Multilingual communities and the effects of code switching

In multilingual communities, code-switching is a widespread phenomenon that happens from day-to-day life and workplaces to schoolrooms in which specific linguistic communications have been instituted as the official linguistic communications of direction. Malaysia is one of the states that have multilingual communities that consists of three chief races ; Malay, Chinese and Indians. From 1957 to 1967, linguistic communication was used as an of import tool in order to accomplish integrity and Bahasa Malaysia becomes the national linguistic communication. Previously, English was compulsory in all schools particularly the common schools and due to the deficiency of English pedagogues at that clip, the thought was off the hook. In 1967, English linguistic communication position was removed but it was still used nationally.

1.1 Background of Problem

In 1956, the Education Review Committee aimed to set up multicultural instruction systems that support other linguistic communications since Malaysia have multilingual communities and English becomes portion of it. Today, English had becomes an international linguistic communication and on the side 2nd linguistic communication in Malaysia since most people used it. English as a 2nd linguistic communication position in Malaysia has been complemented through broad usage of English in the societal scene every bit good as the instruction scene. Teaching of English has been greatly emphasised by the authorities through its ministry. Due to this affair, the worsening degree of English proficiency among pupils has brought about the demand to happen out how to undertake the issue. Teachers, accordingly, have been using codification shift as a agency of supplying pupils with the chances to pass on and heightening pupils ‘ apprehension. Furthermore, codification exchanging helps to ease the flow of schoolroom direction since the instructors do non hold to pass so much clip seeking to explicate to the scholars or seeking for the simplest words to clear up any confusion that might originate. Code-switching should non be considered as a mark of shortcoming in the instructor. Alternatively, it is a careful scheme employed by the instructors. Code-switching should be allowed whenever necessary with some scholars in specific state of affairss.

Richard ( 1985 ) suggests that code-switching is a term in linguistics mentioning to replacement between two or more linguistic communications in a individual conversation, stretch of discourse, or vocalizations between people who have more than one linguistic communication in common. Speakers of more than one linguistic communication are known for their ability to code switch or blend their linguistic communication during communicating. This phenomenon occurs when the talker substitutes a word or phrase from one linguistic communication to a phrase or word from another linguistic communication. Ayeomoni ( 2006 ) claims that many pedagogues have attempted to specify the term “ codification shift ” and each understand the constructs from different points of position. Gumperz ( 1982 ) defined code-switching as the usage of more than one codification or linguistic communication in the class of a individual address event, taken to mention to teacher vocalizations in the schoolroom. In other words, the instructors ‘ usage code-switching in order to convey significances to the pupils. Besides that, Numan and Carter ( 2001 ) stated that codification shift as “ a phenomenon of exchanging from one linguistic communication to another in the same discourse ” ( p. 275 ) .

Appel Musyken ( 1987 ) mentioned that codification shift can be divided into two classs which are intrasentential and intersentential. Intrasentential is a switch that occurs in the center of a sentence. It was besides known as ‘code blending ‘ . For illustration, my girlfriend ‘suka ‘ ice pick. The word “ Suka ” means “ like ” in the Malay linguistic communication. The existent sentence is “ My girlfriend likes ice pick ” . A word from the Malay linguistic communication is replaced by an English word in a sentence. The later is a switch of linguistic communication that happens between sentences. A suited illustration is “ I got an Angstrom for my drawing, awak macam mana, Farid? ” . “ Awak macam mana ” means “ what about you ” . The exact sentence should be “ I got an Angstrom for my drawing, what about you, Farid? ” . The first sentence uses English and the later is in Bahasa Malaysia.

There is one more type of codification exchanging which is extrasentential as introduces by Hamers and Blanc ( 1989 ) , extrasentential switches include tickets and fillers. An first-class illustration of a local extrasentential codification exchanging that near to our civilization is ‘Later lah ‘ . “ Lah ” is a atom widely used by Malaysians and Singaporean in their address. Holmes ( 2008 ) stated that the atom “ Lah ” is used to demo familiarity or solidarity in a relationship.

So, the term codification exchanging in this survey is the usage of two linguistic communications within a sentence or between sentences. Intrasentential refers to the switch that occurs within a sentence while intersentential points to switches between sentences. Last but non least, extrasentential refers to the tickets and fillers that do non be in the word list of the linguistic communication used.

Statement of Research Problem

Malayan scholars ‘ demands to go adept English users in order to entree cognition and information available in English every bit good as to be able to pass on successfully, therefore proposing the of import place the pupils may keep in the hereafter. But before they can acquire to the targeted proficiency degree, decidedly they must acquire used to the English linguistic communication itself.

