Is Learning A Science Education Essay

Throughout this essay I will analyze and discourse some of the theories for the development of childrens larning. Perkins 2009 says that Neuroscientists are at strivings to remind us that we are merely at the beginning of understanding what happens with the encephalon. He considers that the most successful and assignable professional accomplishments of a instructor may more “ closely resemble an art than a scientific discipline, ” ( Perkins 2009, quoted in Barnes, 2011, p.112 ) . I believe this relates strongly to the inquiry ‘Is larning a Science? ‘ and I will discourse my position towards this statement while look intoing two theoretical accounts of larning. The theoretical accounts of larning I have chosen are Brain Based acquisition and Montessori.

Brain Based acquisition is a theory that is focused around the construction and map of the encephalon at different phases of its development. This manner of suggested larning incorporates many different constructs including: job based acquisition ; practical simulations ; and multiple intelligences associating to Gardner. When a kid takes portion in encephalon based larning it is suggested that it ‘re-wires ‘ tracts and helps the kid to utilize the encephalon at its full potency. When associating this with the course of study and instruction, “ Teachers must plunge scholars in complex, synergistic experiences that are both rich and existent. One first-class illustration is plunging pupils in a foreign civilization to learn them a 2nd linguistic communication. Educators must take advantage of the encephalon ‘s ability to parallel procedure, ” ( Caine and Caine, 1995, p.113 ) .

Brain Gym was devised and developed in acknowledgment of this importance of exciting the encephalon and leting kids to use it to the maximal potency for larning. It was developed by Dennison and his married woman and is designed as an active acquisition scheme which builds a greater capacity for memory. It involves short active exercisings which are designed to excite the encephalon so that it is more ready to larn and be receptive to a assortment of information. This in bend makes it more likely that the encephalon can retain and remember the erudite information when needed. Advocates of Brain Gym would reason that regular pattern of this scheme enables kids to go better, more receptive scholars, Bassett ( 2011 ) believes that “ all motions are easy adaptable for athleticss, music, play, and humanistic disciplines. By utilizing the Brain Gym motions on a regular basis, pupils will be: more settled, more receptive, more antiphonal and ready to listen and larn in a relaxed ‘whole-brain ‘ manner. ”

These specific set of motions involved in Brain Gym can besides assist to organize the eyes, custodies and whole organic structure ; Dennison ( 2011 ) claims that “ the mutuality of motion, knowledge and applied acquisition is the footing of their work. ” This technique has been widely used in many schools to originate acquisition and maintain kids on undertaking and receptive to acquisition by exciting both sides of the encephalon. In add-on, some schools have reported dramatic betterments in memory, concentration, relationships, self- duty and faculty members, but whether this is due strictly to the fact that kids react positively to an active acquisition attack and a interruption in the usual acquisition form is non clear as it has no scientific footing and Dennison is non medically qualified and hence unable to do medically sound judgements on encephalon map. Nevertheless the fact that schools report positively on the impact of Brain Gym is in itself a good thing for the development of kids ‘s acquisition because it shows an bettering tendency and a positive attack to the thought of active acquisition to excite the encephalon.

Active acquisition is something that the theoretician Maria Montessori has advocated for many old ages as an alternate manner of developing larning for kids and this has become known as the ‘Montessori ‘ attack to larning. The theory behind this attack explores the positions and thoughts around drama and how a kid initiates their ain acquisition and can tackle their ability to larn through the usage of experience and senses, partially associating to Piaget ‘s theory that besides focuses on the kid being an ‘active scholar ‘ . Montessori believed that if an environment should be designed to run into every kid ‘s demands so an grownup should take a back measure when it comes to larning. Pound ( 2006, p.30 ) states “ Montessori wrote that ‘the kid can merely be free when the grownup becomes an acute perceiver. Any action of the grownup that is non a response to the kids ‘s observed behavior limits the kid ‘s freedom. ” There are many schools around the universe that participate in this attack to larning. The Guardian ( 2006, ) suggests that “ schooling that focuses on personal development instead than exams green goodss more mature, originative and socially expert kids ” . I feel that this is a really valid point as logically it is hard to state how kids are executing better when they have the emphasis of trials and deadlines. There is besides grounds that provinces:

