Mobile robot

Chapter 1: Introduction

Overview of the undertaking

This undertaking emphasizes the significance of radio engineering in this epoch. It is a new emerging engineering that has possible to entertain a batch of possibilities and advanced thoughts. This undertaking is about Development of an cyberspace controlled surveillance Mobile automaton. The automaton will be utile for surveillance intents and provides simple agencies for the parent to supervise their kids or pets at place from their office. This undertaking is taking at using the Internet to command the device.The user can command the robot motion remotely utilizing the wireless Xbee-pro or utilizing the line manner to do the automaton move. On the automaton besides have been adding on the gas detector to supervise the quality of air at the house. The gas detector can observe the coffin nail fume, paper fume and toxicant gas or toxic smoke. A picture besides can be view on plan from the camera installed on the automaton. The picture from the undercover agent camera can convey a high quality picture provender, every bit good as sound, over high bandwidth cyberspace. The automaton besides can be control and the picture besides can be view from other topographic point as long there have cyberspace in that topographic point. Internet communicating can bring forth an efficient and effectual control solution for domestic automaton procedure. This attack allows a distant user to supervise and command automaton procedures in existent clip. The automaton besides provide user friendly automaton and assist the user to utilize for other safety intents. The cyberspace controlled surveillance Mobile automaton has been successfully developed within specified clip. This undertaking has been assign to two different pupils. Each pupil have their ain specification but both need to pass on and assist each other to finish the undertaking that have been given. This diagram demo how the automaton and the computing machine communicating with each other and the plan and the hardware that have been used.

Aim of the undertaking

This undertaking has been done by two pupils. Although we have different undertaking we need to collaborate with each other and assist each other to carry through the aim to do the undertaking can done successfully.

Aims ( pupil 1: Hardware )

  • Develop the circuit and hardware that include the faculty for motor control, picture detection and communicating to the waiter.
  • Develop the microcontroller based automaton accountant

Aims ( pupil 2: Software )

  • Develop the communicating package so that the automaton can be remotely controlled from the Internet
  • Develop the cyclosis package so that the captured picture can be streamed to the user utilizing the Internet
  • Implement and trial picture streaming system so that the captured picture can be streamed to user through Internet.

The chief aim for my portion are to do certain that the automaton can be control from the computing machine utilizing the interface on the computing machine and the picture from the camera that have been attach on the automaton can be view in the plan. The automaton besides can be control utilizing the cyberspace when the user someplace else. Study and research is the of import thing in this undertaking since both of us non from robotic or computing machine majoring. This is the design rhythm for this undertaking.

Literature Review

Nowadays security is preferred to all individuals.There are a batch of figure of diaries that describe about the development of an cyberspace surveillance nomadic automaton. From the research about the diary we can larn about how it have been implement and seek to understand the work that have been done. We besides try to do a comparing between that diary and our undertaking. There are same work and different work between the diary and our undertaking. These are some of diary that we use to do the comparing.

First is based on Fung PO TSO, Lizhou Zhang and Weijia Jia from the Department of Computer Science, City University of Hong Kong with their diary that explain about picture Surveillance Patrol Robot System in 3G, cyberspace and detector web. Their work is more how to show the patrol automaton. This demo presents a fresh 3G surveillance patrol system taking at supplying distant surveillance everyplace every bit long as the country is covered by 3G web and/or WiFi/internet. Their pilot system is formed by five major parts: detector cyberspace with a sink node, 3G phone controlled patrol automaton, a normal 3G French telephone and an internetworking laptop. The system uses detectors as the frontline soldiers that are responsible for observing unnatural events or any interlopers and describing their reading to the cardinal gateway on a regular basis via the sink node. The cardinal gateway is responsible for having and analysing the studies ( informations ) collected from the detectors. If any unexpected event is detected, the cardinal gateway can automatically direct a SMS presentment to the user, who can take to dial and despatch the automaton to police on site for the specific location to recover the existent clip picture via 3G phone or computing machine [ 1 ] . For this diary they do non attach the radio camera on the automaton but they place the radio camera at the centre of the country and they do non hold the gas detector to observe the fume in the house.

