Orphans And Vulnerable Children In South Africa Education Essay

It is of import that a sustainable, long-run solution is found in visible radiation of an anticipated crisis by 2014 with respect to orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) in South Africa. Harmonizing to the Actuarial Society of South Africa ( ASSA ) , the figure of orphans in South Africa will increase aggressively during the period 2008 – 2014, with 1 542 201 in 2006, and 5 700 000 by 2014. Harmonizing to Johnson and Dorrington, ( 2001: I ) “ South Africa ‘s capacity to supply for the demands of these kids will find the long-run societal stableness of the state.

Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) through its SEED Strategy, is presently helping local churches to be involved in sustainable community development enterprises as a agency of constructing effectual Social ministries so that the lives of vulnerable kids will be positively affected. It is therefore of import that the church considers its function and attack in turn toing the long-run demands of vulnerable kids. Its effectivity in community development is important, particularly in position of the fact that there is non much clip available to make so. If churches are non effectual in their attack to community development, the anticipated crisis will go an overpowering world that will impact the basic quality of life across the socio-economic spectrum.

Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) is a Non-Governmental Organisation ( NGO ) which aims, through its SEED Strategy, “ to Strengthen, Encourage, Equip and Deploy local churches to run into the demands of vulnerable kids through sustainable community enterprises ” ( ttt4c, 2009: n.p ) . Their SEED Strategy is based on ‘Participatory ‘ Community Development rules and results and this scheme was developed by Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) to back up the local church to be meaningfully involved in societal ministry. The SEED Strategy is already incorporated by a figure of churches in South Africa and a scheme is in topographic point to increase this engagement.

Mitchell ( 2001:42 ) , Unruh and Sider ( 2005:5 ) refer to the church ‘s attack to assist strip communities that frequently result in doing them dependent on the church for their uninterrupted good being due to incorrect schemes and attack in their practice of societal ministries. Such churches and communities so frequently live in bondage to an attack that encourages people to depend on the church to supply for them, instead than detecting what they can make for themselves. It is possible that the church has until now restricted its success due to incorrect attacks, but because a societal crisis is looming, the church should non withdraw from societal ministry due to past failures, but should be after and strategise their attempts better. Such an battle should be based on an informed and decently researched attempt.

The church therefore can non afford to prosecute in an attempt or scheme that is non accountable and effectual in the long-run. Making the community dependant on congregational-sponsored proviso is farther non a sustainable option in position of the awaited crisis with respect to orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) in South Africa.

It would look that the church ‘s current engagement in societal ministry should be challenged and further investigated and promoted from the apprehension of what a feasible scheme entails. It seems unwise for the church to prosecute in the SEED Strategy without anterior probe into this scheme as a feasible option. The recommendation from assorted writers ( August, 1999 ; Dreyer, 2004 ; Du Toit, 2002 ; Liebenberg, 1996 ; Myers 1999 ; Myers, 2006 and Vilanculo, 1998 ) associating to christian community development, is a ‘participatory ‘ attack to community development. With the apprehension that ‘Participatory ‘ chiefly relates to the focal point of the methodological analysiss of community development, the related rules and patterns act uponing successful community development should be investigated in visible radiation of the SEED Strategy ‘s proposed results.

It is hence apparent that an pressing consideration of methodological analysiss, schemes and paradigms is needed in the church ‘s attack to societal ministry. With Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) advancing their SEED Strategy as a agency to carry through community development for the benefit of orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) , it is important to look into the effectivity of the SEED Strategy in its aid to folds. This needs to be evaluated in visible radiation of the inter-disciplinary apprehension of community development, recommendations sing enterprises to profit orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) and the authorization of the church ‘s engagement in the lives of the marginalized and hapless. If the SEED Strategy meets the results of this probe, associating to community development, recommendations sing orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) and the publicity of a authorization of the church, it could be considered as a valuable spouse and accelerator in a sustainable and effectual response of the church.

The inquiry so, and which will be addressed in this survey is the undermentioned: What is the recommended attack for the church to follow in visible radiation of a looming societal crisis associating to orphans and vulnerable kids? How does the SEED Strategy of Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) meet the results of such an attack?