Since English Acts of the Apostless as a 2nd linguistic communication in Malaysia, the deficiency of exposure is the polar factor that will impede the pupils to go proficient in English. Thus, schoolroom instructions are the most valuable experience for scholars because of the limited exposures to sufficient comprehendible input from the natural environment they might acquire. Therefore, in order to raise they proficiency degree, they must derive sufficient comprehendible input. It means the pupils have to derive understanding towards what they learnt before believing about raising the proficiency degree. This is where a scheme to assist them larn English as a 2nd linguistic communication must be applied by instructors. Code shift is a signifier of scheme that will work out these jobs. It helps to ease the flow of schoolroom direction since the instructors do non hold to pass so much clip seeking to explicate to the scholars or seeking for the simplest words to clear up any confusion that might originate. Teachers code exchange when the degree of English used in the text edition or to be taught is beyond the scholar ‘s ability or when the instructors have exhausted the agencies to set his address to the scholar ‘s degree.

Research Objective

The intent of this survey is to look into codification exchanging in the instruction of English as a 2nd linguistic communication to secondary school pupils. There are several factors which are critical in finding the effectivity of this survey.

Aims of the survey:

To look into the attitudes of instructors towards codification exchanging

The attitudes of instructors towards codification exchanging

The types of codification shift

Function of codification exchanging in direction

Research Questions

In more inside informations, this survey will reply the undermentioned inquiry:

What do instructors believe about codification shift in the English schoolroom?

Do English instructors code switch in the English schoolroom?

What types of codification exchanging occur in the schoolroom?

What is the map of codification shift?

Definition of Footings

Specifically in this survey, there are several footings which are used throughout the whole survey, therefore it is necessary to supply the definition of these footings for better apprehension every bit good as mention to readers. The footings are:

Learning – It can be described merely as mental activity that includes receiving, hive awaying, recovering and utilizing cognition. This procedure requires involvement and frequently demands attempt. It depends to a great extent on memory procedure.

Distance Learning – It can be defined as formal instruction procedure in which the bulk of the direction occurs when pupils and teachers are non in the same topographic point. It is a two manner between instructor and pupils who are separated by a geographical distance and clip where the communicating support the educational procedure.

Adult scholars – Persons who are experienced, financially independent, working full clip while enrolled in a acquisition programme, have other duties and enrolled in the acquisition programme on their will. They are besides experienced, accomplishment oriented, extremely motivated, comparatively independent and besides required a grade of independency in larning. In this survey, grownup scholars refer to adult pupils inscribing in PJJ Programme in Faculty of Education, UiTM Shah Alam.

Intrinsic motive – Intrinsically motivated actions is that which occurs for its ain interest, action for which the lone wagess are the self-generated affects and knowledges that accompany it. Intrinsically motivated behaviours require no external supports or supports for their nutriment.

Extrinsic motive – It refers to motivation that comes from outside an person. The motivation factors are external or outside, wagess such as money or classs. These wagess provide satisfaction and pleasance that the undertaking itself may non supply.

Institutional barriers – It can be defined as structural in nature as those barriers erected by organisation that provide larning chances for grownups or all patterns and processs that exclude or deter working grownups from take parting in educational activities.

Situational barriers – It can be defined as job that arises from one ‘s state of affairs in life at a given clip.

Dispositional barriers – It can be defined as attitudes or self – perceptual experience about one – ego as scholars.

PJJ pupils – It can be defined as portion clip pupils who come to category on every weekend and most of them are big scholars who are working.

Significance

This survey is seemingly one of the first few efforts to look into the codification shift in the instruction of English as a 2nd linguistic communication to secondary school trainee English instructors in Mara University of Technology, at Malacca City Campus. Therefore, this survey may supply a utile launching tablet for farther research in this country of involvement towards instructors from other provinces. The findings of this survey could supply some informations for future research in this country. It could possibly besides help in the more effectual instruction scheme in the instruction of English as a 2nd linguistic communication to secondary school pupils as “ codification exchanging ” can be considered as one the instruction scheme.

Restrictions

This survey was conducted in Mara University of Technology, at Malacca City Campus and due to this affair ; the consequences will non be the generalisation of the whole population of English trainee instructors countrywide.