“ Montessori kids are ranked above norm on such standards as turning working in on clip, listening attentively, inquiring provocative inquiries and accommodating to new state of affairss. ” ( North American Montessori Teachers ‘ Associations, 2011 )

It could be argued that this shows that with the advanced accomplishments that Montessori kids may possess they may be considered for better occupation chances in their future life. A well-known research survey was done in 2006 where parents won topographic points through a lottery system to direct their kid to a Montessori school in America. Throughout their instruction the kids were tested for mental public presentation, academic abilities and societal and behaviour accomplishments. The reasoning grounds was that “ Scientists believed that Montessori instruction Fosters societal and academic accomplishments that are equal or superior to those fostered by a pool of other types of schools. ” ( Guardian, 2006 )

Even today in mainstream pre-schools and primary schools Montessori acquisition is sometimes threaded through the EYFS course of study, with an accent on how we can observe kids ‘s larning at their ain gait and value accomplishments and subjects non merely composing, reading and mathematics. This is linked with the manner that many Foundation Stage classrooms construction and arrange activities for kids to take part in through their pick and independency ( Child Initiated Learning ) . Lillard ( 2005, p.22 ) believes that “ small input of the Montessori attack in Mainstream schools would do all the difference, such as larning to compose before they can read and practising clasp for a pencil through the usage of raising wooden cylinders. ”

Despite this the grounds for Montessori acquisition is limited as it is chiefly based around Montessori ‘s ain observations and thoughts and there has merely been one chief research survey done in 2006 ; which could propose that the attack may be subjective and non needfully valid particularly as the sampling was limited compared to how many kids realistically go through this manner of instruction. Harmonizing to K12 faculty members ( 2012 ) “ Some parents believe the Montessori environment leaves the kids excessively free while others see the Montessori method as smothering to creativeness. Some see Montessori schools as elitist homework schools for kindergartners while others question Montessori learning precedences. ” Throughout my research of Montessori I have discovered two chief theoreticians that critique this manner of acquisition, Dewey and Kilpatrick. They believed that “ Montessori was excessively restrictive, and did n’t adequately stress societal interaction and development, ” ( K12 Academics, 2012 ) . Dewey contradicts Montessori as his theory is that a society shapes a kid and the changeless experience and instruction will steer a kid through their development.

On the other manus Kilpatrick “ criticized her narratives and theories for taking excessively narrow of a position of the map of the school. He criticized Montessori for non cognizing the philosophy of formal subject, even though she was practising it. The stuffs were criticized for being excessively restrictive, suppressing the instructor. ” ( Critiques of Montessori theory of development, 2012 ) It would look that although her theories are seen by some as missing some way and subject, practicians have found some of the schemes and thoughts utile and effectual to utilize in non-Montessori schools but by using their ain construction for subject and functionality. This would look to back up Perkins position stated in my gap paragraph that learning is more of an art than a scientific discipline because instructors are really expert at making schemes out of a combination of techniques so that they can construct the indispensable blocks for kids to larn creatively and expeditiously.

In decision, I believe that kids are alone persons with alone properties, endowments and features. My stance is that everyone learns in their ain manner, at their ain gait and with their ain technique and possibly it could be argued that acquisition is a combination of scientific discipline and art. Theorists and neuroscientists over many old ages have been analyzing how we learn and have ne’er come up with a unequivocal reply. I think this is because as worlds, we are all so diverse. I believe that larning is non strictly a scientific discipline but more of a combination of many experiences that aid kids ‘s acquisition in and outside the schoolroom. It is up to us as instructors to guarantee that these experiences are as rich and every bit critical as possible.