The church has until now restricted its ain prosperity in ministering to orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) due to deficient attacks. In order to seek and rectify the state of affairs, this research will look into the recommended participatory attack, based on theological evidences, in order to find related rules and patterns act uponing successful community development. These findings will be integrated with the SEED Strategy implemented by Turn the tide for kids ( ttt4c ) with the purpose of showing the church with recommendations for constructing effectual societal ministries.

Motivation OF STUDY

The wider church is considered to possess possible and a authorization to be a cardinal role-player and accelerator in making sustainable supports that can better the quality of life for these kids.

Harmonizing to Unruh and Sider ( 2005:5 ) most congregational-sponsored plans through their societal ministries provide a limited service to run into pressing or erstwhile demands in their communities. They refer to this limited service as a inclination among folds to chiefly concentrate on undertakings that are short-run and small-scale instead than being on-going and directed at the implicit in causes of societal jobs. This attack causes communities to go dependent on the church for their wellbeing. Unruh and Sider ( 2005:5 ) argue for the church to hold a community development attack that promotes sustainability in the long-run. Unruh and Sider ( 2005:5 ) further argue that churches, who are already involved in community development as their attack to Social Ministries, are non every bit effectual as they ought to be and name for pressing consideration of their attacks, underlying positions and motivations. Assorted writers in the field of Christian community development entreaty to the church to prosecute in ‘participatory ‘ as opposed to ‘positivistic ‘ , ‘modern ‘ and ‘post-modern ‘ paradigms in development work ( August, 1999 ; Dreyer, 2004 ; Du Toit, 2002 ; Liebenberg, 1996 ; Myers 1999 ; Myers, 2006 and Vilanculo, 1998 ) . South Africa is confronting a enormous challenge in long-run societal stableness with a current substructure already exhausted.

Dreyer ( 2004:57 ) identifies the function of the church as the influencer of people ‘s worldview. He farther links this with Christian ‘s ( 1994:6 ) statement that the roots of poorness can be traced to people ‘s worldview. Myers ( 2006:242 ) makes a strong instance that the cause of poorness is basically religious and that development by definition is about altering civilization and changing civilization is about altering values and worldviews. Myers concludes that by denying the function of faith in development, Western authoritiess are excepting the most important factor from the success of any development enterprise ( 2006:243 ) . He does mention to the good developments done by other spiritual groups, but refers to the drive force for the church in the context of transformational development in the fact that the good workss are grounds of the character and activity of the God of the Bible, the God whose Son calls to the new life and whose Spirit is working daily in our universe ( 2006:243 ) .

Dreyer ( 2004:90 ) concludes that the church has the capableness to do important parts which are non within the capacity of most secular administrations. He refers to the major function played by the church as it is act uponing single ‘s worldviews, every bit good as their apprehension of the roots of the jobs disputing development work. He states a strong instance for the civilization of the people involved and their degree of committedness, every bit good as the motive of the church and the people involved to development.

It would look that the church ‘s engagement is merely possible if a feasible scheme for sustainable community development can be found. It seems unwise for the church to prosecute in the SEED Strategy without anterior probe into this as a feasible option.


The awaited results of this research are the undermentioned:

An overview of the province of South African kids and factors lending to the exposure of kids.

To set up an apprehension of the awaited crisis sing orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) .

A theological position for the church ‘s authorization to acknowledge the church ‘s duty and ability to turn to the awaited demand, in visible radiation of a theological apprehension of God ‘s property, specifically associating to the marginalised and orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) . ,

To set up an inter-disciplinary apprehension of community development and guidelines advocated with a national- and international focal point towards the apprehension of family- and community based intercessions for orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) .

To measure the SEED Strategy in visible radiation of the qualitative research and the inter-disciplinary research survey, in order to do recommendations sing Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) and their SEED Strategy.

Recommendations to the church sing a scheme for engagement.