Second diary have been write by Maria Liwanag O.Montayre, Edger Ryan V.Samsom and William Emmanuel S.Yu from Quezon and Antipolo City with their journal rubric Remote Controlled Surveillance with Video Streaming. This work was to implement wireless capableness to a nomadic surveillance unit in the signifier of a unmanned auto with a radio camera mounted on it. The remote-control faculty consists of the unmanned vehicle which will be responsible for the mobility of the surveillance platform. It will be tapped into and connected to the parallel port bread board on which an analog-to-digital circuit is built on. Programing is required and the research workers decided to utilize Java. Commands will open up ports and pat into them which will enable instructions to be sent from the computing machine to the auto. A circuit system that connects the computing machine to the device that sends wireless signals will enable the auto and the interface to pass on. Live picture cyclosis will be sent from the camera. This picture streaming will let the user pull stringsing the controls of the auto via the computing machine to “ see ” the auto ‘s point of position. The camera already comes with its ain web interface. The different between this work and our undertaking we create our ego the interface to see the picture and we use Ocular BASIC as the package.

Third research we made is from Angad Singh from Institute of Information Technology University, Jaypee University which his work in the Robot control ( a web controlled automaton ) . RoboControl consists of a cross platform desktop client and server application in Java which allows remote control of a automaton via wireless consecutive communicating utilizing Java Communication API ( javax.comm ) along with video cyclosis of a camera as picture beginning mounted on the automaton utilizing the Java Media Framework ( ) . All development was done on Netbeans 6 Beta 1.In this undertaking he have created a set of client and server application plans and a automaton which can be remotely controlled and monitored over a web and can be used for monitoring and distant visual image of the automaton ‘s environment. The automaton is connected to computing machine via consecutive port ( RS-232 ) . This communicating may be made wholly wireless by utilizing an RF sender and receiving system. The Robot has a wireless Bluetooth phone camera mounted on the automaton moving as the picture beginning. The picture is captured on the waiter wirelessly via Bluetooth and so farther streamed on the web utilizing RTP protocol. A client would link to the waiter and be able to remotely command the automaton utilizing the RoboControl Desktop Client application by linking to the waiter application [ 3 ] . In this undertaking he uses the JAVA as the GUI but we use the Visual BASIC as the interface and in our undertaking we can command automaton from the cyberspace.

Work Done

Division about Thesis


Overview of the automaton

PR23 ( Multifunction Mobile Robot ) from the cytron have been use as the automaton for this undertaking. This automaton needs to be build by the user utilizing the papers and the guidelines that have been given. This robot come with the PIC16F877A microcontroller based undertaking absolutely designed for user to get down develop smart automaton. It is a line following automaton with optional attention deficit disorder on appliance and capable of line following, distance step, and control wirelessly utilizing the SKBee-pro. It besides provides LCD ( 2x 16 characters ) and doorbell for user to bespeak the status or position of the automaton that utile for debugging and proving.

This is the Conventional Diagram for the automaton. All the constituent demand to connected to the microcontroller to do certain all the system can run in order. The automaton have been modified to add the gas detector on it and analog detector and supersonic non included in this undertaking.


The robot consist several manners that gives user to take the manners that they wants. The manners that offer in this automaton are:

Line Follow


Analog Sensor ( for farther betterment )

Gas Sensor

Figure 4 above show the measure for the user in choice of manners utilizing button on the automaton. The automaton comes with two buttons. Button 1 used for choice the manner and button 2 pressed is for corroborating the manner. After the button 2 have been pressed the automaton will work consequently to which manner have been user selected.

Button 1 Pressed -1- Line Follow

Button 1 Pressed -2- SKXBEE

Button 1 Pressed -3- Analog Sensor

Button 1 Pressed -4- Gas Sensor

Hardware and Software

For this undertaking

Circuit Diagram

Chapter 3: XBee-PRO


The Xbee-PRO OEM RF Modules were engineered to run into IEEE 802.15.4 criterions and back up the alone demands of low cost and low power radio detector webs. The Xbee-PRO can direct informations radio after powering up without any excess constellation. The faculties comes with little pin and required 3.3V operation, starting motor kits have been developed to change over it into 5V operation and offer connexion to Personal computer with USB for more user friendly solution to ease user researching the possible development application.

The most utile advantages of this faculty are long scope informations unity and low power ingestion. For XBee PRO, it offers indoor communicating scope up to 100m and out-of-door line of sight scope up to 1500m and power down current are less than 10 µA.

SKXBee-PRO has been designed for 5V TTL logic interface, no excess electromotive force splitter is necessary. With minimal interface, it is ready to link to microcontroller for embedded Xbee-PRO development. Furthermore, on board USB to UART convertor offer easy yet dependable communicating to PC for functionality trial and as Xbee-PRO dongle. The faculties operate within the ISM 2.4 GHz frequence set and are pin-for-pin compatible with each other.