Chapter TWO

THE LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Alternation between linguistic communications in the signifier of codification shift is a widely observed phenomenon in foreign linguistic communication schoolrooms. Numan and Carter briefly specify the term as “ a phenomenon of exchanging from one linguistic communication to another in the same discourse ” ( 2001:275 ) . Following this definition, “ discourse ” will be handled as the pupils ‘ and instructors ‘ of course happening linguistic communication usage in schoolroom scenes throughout this paper. Additionally, the linguistic communications between which alternation is performed are the native linguistic communication of the pupils, and the foreign linguistic communication that pupils are expected to derive competency in. While seting the phenomenon of codification exchanging in context, the maps of codification shift will be introduced in assorted facets. First, its map in bilingual community scenes will briefly be explained by giving a sample reliable conversation which will assist the reader deduce thoughts about its possible applications in educational contexts. Second, the functionality of codification exchanging in instructors ‘ schoolroom discourse will be introduced with its facets as: subject switch, affectional maps, and insistent maps. Third, the focal point will switch to pupils ‘ codification shift by presenting some basic functional positions as: equality, floor retention, reduplication, and struggle control. Last, weak and strong sides of codification exchanging in foreign linguistic communication schoolrooms will be discussed with a critical attack.

This chapter outlines past research on codification exchanging particularly the chief factor lending the attitudes of instructors in the usage of codification switch, types and maps of codification exchanging used in the schoolroom. This chapter will supply a clear thought of how code shift dramas function in 2nd linguistic communication larning from the position of old researches and the findings from past surveies.

2.1 Theoretical Background

Multilingual communities have the inclination to exchange codification either with or without their consciousness and Malaysia is a good illustration of a community that pattern codification exchanging. Peoples sometimes switch codification varied within a sphere or societal state of affairs. For illustration, when there is some obvious alteration in the state of affairs, such as the reaching of a new individual, it is the obvious ground why people switch codification. In most instances, a talker may likewise exchange to another linguistic communication as a signal group of rank and shared ethnicity with an addressee. The codification switch occurs from the first linguistic communication to the 2nd linguistic communication or frailty versa. In add-on, switches motivated by the individuality and relationship between the participants frequently express a move to demo solidarity and it may besides mention as the position dealingss between people or the formality of their interaction. The chief focal point here is to analyze codification exchanging in the field of instruction, in other words, the correlativity between codification switch and English instructor in school particularly in secondary school. In order to derive a better penetration into codification switch and it roles in footings of instruction, the chief concern should be focused on the cardinal construct of codification shift. Harmonizing to Marasigan ( 1983 ) , the usage of two linguistic communications in the same discourse is referred to as code-switching. Ayeomoni ( 2006 ) stated that many bookmans have attempted to specify the term “ codification shift ” and each understands the construct from different points of position.

A hunt of the Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts database in 2005 shows more than 1,800 articles on the topic published in virtually every subdivision of linguistics. However, despite this fluctuation or possibly in portion because of it, bookmans do non look to portion a definition of the term. A utile definition of codification exchanging for sociocultural lingual analysis should acknowledge it as an alternation in the signifier of communicating. It besides signals a context in which the lingual part can be understood. The ‘context ‘ so signaled may be really local ( such as the terminal of a bend at talk ) , really general ( such as positioning ) , or anyplace in between. Furthermore, it is of import to acknowledge that this signaling is accomplished by the action of participants in a peculiar interaction. That is to state, it is non necessary or desirable to spell out the significance of peculiar codification exchanging behaviour. Rather, codification shift is accomplished by parties in interaction, and the significance of their behavior emerges from the interaction. This is non to state that the usage of peculiar lingual signifiers has no significance, and that talkers “ make it up as they go. ” Individuals retrieve and can name on past experiences of discourse. These memories form portion of a linguistic communication user ‘s apprehension of discourse maps. Therefore, within a peculiar scene certain signifiers may come to re-emerge often. However, it is less interesting ( for the current writer at least, and likely for the terminals of sociocultural lingual analysis ) to track the frequence or regularity of peculiar returns than to understand the consequence of lingual signifier on discourse pattern and emergent societal significances. In earlier surveies, Bokamba ( 1989 ) suggests that “ codification shift is the commixture of words, phrases and sentences from two distinguishable grammatical ( sub ) systems across sentence boundaries within a address event ” ( p. 279 ) . The term codification exchanging ( or, as it is sometimes written, code-switching or code switch ) is loosely discussed and used in linguistics and a assortment of related Fieldss.

