which the measure of degeneration has been taken. Furthermore, if the authorities resists its determination of degeneration so the HEC will dispute this in Supreme Court. Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman the former president of HEC quoted ; “ The degeneration of HEC is a Monumental Catastrophe ” . 50

Implementation Commission ‘s Chairman, Mian Raza Rabbani, could non convert the media, pupils and other parties on the issue of degeneration of HEC on provincial degree. He could non give the strong statements against the newsmans ‘ inquiries. Assorted statements have been recorded of different place parties on the issue of degeneration until now, no alterations has been made in HEC powers. Everything remains same as before in HEC maps[ 54 ]

Chapter: 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Decision:

From the clip of independency quality of instruction, literacy rate, virtue degree has been improved now but still it needs betterments as comparison developed states. As we are developing state we are bettering through conveying alterations in instruction sector by equipment, workshops, seminars, internship. Environment of the state should be secured terrorist act and electricity power failure activities.

Pictography was used in the beginning and its usage in the advanced epoch has become more utile e.g. pictographic symbols in computing machine, Mobiles, traffic signals and for deaf and dense people to exemplify them hard words things which they do n’t understand easy.

Although we are confronting many hurdlings in instruction sector but we are still seeking our best to accomplish the marks.

5.2 Recommendations:

Literacy rate mark in instruction policy should be considered 90 % to 100 % . So we can accomplish highest per centum of the literacy rate.

Education policies should be emphasized on the general population of the state to the literacy rate.

Education policies should be changed every twelvemonth, as for the progress surveies in other states are doing them successful by experimenting and presenting engineerings.

The educational policies should include the co-curricular activities compulsory for every pupils to heighten their other capablenesss.

The instruction policies should be implemented and followed purely on national degree.

There should be one educational system in the state.

Education establishment should besides increase as population additions.

Expense for new establishments and new advanced equipment for experimentation and surveies should be considered compulsory by the authorities in every twelvemonth ‘s budget

Number of seats in establishments should besides be increased.

Bribery, cheating, bogus grades should be stopped.

Primary instruction should be free of cost.

Higher Education should be available in every portion of the state.