Bassett, D. ( 2011 ) . Brain Gym. [ Online ] Available: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 2nd January 2013 ] .

Caine, R.and Caine, G. ( 1995 ) Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. Wheaton: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Reviews of Montessori ‘s Theory of Development. ( 2012 ) . Reviews of Montessori ‘s Theory of Development. [ Online ] Available: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 11th November 2012 ] .

K12 Academics. ( 2012 ) . Criticisms of Montessori. [ Online ] Available: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 10th November 2012 ] .

Lillard, A ( 2005 ) Maria montesorri: The Science behind the Genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press Ltd

Masalinks ( 2008 ) News Night Brain Gym portion 1 and 2. [ Online picture ] , 22nd April 2008. Available from: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // v=YjRhYP5faTU & gt ; [ Accessed 5th November 2012 ] .

North American Montessori Teachers ‘ Association. ( 2011 ) . Are Montessori kids successful in ulterior life? . [ Online ] Available: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed 11th November 2012. ]

Perkins. ( 2009 ) Quoted in: Barnes, J. ( 2011 ) Cross Curricular Learning 3-14. London: Sage Publications Ltd

Pound, L. ( 2006 ) How Children learn: From Montessori to Vygotsky. London: Practical Pre-schools Books

Pritchard, A ( 2009 ) . Wayss of Learning- larning theories and manners in the schoolroom. Oxon: Routledge.

Rockett, M and Percival, S ( 2002 ) . Thinking for Learning. Stafford: Network Educational Press Ltd.

The Guardian. ( 2006 ) . Research shows benefits of Montessori instruction. [ Online ] Available: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ; [ Accessed: 10th November 2012. ]

Critical Reading Frame

Author/s, ( family name and initial ( s ) : Pound. L

Date of publication: 2006

Title of article/book: How kids learn

Topographic point of publication: London

Name of publishing house: Practical Pre-School books

How I will Harvard Reference this rubric in a Reference list: Pound. L ( 2006 ) How kids learn, London, Practical Pre-School books.

How I will Harvard Reference this text in the organic structure of my work: Pound ( 2006, plus page figure if I make a direct quotation mark )

General Synopsis of Article/Chapter:

This book summarises many different theoreticians by giving single inside informations about the theoreticians themselves and the theory that they promote and work towards.

The article within the book that I have chosen to analyze and utilize in greater item amounts up Vygotsky ‘s life, composing, theory and his influence on educational development. It includes mentions to identify day of the months and information about where to happen out more.

Subheadings make the article clear and easy to read and interrupt down the information into subdivisions. I decided to concentrate on Lev Vygotsky as this is what interested me the most.

Main Arguments/Points:

Vygotsky was home tutored for many old ages until he was enrolled into grammar school and He studied medical specialty at university from the 1913 to 1917 but switched to jurisprudence during his first term.

Before sing hapless wellness when he was 23, he became involved in kids ‘s instruction focussing on kids with disablements. After this he became a research worker and did many experimental surveies in educational psychological science.

Vygotsky emphasises the critical function that linguistic communication plays in the development of abstract idea. He places great emphasis on the importance of the labelling procedure in the preparation of constructs.

“ Experience of speaking with grownups about familiar mundane experiences as important, non merely for constructing up cognition of linguistic communication but besides for an consciousness of peculiar ways of thought and construing their ain experiences, ” ( Pound, 2006, p.40 ) . This is in some resistance with Piaget ‘s position that relevant linguistic communication follows the development of a construct.

“ Children do non merely respond to the words that are used but interpret the context, facial look, and organic structure linguistic communication to understand significance, ” ( Pound, 2006, p.40 ) .

The ‘Zone of Proximal Development ‘ describes the spread between what a kid can make entirely and what they can make with aid of person else more skilled or experient. However, “ Piaget believed that acquisition was dependent on the kid ‘s preparedness to larn, ” ( Pound, 2006, p.40 ) .