Code blending on the other manus, is “ the embedding of assorted lingual units such as affixes ( bound morphemes ) , words ( unbound morphemes ) , phrases and clauses from two grammatical ( sub ) systems within the same vocalization and address event ” ( p. 279 ) . Numan and Carter ( 2001 ) define codification shift as “ a phenomenon of exchanging from one linguistic communication to another in the same discourse ” ( p. 275 ) . To recapitulate, codification shift is a pattern of parties in discourse to signal alterations in context by utilizing alternate grammatical systems or subsystems, or codifications. The mental representation of these codifications can non be straight observed, either by analysts or by parties in interaction. Rather, the analyst must detect talk about itself, and retrieve the saliency of a lingual signifier as codification from its consequence on discourse interaction. The attack described here understands codification shift as the pattern of persons in peculiar discourse scenes. Therefore, it can non stipulate wide maps of linguistic communication alternation, nor specify the exact nature of any codification prior to interaction. Codes emerge from interaction, and go relevant when parties to talk about handle them as such.

In a more recent publication, Unanumo ( 2008 ) respects code exchanging as the usage of more than one linguistic communication in a conversation. Appel and Musyken ( 1987 ) suggest that codification shift can be categorized as intrasentential or intersentential.

Intrasentential is a switch of linguistic communications which occurs in the center of a sentence. This type of shift is frequently called ‘code blending ‘ . An illustration of a Malayan intrasentential switch is “ My youngest sister ambil Biology ” . “ Ambil ” means “ take ” in the Malay linguistic communication. The sentence should be “ My youngest sister takes ( surveies ) Biology ” . A Malay word is embedded in an English sentence. Intersentential, on the other manus, is a switch of linguistic communication which occurs between sentences. An illustration of intersentential would be “ I quit all my occupations already. Christie tak beritahu? ” . “ Tak beritahu ” means “ did non state ” . The sentence should read “ Christie did non state you? ” The 2nd sentence uses the Malay linguistic communication while the former is in English. Poplack ( 1980, as cited in Hamers and Blanc, 1989 ) introduces extrasentential switches which include tickets and fillers. These would besides include an exclaiming a parenthetical statement or atom from another linguistic communication.

An illustration of a local extrasentential switch is “ Nothing lah ” . “ Lah ” is a atom widely used by Malaysians in their conversational address. McArthur ( 1998 ) describes the multi-purpose “ lah ” as a nominal particularly of informal familiarity and solidarity. Such a atom besides exists in the Singaporean assortment of English. Wee ( 2003 ) explains that it is typically found in clause-final place. It is monosyllabic and used for discourse matter-of-fact maps. The term “ codification shift ” in this survey adopts Clyne ‘s definition ( Clyne, 2000 ) as the surrogate usage of two linguistic communications either within a sentence or between sentences. “ Intrasentential ” in this survey refers to exchange within a sentence while “ intersentential ” refers to switches between sentences. “ Extrasentential ” refer to label and fillers which do non be in the vocabulary of the base linguistic communication used.

2.2 Attitudes of Teachers in the usage of Code Switch

Within the universe of linguistic communications use, code-switching has frequently been perceived as being of lower position, a scheme used by weak linguistic communication performing artists to counterbalance for linguistic communication lack. This position of code-switching and bilingual talk in general is more normatively based than research-based as pointed by Lin ( 1996 ) who added that such a position conveys little more than the talker or author ‘s normative claims about what counts every bit standard or legitimate linguistic communication. An extended organic structure of literature surveies reported that codification exchanging in schoolrooms non merely merely normal but utile tool of larning. Cook ( 2001 ) referred to code exchanging in the schoolroom as a natural response in a bilingual state of affairs. Furthermore, in the same survey, Cook considered the ability to travel from one linguistic communication to another is extremely desirable non merely among scholars but instructors. Furthermore, in arousing instructors contemplations to their schoolroom instructions, Probyn ( 2010 ) noticed that most noteworthy scheme that instructors used was code exchanging to accomplish a figure of communicative and metalinguistic terminals. Cook ‘s surveies were chiefly in the 2nd linguistic communication schoolroom context. Rollnick and Rutherford ‘s ( 1996 ) studied the scientific discipline schoolrooms and found the usage of scholars ‘ chief linguistic communications to be a powerful agencies for scholars to research their thoughts. They argue that without the usage of codification shift, some pupils ‘ surrogate constructs would stay unexposed. Amin ( 2009 ) mentioned about the acknowledgment to exchange codifications goes beyond exchanging between linguistic communications ; it besides recognizes the value of utilizing the slang which believes to let pupils to pull on utile sense-making resources. Cook ( 2001 ) stated that research workers see by utilizing codification shift in the schoolroom as a “ legitimate scheme ” ( p. 105 ) . Skiba ( 1997 ) added that no affair how it might be riotous during a conversation to the hearer, it still provides an chance for linguistic communication development. However, historically, research workers believe that codification exchanging occurred in many states, which made Ferguson ( 2003 ) to reason that ideological and conceptual beginnings of intuition all frequently attached to classroom code-switching, proposing that deep rooted attitudes may non be easy to alter.