This research will chiefly be based on two research methodological analysiss:

A literature survey

This research methodological analysis will take the signifier of an analytical-critical survey relevant to the job statement as indicated. This implies that research will be done by consistently look intoing and analyzing the bing constructs. This will be done to foremost understand the awaited crisis sing orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) , secondly to set up a theological position for the church authorization, and thirdly to gestate the doctrine, schemes and deductions of community development and the recommended schemes sing orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) . The information obtained will be used as literature control for the qualitative research of Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) and their SEED Strategy. Through this procedure, new penetrations can be obtained which will be helpful in the development of scientifically acceptable recommendations. This is in conformity with Eichelberger ‘s ( 1989:71 ) observation that a literature survey leads to an apprehension of the historical development of the state of affairs in inquiry. This, harmonizing to Kritzinger ( 2000:16 ) , gives lucidity for the development of new penetration and cognition sing the issues at manus.

With the literature research, all applicable informations, chiefly obtained from library databases, which include books, diaries, thesiss and magazines will be investigated. If needed, secondary, important cyberspace beginnings will besides be used. Internet beginnings will be treated as secondary beginnings because of the nature of these beginnings. The UJ Academic database available online via the UJ Library was the primary beginning of cyberspace beginnings, such as academic articles, thesiss and other literature. Other cyberspace beginnings was evaluated in visible radiation of the academic credibleness thereof and accepted in visible radiation of a university ‘s association with the writer and administration. Other cyberspace sourced literature of acknowledged national and international advocators in the field of community development and orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) were consulted in visible radiation of their extended research in the field. While most internet beginnings are considered as non scientifically accountable, extreme attention will be taken when confer withing beginnings outside of the UJ Academic database.

The guidelines given by Creswell ( 1994:24 ) sing responsible covering with literature will be adhered to. These guidelines are:

To get the hang the content of the literature

To place similarities and contradictions within the literature ;

To understand the part made to the specific field of survey ;

To back up and enrich the cognition database with acceptable parts.

Interdisciplinary beginnings will be used in and applied to this survey. Beginnings of the undermentioned focal point will be consulted and included within this survey:

Multicultural dimensions ;

Recommended intercessions for orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) ;

Statistical informations associating to the province of kids, globally, regionally and nationally ;

Community development and the inter-related elements and rules.

Besides theological beginnings will be used in and applied to this survey. Beginnings of the undermentioned focal point will be consulted and included:

Theological literature associating to the engagement of the church in the marginalised people of society, including a specific focal point on kids ;

‘Integrated, ‘ ‘holistic ‘ and ‘transformational ‘ positions for ministry and attacks ; and

Research associating to the church ‘s engagement within a community development position.

Literature non associating to the African and South African context will be treated with sensitiveness and will chiefly be consulted and included for set uping rules related to the survey field.

Qualitative research

Interviews will be conducted with the individuals involved in the SEED Strategy and be examined at the manus of qualitative research. This research survey is an effort to measure the SEED Strategy. Interviews will be conducted until the information is considered concentrated and no new information could be anticipated from the interviews, and until satisfactory informations is obtained to carry on such an rating ( Lincoln & A ; Guba, 1985:2 ) .

To carry through the abovementioned and other demands stipulated by Lincoln and Guba, ( 1985:2 ) , a non-leading and open-ended inquiry will be presented. The results of the research will be subjected to a literature control.

The undermentioned research inquiry is posed: “ State me about Turn the tide 4 kids and their SEED Strategy in your church ‘s community development enterprises or local undertaking. ” The respondents will be selected on the undermentioned evidences:

Merely respondents from seven SEED churches that have already implemented the SEED Strategy, and have changed their attack to their methods of societal ministry, will be interviewed.

Respondents from both the SEED church, and the Community church or community initiative at grass-roots degree will be interviewed.

This research will be structured harmonizing to Widmer ‘s ( 2003:33 ) guidelines. He says that research must be structured in such a manner as to analyze and depict the experience of those involved in the qualitative research. The findings will be subjected to the reading by an independent programmer ( Steyn & A ; Lotter, 2006:115 ) . Cautious attending will be given to adhere to the following ethical demands at all clip:

Engagement by the respondent will be on a voluntary footing, at all clip ;

Under no fortunes will the individuality of the respondent be made public without his or her written consent ;

Information gained will be treated as confidential ;

Respondents will be requested to supply written consent for their responses to be used in this thesis, without doing known the individualities ;

The interviews will be recorded with the consent of the respondents and a transcript will be made thereof ;

The respondents will be informed that their engagement will lend to the successful aid to churches in their attacks to community development enterprises ;

It will be explained that there will be no fiscal benefits involved ;

The respondent can end the interview at any clip without any deductions for the respondent.