Capabilities and Features

  • USB Plug and Play UART map
  • 5V powered
  • 5V UART interface, ready for microcontroller interface
  • Default baud rate of 9600bps
  • Long Range Data Integrity
  • indoor communicating scope up to 100m
  • out-of-door line of sight scope up to 1500m
    • As consecutive port replacing ( radio )
    • Point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and peer-to-peer topologies supported

Specification OF THE Xbee AND XBee-PRO MODULES

Xbee-pro have been pick because of the scope that it can be covered, XBee PRO, it offers indoor communicating scope up to 100m and out-of-door line of sight scope up to 1500m and the Xbee-pro have more advantages once more the xbee. This is the specification of the Xbee and Xbee-pro faculties:

Board Layout

A – Connection XBee-Pro faculty. The faculty will be soldered decently on SKXBee and tested before it is shipped to client.

B – Reset button for XBee faculty.

C – 5 ways header pin for external power supply and interface to microcontroller. This kit is connected to microcontroller board, it should be powered with 5V.

D – 3.3V power index. This little viridity LED indicates the position of 3.3V from on board electromotive force regulator. It should be ON if either external 5V power or USB connexion is connected to SKXBee.

E – These are a brace of little LED, ruddy and yellow in colour. These LEDs are connected to on board USB to UART convertor. It indicates the receiving system and sender activity. It will merely work if SKXbee is connected to PC or laptop through USB overseas telegram.

F – USB B type socket. If connexion to Personal computer or laptop is required, delight link one terminal of USB overseas telegram ( B type ) to this socket, while the other terminal to Personal computer or laptop USB port.

System and Connection to Microcontroller

This is how the Xbee-PRO is communicated with personal computer and the microcontroller. On board USB to UART convertor is design for easy communicating with Personal computer for functionality trial and as XBee dongle.5V TTL logic interface with no excess electromotive force splitter offer directly frontward interface to microcontroller for embedded radio development.

A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals and can be used with an embedded system. Most common microcontroller in the market are 5V powered, and offer 5V TTL logic interface. However, since XBee-pro is designed for 3.3V system, those that use 5V system will necessitate excess work and constituents before XBee-pro faculty could be embedded in the system. Because of that SKXBee-pro is designed to ease the interface for 5V system. To get down, user may link 5V and Gnd of SKXBee-pro to microcontroller board. Since the 5V system is powered with 5V, it should be really simple to acquire power beginning for SKXBee-pro. Header socket can be used to link SKXBee to microcontroller board.

Once the 5V is supply to SKXBee-pro, the little viridity LED should illume ON. The user might necessitate to link the XB_RX and XB_TX pin to microcontroller. These two pins should be cross connected to microcontroller. The XB_RX should be connected to microcontroller ‘s Transmitter pin ( TxD ) , while XB_TX should be connected to microcontroller ‘s Receiver pin ( RxD ) . Sending and having informations require package or microcode development on peculiar microcontroller.

Finally, the RESET pin of SKXBee-pro. This is an optional pin for user as there is already a reset button on SKXBee-pro. However, if user would wish the microcontroller to reset SKXBee-pro during tally clip, a transistor is required for interface between microcontroller and SKXBee-pro. Any microcontroller with UART peripheral can be used to interface with SKXBee-pro. SKXBee-pro have eliminated the hardware flow control of XBee faculty, therefore if hardware flow control is required in development or application, it is reding the get the original XBee faculty.

Manners of Operation for Xbee-pro

XBee-PRO RF Modules operate in five manners. Manners of the Xbee-pro depend on Xbee-pro conditions at that that clip.

Idle manner happened when the Xbee-pro non having or conveying informations, the RF faculty is in Id lupus erythematosus Mode. The faculty displacements into the other manners of operation under the undermentioned conditions:

  • Transmit Mode ( Serial information is received in the DI Buffer )
  • Receive Mode ( Valid RF information is received through the aerial )
  • Sleep Mode ( Sleep Mode status is met )
  • Command Mode ( Command Mode Sequence is issued )

Command Mode happened when a bid is sent to the faculty, the faculty will parse and put to death the bid. System Response will response when a bid is sent to the faculty, the faculty will parse and put to death the bid. Upon successful executing of a bid, the faculty returns an “ All right ” message. If executing of a bid consequences in an mistake, the faculty returns an “ ERROR ” message. If no valid Commands are received within the clip specified by Command Mode Timeout Command, the RF faculty automatically returns to Idle Mode.