Cheng and Butler ( 1989 ) list the followers as some of the motivations a talker may hold to code switch: “ colloquial subject, function of the talker, puting of the interaction, acquaintance of the two talkers, age, sex, race, cultural, lingual background, etc ” ( p. 295 ) . Wardhaugh ( 2006 ) stated that, when done consciously, exchanging linguistic communications may besides let a talker to “ assert power ; declare solidarity ; maintain certain neutrality when both codifications are used ; express individuality ; and so on ” ( p.110 ) . For illustration, if a group of bilingual Malay-English talkers are discoursing in both Bahasa Malaysia and English and a monolingual, Malay talker enters the conversation, the group will most likely Begin talking merely Bahasa Malaysia, in order to let the monolingual to take part in the conversation, thereby showing their solidarity with the monolingual. Or, if the bilingual group wants to asseverate lingual power over the monolingual, they might go on talking merely in English to except him or her. Unfortunately, code-switching is frequently wrongly misinterpreted as grounds of a deficiency of a lingual ability of the talker or impairment of one or both linguistic communications. However, sociolinguistic research confirms that code-switching dramas an of import function in societal maps, and does non needfully bespeak lingual incompetency. So, the chief concern here is grounds of codification exchanging used by the English instructors during their lessons in the schoolroom. In order to discourse farther into this affair, the range will be correlated with the functions of English instructors in the English linguistic communication schoolroom.

English as a 2nd linguistic communication position in Malaysia has been agreed through broad usage of English in the societal scene every bit good as the instruction scene. Teaching of English has been greatly emphasized by the authorities through its ministry. In schoolroom pattern, instructors have been instructed to learn by utilizing high quality English in the schoolrooms. The 2nd or foreign linguistic communication acquisition can merely accept the presence of high quality input in the schoolroom for scholars ‘ acquisition. Cook ( 2001 ) stated that all linguistic communication schoolroom input must be in the mark linguistic communication, an effectual theoretical account of linguistic communication usage can guarantee that the intended acquisition was successful. Classroom instructions, hence, are the most valuable experience for scholars because of the limited exposures to sufficient comprehendible input from their natural environment.

Hence, the diminishing degree of English proficiency among pupils is the chief ground to the demand in happening out how to undertake this issue. Teachers have been using codification shift as a agency of supplying pupils with the chances to pass on and heightening pupils ‘ apprehension. Furthermore, codification exchanging helps to ease the flow of schoolroom direction since the instructors do non hold to pass so much clip seeking to explicate to the scholars or seeking for the simplest words to assist uncluttering the pupils ‘ apprehension. Harmonizing to Norrish ( 1997 ) , instructors code-switch when the degree of English used in the text edition or to be taught is beyond the scholar ‘s ability or when the instructors have exhausted the agencies to set his address to the scholar ‘s degree.

2.3 Types of Code Switching used in the Classroom

Richard ( 1985 ) suggests that code-switching is a term in linguistics mentioning to replacement between two or more linguistic communications in a individual conversation, stretch of discourse, or vocalizations between people who have more than one linguistic communication in common. Speakers of more than one linguistic communication are known for their ability to code switch or blend their linguistic communication during communicating. This phenomenon occurs when the talker substitutes a word or phrase from one linguistic communication to a phrase or word from another linguistic communication. Ayeomoni ( 2006 ) claims that many pedagogues have attempted to specify the term “ codification shift ” and each understand the constructs from different points of position. Gumperz ( 1982 ) defined code-switching as the usage of more than one codification or linguistic communication in the class of a individual address event, taken to mention to teacher vocalizations in the schoolroom. In other words, the instructors ‘ usage code-switching in order to convey significances to the pupils. Besides that, Numan and Carter ( 2001 ) stated that codification shift as “ a phenomenon of exchanging from one linguistic communication to another in the same discourse ” ( p. 275 ) .

Appel Musyken ( 1987 ) mentioned that codification shift can be divided into two classs which are intrasentential and intersentential. Intrasentential is a switch that occurs in the center of a sentence. It was besides known as ‘code blending ‘ . For illustration, my girlfriend ‘suka ‘ ice pick. The word “ Suka ” means “ like ” in the Malay linguistic communication. The existent sentence is “ My girlfriend likes ice pick ” . A word from the Malay linguistic communication is replaced by an English word in a sentence. The later is a switch of linguistic communication that happens between sentences. A suited illustration is “ I got an Angstrom for my drawing, awak macam mana, Farid? ” . “ Awak macam mana ” means “ what about you ” . The exact sentence should be “ I got an Angstrom for my drawing, what about you, Farid? ” . The first sentence uses English and the later is in Bahasa Malaysia.