During his research he objected to mensurate kids ‘s abilities through intelligence trials ( for illustration the 11+ now a yearss ) believing that what could be observed about how the kid went about a undertaking could uncover every bit much as the mark of any trial.

“ Vygotsky believes that societal and cognitive development works together. While Piaget believed that cognition come from personal experience, Vygotsky emphasises the importance of households, communities and other kids, ” ( Pound, 2006, p.40 ) .

Play and imaginativeness are of import to larning and development.

Vygotsky ‘s theory supports the apprenticeship attack. This is a popular theory where the scholar learns from person more experient or competent. This has evolved into the equal taging attack and apprenticeship position of acquisition and things such as reading at place etc.

“ It could be argued that there is non adequate accents on the kids ‘s function in their ain development, ” ( Pound, 2006, p.41 ) .

Pound describes Vygotsky ‘s theory in item by sketching positive and negative features I feel these have influenced many people in instruction.

Critical Reading Frame

Author/s, ( family name and initial ( s ) : Barnes, J.

Date of publication: 2011

Title of article/book: Cross -Curricular Learning 3-14

Topographic point of publication: London

Name of publishing house: Sage Publishers Ltd

How I will Harvard Reference this rubric in a Reference list: Barnes, J. ( 2011 ) Cross-Curricular Learning 3-14. London: Sage Publishers Ltd

How I will Harvard Reference this text in the organic structure of my work: Barnes ( 2011, plus page figure if I make a direct quotation mark )

General Synopsis of Article/Chapter:

The subdivision on ‘What does Neuroscience state us about Cross-Curricular Learning? ‘ within the chapter it focuses on neuroscientists view on acquisition and the thought procedure. It outlines thoughts why different emotions affects the encephalon and the theories that are related with this manner of thought.

Main Arguments/Points:

New improved engineering is assisting to go more confident in detecting ways in which they think and learn

“ Teachers tend to keep to an ‘experiential ‘ truth based on qualitative reading of their mundane experience in the schoolroom, ” ( Barnes, J. , 2011, p.111 )

“ Neuroscientists are at strivings to remind us that we are merely at the beginning of understanding what happens in the encephalon and how it relates to action in the universe. ” ( Barnes, J. , 2011, p.112 ) .

Neuroscientists believe that the complexness of our encephalons and ability to larn has made the success of the human race.

“ Neuroscience offers independent documentation of what instructors already ‘know ‘ about emotional and centripetal battle in acquisition, ” ( Barnes, J. , 2011, p.112 )

Teachers should cognize something about the encephalon and how it works

Thinking is non a simple procedure

“ The thought elements of the brain- facets of memory, planning, monitoring, acquisition, linguistic communication, feelings, emotions, spiritualty and self-consciousness itself- we call our head, ” ( Barnes, J. , 2011, p.114 ) .

It is believed that exerting or merely utilizing the connexions in the encephalon aid to go on the procedure of acquisition.

Each encephalon is wired up otherwise doing us alone hence assisting towards the nexus that we all learn otherwise

“ Neuroscience might motivate instructors to see their usage of the: multi-sensory, personal security, emotionally important, intellectually disputing, ” ( Barnes, J. , 2011, p.117 ) .

Children while at school should research all the senses, be physical and societal, and be to the full cognizant of emotions and their impact.

While the encephalon is maturating and turning at its fastest, kids are under so much emphasis through tests etc that they enter a ne’er stoping rhythm of demoralising and destructing some cells.

Critically discuss the extent to which you agree with the indexs within standard 7 in footings of effectual schoolroom direction.

Behaviour direction is a focal point for instructors on pull offing the behavior of the students in their schoolroom so that the environment can be contributing to larning and all students can entree undertakings in an appropriate and effectual manner that moves their learning forward.