Sleep Mode enables the RF faculty to come in provinces of low-power ingestion when non in usage. In order to come in Sleep Mode, one of the undermentioned conditions must be met ( in add-on to the faculty holding a non-zero SM parametric quantity value ) :

  • Sleep_RQ ( trap 9 ) is asserted.
  • The faculty is idle ( no information transmittal or response ) for the sum of clip defined by the ST ( Time before Sleep ) parameter.ST is merely active when SM = 4-5.

Transmit and Receive Modes active when the users try to convey or have something utilizing the Xbee-pro. RF Data Packets Each transmitted information package contains a Source Address and Destination Address field. The Source Address matches the reference of the conveying faculty as specified by the MY ( Source Address ) parametric quantity ( if MY & gt ; = 0xFFFE ) , the SH ( Serial Number High ) parametric quantity or the SL ( Consecutive Number Low ) parametric quantity. The & A ; lt ; Destination Address & A ; gt ; field is created from the DH ( Destination Address High ) and DL ( Destination Address Low ) parametric quantity values. The Source Address and/or Destination Address Fieldss will either incorporate a 16-bit short or long 64-bit long reference. The RF informations package construction follows the 802.15.4 specification.

There are two methods to convey informations:

  • Direct Transmission – information is transmitted instantly to the Destination Address
  • Indirect Transmission – A package is retained for a period of clip and is merely transmitted after the finish faculty ( Source Address = Destination Address ) requests the information. Indirect Transmissions can merely happen on a Coordinator. Therefore, if all nodes in a web are End Devices, merely Direct Transmissions will happen. Indirect Transmissions are utile to guarantee package bringing to a dormant node. The Coordinator presently is able to retain up to 2 indirect messages

If the transmittal is non a broadcast message, the faculty will anticipate to have an recognition from the finish node. If an recognition is non received, the package will be resent up to 3 more times. If the recognition is non received after all transmittals, an ACK failure is recorded.

Chapter 4: Automaton CONTROL ( VISUAL BASIC 6.0 )

This undertaking utilizing the Visual basic 6.0 as the interface to command the automaton from the Personal computer. The control plan was designed to supply four basic controls for the automaton.That ‘s frontward, halt, backward and right, left. The plan besides has the manners choice to choose the manner for the automaton to run like line follow, radio xbee and gas detector. When the automaton traveling the automaton will direct back the information to the plan to inform the user what the automaton making at that clip. The plan will car read the even until the robot power off. The control for this automaton utilizing the Xbee as the device for wireless communicating between the automaton and the Personal computer. The Xbee utilizing the USB overseas telegram to stop up at the Personal computer so user need to do certain the COM that the USB for xbee have been use to do certain the port can be unfastened that the plan. If the user selects the radio Xbee the user can utilize the automaton control button to command the automaton.


Soon the ocular feedback is for position the picture from the camera that have been attached on the automaton. For position the picture we use the ocular basic 2008.The plan can see the picture from the automaton and the user can snarl the image organize the picture and salvage it in the booklet. This plan wills automatic observe the camera that has connected to the Personal computer and the user demand to tune the aerial camera to acquire the better image for this plan.

We use the radio camera that have been attach at the automaton. A wireless camera is a really little mini camera that can utilize without linking wires to a recording equipment. The camera will come with a receiving system which connects to the Television for sing but to see the picture at the Personal computer we need the convertor to change over the linear signal to digital to do the picture can be view at the Personal computer. We use the easy cap as the convertor.


Team Viewer is a computing machine package bundle for distant control, desktop sharing, and file transportation between computing machines. Team Viewer connects to any Personal computer or waiter around the universe within a few seconds. With Team Viewer you can remotely command any computing machine as if you were sitting right in forepart of it, even through firewalls. It merely needs to get down a little application, which does non even necessitate installing or administrative rights. Team Viewer is a really unafraid solution. All versions feature wholly unafraid informations channels with cardinal exchange and AES ( 256 Bit ) session encoding. Whether you have a LAN or dial-up connexion, Team Viewer optimizes display quality and velocity depending on your web connexion. When we want to command the automaton, we merely necessitate to remote the Personal computer at place which has been utilizing to put in with the control plan. The Personal computer with the squad spectator will open the Personal computer at place and after that we merely command the automaton merely like we at place utilizing that Personal computer.



jobs and difulties