There is one more type of codification exchanging which is extrasentential as introduces by Hamers and Blanc ( 1989 ) , extrasentential switches include tickets and fillers. An first-class illustration of a local extrasentential codification exchanging that near to our civilization is ‘Later lah ‘ . “ Lah ” is a atom widely used by Malaysians and Singaporean in their address. Holmes ( 2008 ) stated that the atom “ Lah ” is used to demo familiarity or solidarity in a relationship.

So, the term codification exchanging in this survey is the usage of two linguistic communications within a sentence or between sentences. Intrasentential refers to the switch that occurs within a sentence while intersentential points to switches between sentences. Last but non least, extrasentential refers to the tickets and fillers that do non be in the word list of the linguistic communication used.

2.4 Functions of Code Switching used in the Classroom

Code shift has a assortment of maps which vary harmonizing to the subject, people involved in conversation and the context where the conversation is taken topographic point. Baker ( 2006 ) have discussed the subject of codification exchanging from a sociolinguistics position, in which he listed twelve chief intents of codification shift, which are relevant to bilinguals negotiations in general. Some of these maps can be observed in schoolroom environment and in relevancy to instructors and pupils interactions. Harmonizing to Baker ( 2006 ) codification exchanging can be used to stress a peculiar point, to replace a word in topographic point of unknown word in the mark linguistic communication, to show a construct that has no equivalent in the civilization of the other linguistic communication, to reenforce a petition, to clear up a point, to show individuality and communicate friendly relationship, to ease tenseness and inject wit into a conversation, and in some bilingual state of affairss, codification shift occurs when certain subjects are introduced. In the replacing a word in another linguistic communication, Man and Lu ( 2006 ) found that in Hong Kong schools, both instructors ‘ and pupils ‘ major ground for codification shift was that there was no direct interlingual rendition of words between English and Cantonese, to boot, the same survey of Man and Lu found that instructors in Hong Kong schools use codification shift besides to ease tenseness and inject wit in to conversations.

In a old survey, Eldridge ( 1996 ) has listed four intents in which pupil codification exchanging as equality, floor-holding, reduplication and struggle control. Equivalence which is a scheme that bilingual used to happen the equivalent of the unknown vocabulary of the mark linguistic communication in the talkers ‘ first linguistic communication to get the better of the lack in linguistic communication competency in 2nd linguistic communication. The 2nd intent of codification shift is for floor keeping which is a technique used by bilingual pupils during discoursing in the mark linguistic communication to make full in the makeshift with words in native linguistic communication in order to keep the eloquence of the conversation. The 3rd intent of is reduplication, as it implies, it is stressing and reenforcing a message that has been transmitted foremost in the mark linguistic communication but so pupils rely on reiterating the message in first linguistic communication to convey to the instructor that the message is understood. The last map is conflict control, which is used to extinguish any misinterpretation when the accurate significance of a word is non known in the communicating.

These researches shown that, the instructors ‘ and pupils ‘ used of codification shift is non ever performed consciously ; which means that the instructor which is the chief concern for this survey is non ever cognizant of the maps and results of the codification exchanging procedure. Therefore, in some instances it may be regarded as an automatic and unconscious behavior. Nevertheless, either witting or non, it needfully serves some basic maps which may be good in linguistic communication acquisition environments. Mattson and Burenhult ( 1999 ) stated that all of these maps are listed as subject switch, affectional maps, and insistent maps. ( p. 61 ) .

In order to hold a general thought about these, it will be appropriate to give a brief account about each map. In subject switch instances, the instructor alters his/her linguistic communication harmonizing to the subject that is under treatment. This is largely observed in grammar direction, that the instructor shifts his linguistic communication to the female parent lingua of his pupils in covering with peculiar grammar points, which are taught at that minute. In these instances, the pupils ‘ attending is directed to the new cognition by doing usage of codification shift and consequently doing usage of native lingua. At this point it may be suggested that a span from known ( native linguistic communication ) to unknown ( new foreign linguistic communication content ) is constructed in order to reassign the new content and significance is made clear in this manner as it is besides suggested by Cole ( 1998 ) : “ a instructor can work pupils ‘ old L1 larning experience to increase their apprehension of L2 ” .

In add-on to the map of codification exchanging named as subject switch, the phenomenon besides carries affectional maps that serve for look of emotions. In this regard, codification shift is used by the instructor in order to construct solidarity and intimate dealingss with the pupils. In this sense, one may talk off the part of codification exchanging for making a supportive linguistic communication environment in the schoolroom. As mentioned before, this is non ever a witting procedure on the portion of the instructor.