There can issues to postulate with runing from low-level break to extreme aggressive behavior, rebelliousness and intimidation. Teachers are progressively happening it necessary to use a assortment of tactics and schemes in order to keep an effectual acquisition environment. To enable them to make this Pritchard ( 2009, p.81 ) feels that “ by taking an unfastened and sensitive attack, and by happening out every bit much as possible about the single kids, goes some manner towards relieving some of the troubles – cognizing the kid lies at the bosom of effectual support. ”

Bearing this in head, I believe that this criterion is a critical portion of instructor preparation in order to do it clear that instructors are accountable for enabling their students to larn in an effectual mode. For this to go on instructors need to cognize how to pull off and keep pupil behavior in a manner that does non smother creativeness or infringe on basic human rights and this can frequently be solved by “ merely cognizing why a kid behaves otherwise from other childrenaˆ¦ helps you to find the best scheme for covering with the kid ‘s troubles, ” ( Jacques and Hyland, 2003, p.117 ) . This is critical because in order to learn efficaciously instructors have to understand and work with a broad diverseness of demands, outlooks and civilizations. However, understanding how they behave is an issue that has been busying psychologists for many old ages and presuming that instructors gain a full apprehension of the behavior of each kid in a category is unrealistic. However cognizing how to seek advice and support from within and outside the school system is indispensable for any instructor when faced with a kid they struggle to pull off. By utilizing support, instructors can larn with the kid to pull off their behavior in an appropriate and productive manner that builds common regard taking to effectual acquisition.

I consider that this is non ever easy due to the utmost demands placed upon instructors today ; parents and society outlook for student behavior has dramatically changed over the old ages and instructors are now holding to trust to a great extent on people accomplishments and philosophical schemes and techniques in order to merely acquire kids through the schoolroom door and interested in larning: This strongly links to Vygotsky ‘s theory of the zone of proximal development, “ the breadth of the zone is determined by how fast or how much the kid is able to larn from and with the instructor, ” ( Alexander, 2010, p.97 ) . I feel that without people accomplishments and a assortment of techniques, to convey the kids into the schoolroom and promote them to come on in instruction instructors will fight to derive regard and interact efficaciously with kids.

In this regard the linguistic communication of the criterion is precise in that it indicates that the most indispensable facet of behaviour direction is to put a good illustration of behavior yourself as the instructor. Research done by Morris and Morgan in 1999 looked into the effects that instructors have on kids ‘s acquisition and behavior, “ the kids in the survey made it clear that they behaved otherwise for different instructors and that some instructors commanded, and received, more regard than others, ” ( Jacques and Hyland, 2003, p.121 ) . In order to make this we need to ‘take duty ‘ and advance the right ethos in schoolrooms so that kids know what to anticipate in footings of outlooks, wagess, countenances and common regard. I regard these properties as indispensable to classroom direction and the root of behavior direction which can so take to effectual acquisition in a lovingness environment. Barnes ( 2011, p.277 ) believes that if we as instructors are “ Identifying, depicting and praising specific illustrations of ‘good ‘ behavior as it occurs, it keeps kids cognizant of these outlooks. ” This attack has been adopted by many schools in their behavior policies and can work really good if introduced at an early phase in a kid ‘s school life and reinforced by all staff but once more some kids will necessitate this modelled systematically because they lack the illustration or outlook.

The criterion emphasises the clear outlooks for instructors with respect to behaviour direction, which is besides rather dictatorial with its usage of words such as ‘discipline ‘ , ‘authority and ‘decisiveness ‘ . This may be due to the fact that the criterions were produced when there was a large focal point by the authorities to enroll people from the armed forces to the learning profession in “ 2011 to day of the month there were 4151 applications – 737 topographic points. In other words, ex-military forces will organize an perfectly minuscular proportion of the Teach First work force in the coming old ages, ” ( Gilbert, 2011 ) . However, it does in my position ; do the demands of the standard clear and concise so that the outlook for instructors is easy mensurable.