Another account for the functionality of codification exchanging in schoolroom scenes is its insistent map. In this instance, the instructor uses codification exchanging in order to reassign the necessary cognition for the pupils for lucidity. Following the direction in mark linguistic communication, the instructor codification switches to native linguistic communication in order to clear up significance, and in this manner stresses importance on the foreign linguistic communication content for efficient comprehension. However, the inclination to reiterate the direction in native linguistic communication may take to some unsought pupil behavior. A scholar who is certain that the direction in foreign linguistic communication will be followed by a native linguistic communication interlingual rendition may lose involvement in listening to the former direction which will hold negative academic effects ; as the pupil is exposed to foreign linguistic communication discourse limitedly.

2.5 Previous Researchs

A figure of research workers ( Lai, 1996 ; Cole, 1998 ; Critchley, 1999 ; Schweers, 1999 ; Burden, 2001 ; Tang, 2002 ; Greggio & A ; Gil, 2007 ) have argued that codification shift can be a utile tool in helping English linguistic communication instruction and acquisition procedure. Others ( like Skiba, 1997 ) see an chance for linguistic communication development because codification shift allows the effectual transportation of information from the transmitters to the receiving systems. Though the development is minimum and slow, it is still a positive indicant of the acquisition advancement.

Tien and Liu ( 2006 ) states that low proficiency pupils considered code-switching in their EFL categories as helpful towards deriving better comprehension particularly when supplying tantamount comprehension every bit good as giving schoolroom processs. This survey adopted a similar stance on the issue, peculiarly, when a schoolroom of multilingual scholars has entree to a common linguistic communication. In Malaysia, scholars have entree to a common linguistic communication. Malayan scholars have mastered the National Language, Malay, from their limitless exposure inside and outside category, therefore leting the usage of Malay in code-switching. Since Malay is understood by the scholars of changing backgrounds, instructors through code-switching would be able to guarantee the transportation of intended accomplishments to the scholars is done efficaciously.

Ellis ( 1994 ) , Cook ( 2001 ) , Richards & A ; Rodgers ( 2001 ) and Widdowson ( 2003 ) who have been researching 2nd linguistic communication instruction and larning claim that, although exposure to the mark linguistic communication can guarantee success, the exposure may non work in every schoolroom. It has been argued that English Only schoolroom would merely take to frustration since the input is inexplicable to the scholars ( Lai, 1996 ; Brice & A ; Roseberry-McKibbin, 2001 ; Widdowson, 2003 ) . Code-switching should non be considered as a mark of defect in the instructor. Alternatively, it is a careful scheme employed by the instructors.

Code-switching should be allowed whenever necessary with some scholars in specific state of affairss ( Schweers, 1999 ; Chick & A ; McKay, 1999 ; Burden, 2001 ; Dash, 2002 ; Tang, 2002 ) . The literature reviewed has indicated the assorted positive and facilitating maps of code-switching approved by both the instructors and scholars such as explicating new vocabulary, loosen uping the scholars, explicating grammar, speaking about category undertakings and appraisals and set uping contact with scholars.

2.6 Decision

This chapter described the theoretical constructs of codification exchanging in footings of its map in bilingual community scenes and explained by giving a sample of reliable conversation which will assist the reader deduce thoughts about its possible applications in educational contexts. Second, the functionality of codification exchanging in instructors ‘ schoolroom discourse will be introduced with its facets as: subject switch, affectional maps, and insistent maps. Third, the focal point will switch to pupils ‘ codification shift by presenting some basic functional positions as: equality, floor retention, reduplication, and struggle control. Last, weak and strong sides of codification exchanging in foreign linguistic communication schoolrooms will be discussed with a critical attack. This chapter outlines past research on codification exchanging particularly the chief factor lending the attitudes of instructors in the usage of codification switch, types and maps of codification exchanging used in the schoolroom.

Chapter THREE

RESEARCH MEHTODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

This chapter outlines the research design and methodological analysis of the survey. It besides includes the instrument, population, samples and informations assemblage which consist of questionnaires every bit good as informations aggregation processs and informations analysis.

3.1 Research Design

The research design of this survey is quantitative descriptive research. The intent of the survey is the chief factor lending the attitudes of instructors in the usage of codification switch, types and the maps of codification exchanging do the trainee English instructors pattern codification exchanging in the schoolroom. For the descriptive type of survey, the research worker effort to document what is really happening and description of findings will be based on quantitative analysis.