On the other manus this type of enlisting thrust could be seen as take downing to instructors as it is “ being presented by the authorities in such a manner that denigrates instructors in the profession by proposing that we need to name in the military to work out the subject crisis in our schools, ” ( Gilbert, 2011 ) . This perceptual experience of a crisis is possibly born out of the general interruption down of society ‘s attitude towards the learning profession – instructors are seen by many parents as holding an easy life with tonss of vacations alternatively of respected as extremely skilled professionals who work really hard to educate and the future coevals. This attitude is passed on to the kids and this deficiency of regard is frequently reinforced by the parent ‘s negative responses to train and behaviour direction by the school.

The outlooks in the criterion does non take into history the diverseness of our society and the outlooks of parents, for illustration ; many parents have different positions on what is acceptable behavior in a schoolroom “ if a kid is helter-skelter, aggressive and defensive, or does non cognize how to pull off itself in a group puting or organize friendly relationships, it will be at a considerable disadvantage, ” ( Alexander, 2010, p.85 ) . The changing backgrounds of kids may intend that there are societal and behavioral issues associated with spiritual or medical conditions and these demand to be managed more sensitively than the norm.

Control of behavior in a schoolroom state of affairs is of import non merely from an academic acquisition point of position but besides from a societal point of position, so Bandura ( 1986 ) states behavior is learned from the environment through the procedure of experimental acquisition, “ Experimental surveies have shown that exposures to aggression on movie and telecasting may function to intercede aggressive behavior in kids, ” ( Bandura quoted in Cooper, 1999, p.121 ) .

Bandura besides addressed the importance of support and penalty as kids progress through the instruction system and frequently go affiliated to equals and by making so fall in to a ‘trap ‘ of copying each other. However, Bandura testifies “ If a kid imitates a theoretical account ‘s behavior and the effects are honoring, the kid is likely to go on executing that behavior if it is reinforced. ”

It could so be argued that if kids are allowed to act severely so this can go endemic and causes the category instructor considerable jobs. I therefore experience that larning good behavior can be done through presentation of equals and yourself as a instructor.

The intrinsic motive of these schemes can be an effectual tool because if kids are interested and excited to larn they will desire to act good ; “ going the Centre of attending for other kids, even merely for a few proceedingss, can be a powerful wages for a kid who might be happening the attainment of success in school work hard, ” ( Cooper, 1999, p.125 ) . Although if this is the instance so Pritchard ( 2009, p.10 ) believes that “ if wagess come out of the blue, intrinsic motive will stay high, ” which is something that I feel instructors need to maintain in head.

The extrinsic motive in a schoolroom is of great value here because kids are motivated by the wagess or acknowledgment that can be achieved by acting in a specified manner as referred to in the standard arrows. However, if “ extrinsic wagess are used, it is of import that everyone receives one for their best attempts… as it is critical to keep high self-pride, ” ( Pritchard, 2009, p.10 ) . Wagess and countenances within behaviour direction are of import in order to allow the kid know that they are either acting how they are expected or whether their behavior is unacceptable. However, many people argue that “ wagess can minimize or take down a learning experience and rewarding kids for all acquisition and behavior is likely to do the kid to lose involvement in the acquisition and merely desire the wages, ” ( Pritchard, 2009, p.10 ) .

Teachers need quality activities, planning and acquisition to guarantee they are able to pull off the behavior of a category of kids which links to the standard indexs and in my sentiment, if they are excited and enthusiastic to larn and desire to larn, so they will prosecute efficaciously and be interested and well-motivated which in bend can take to good behavior direction.

Overall I believe that the criterion sing behavior is clear and effectual for trainee instructors and is decidedly necessary within the QTS criterions due to the importance of covering with behavior in schools in order to take and discourage barriers to larning.

However, the grounds and causes as to why that behavior is happening demands to be considered and this is non clearly addressed within the standard indictors. I feel that in order to be able to cover efficaciously with the seeable behavior jobs as a instructor I besides need to be able to turn to the causes of inappropriate behavior by working with others every bit good as the kid to better understand the background and schemes to turn to jobs in the best possible manner.