3.2 Population and Sample

The sample for this survey is based on convenient trying which means that the samples are selected based on their ownership on targeted features and handiness. The survey is confined to the selected trainee English instructors of Mara University of Technology, at Malacca City Campus. The entire figure of participants in this survey is about 56 trainee instructors.

3.3 Instrumentality

This survey used a study questionnaire to roll up informations. The questionnaire used in this survey were developed for this survey from the survey titled The effects of IsiZulu /English codification exchanging as a medium of direction on pupils ‘ public presentation in and attitudes towards biological science ( Olugbara, 2008 ) to mensurate pupils ‘ attitudes towards codification shift. The questionnaire consists of three different subdivisions: A, B, C, which are described as follows ;

A- Biographical information of the participants – made up of three points.

B- Students ‘ positions about the instruction linguistic communication – consisting of 13 points.

C- Open ended inquiries which demonstrated pupils ‘ penchants for the linguistic communication of direction – consisting of two points.

The questionnaire comprised both structured ( closed ) and unstructured ( unfastened ended ) inquiries. Students were requested to give their honest positions in a 4-Likert graduated table. The graduated table was comprised as follows ; Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree.

3.4 Data Collection

At the initial phase in obtaining the information for the research, the research worker went to the office of ( Hal Ehwal Akademik dan Pelajar ) to inquire for the cooperation. When the blessing was given by the governments and the set of the questionnaires has been approved by the supervisor, so the study is conducted. The study was conducted in Mara University of Technology, Malacca City Campus on Friday, March 31, 2011. The study had to be done in several Sessionss because there are 56 participants and the topics are from different categories. The questionnaires were distributed to the trainee English instructors in each category. In other words, the trainee instructors ( TESL Students ‘ ) stayed back after category to reply the inquiries and all of them merely took more or less 15 to twenty proceedingss to reply the questionnaires.

3.5 Protocols

A study aggregation research method was used to roll up informations in this survey. Fifty – eight inquiries were asked to the samples to research their feelings and experience with respect to the issues under survey. The questionnaire consist of three chief subdivisions ; debut to the study, prima inquiries and the concluding session. The debut includes the intent of the survey and information on the confidentiality of the samples ‘ responses was explained to them. The 2nd subdivision includes 13 inquiries which consist of several different points in each inquiry that were answered by the participants. The decision subdivision will include shuting comments on thanking the participants and reminding them of possible follow-up inquiries in the hereafter.

3.6 Data Analysis Procedures

Based from the questionnaires ‘ result, the information is analyzed quantitatively utilizing SPSS. The information is presented in tabular arraies. The tabular arraies show the per centums needed. The information gathered is analyzed in relation to the intent of the survey. The purpose of the research is to look into the chief factor lending the attitudes of instructors in the usage of codification switch, types and maps of codification exchanging do the trainee English instructors pattern codification exchanging in the schoolroom.

3.6 Dependability

Dependability is used to prove the consistence of the inquiries based on the old research done by Abdullah A. Alenezi ( 2010 ) . Table 3.6.1 shown the consequence of pilot survey for inquiries from two different subdivisions which are: Section B and C. The dependability trial consequences are: Sections ( B = .720, C = .426 ) , which is dependable. It shows that these points are dependable and good points for a research.

Section

Scale

N OF ITEM

CRONBACH ALPHA

Bacillus

Factor act uponing grownup scholars continue their instruction

13

.720

C

Barriers in grownup instruction

2

.426

Table 3.6.1 Pilot survey, dependability trial consequence

Introduction

I am B.Ed ( Hons ) TESL pupil semester ’08 from Faculty of Education, Mara University of Technology, Malacca City Campus. I am making a study on “ Code Switching as a Medium of Instruction used by Trainee English Teachers of Mara University of Technology ” for the Teaching English as a Second Language ( TESL Students ‘ ) . This questionnaire will assist me obtain the information that I seek for to finish my academic exercising. I guarantee that all your replies will be kept confidential. I would wish to thank you for taking your clip to make full in this questionnaire.

This questionnaire consists of three subdivisions: A, B, & A ; C. Please read each of the undermentioned statements. Then make up one’s mind the extent to which you agree or disagree. Click the figure to the right of inquiry that best lucifers your pick. Thank you so much for your clip and cooperationa╦ć┬Ž .

Section A – Demographic Datas

Please tick ( a?s ) in the appropriate box or supply your inside informations in the spaces.

1. Gender: Female Male

2. Age: 25 – 34 45 – 50

35 – 44 51 and above

3. Presently Prosecuting:

Degree Master PhD

4. Current Occupation: _______________________________ ( Please province )