( Steyn & A ; Lotter, 2006:115 ) .

The intent of this qualitative research is:

To measure the impact of the SEED Strategy in visible radiation of the churches ‘ responses sing the rules of community development and the recommended schemes for orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) ; and

To set up if the churches involved benefited from the catalytic-relationship promoted by Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) through the SEED Strategy as a means to develop a multi-dimensional attack to community development in turn toing the demands of orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) .

The findings of the qualitative research will be subjected to a literature control. By so making, the findings of the qualitative research will be compared to old research consequences ( Creswell, 1994:23 ) . It is expected that it will ensue in the ability to explicate recommendations to the church sing sustainable community development.

Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this survey and the reading of footings and constructs associating to them, every bit good as the historical background and use of them, an overview of these will be provided. Due to the restriction of this survey, non all relevant footings and constructs could be included in this thesis.


Assorted writers ( Myers, 2006:3 ; Vilanculo, 1998:10 ) refer to the historical background and loaded significances of assorted footings used within the interdisciplinary and spiritual scientific disciplines. This is due to a long history of use that makes it disputing to specify and clear up them. It is, nevertheless, in the best involvement of this survey to do an attempt towards this aim. This subdivision deals with the definition of basic footings and constructs. In so making it is expected that parametric quantities within which specific words, footings or constructs are used in this survey will be more exactly defined.


This term is applied to a assortment of readings that could include a little town, small town or traditional civilisation. Other positions focus on the societal system that is composed of people populating in relationship with each other, sharing common installations and together bordering a common communicating web. It denotes the meeting of common home ground, concerns and civilizations which gives social life its distinguishable character and signifier ( Vilanculo, 1998:10 ) . But, community is besides composed of persons or groups populating in the same geographical country with different and even opposing involvement and demand, and are hence non homogenous entities ( August, 1999:19 ) .


Within the apprehension of HIV associating to the virus as the cause of illness, and AIDS relating to the syndrome as the consequence of the virus, they should be referred to as two separate issues. It is, nevertheless, acknowledged that interrelatedness exists but it needs to be stressed that HIV is non the cause of decease, and being HIV positive, does non needfully connote the presence of AIDS as this is merely developed at a ulterior phase. The authorship manner used within this survey reflects the separation of these within the apprehension that it relates to premises that could take to stigmatisation and favoritism of persons. In visible radiation of the deficiency of cognition and apprehension of the epidemic, this is considered an of import issue.

Carer, caretaker and health professional

These footings are used interchangeably to depict the individual who has the existent attention of the kid, without needfully connoting legal duty ( Tolfree, 2005: four ) .


In most international and national instruments, kids are defined as male childs and girls up to the age of 18 old ages ( Department of Social Development, 2005:12 ; Smart, 2003:3 ) . “ The age of 18 old ages relates chiefly to the by and large accepted age of bulk, though in all states there are legal exclusions, for illustration, the age at which a kid may be married, make a will, or consent to medical intervention ” ( Smart, 2003:3 ) .

Child Headed Household

When the parent or primary health professional of the family is terminally sick or has died, and no grownup household member is available to supply attention and support, it frequently happens that a kid assumes the function of primary health professional in regard of a younger kid, or kids in the family in footings of supplying nutrient, vesture, and psycho-social support ( Department of Social Development, 2005:13 ) .


This is “ a kid who has no lasting parent caring for him or her ” ( Department of Social Development, 2005:12 ) . There is a differentiation made between a kid who has lost one ( ‘single ‘ ) or both ( ‘double ‘ ) his or her parents.

A farther differentiation includes:

A ‘paternal ‘ orphan as a kid who has lost his or her male parent and,

A ‘maternal ‘ orphan as a kid who has lost his or her female parent ( which at times, besides includes dual orphans )

A ‘double ‘ orphan as a kid who has lost both his or her female parent and male parent ( Dorrington & A ; Johnson, 2001:2 ; Department of Social Development, 2005:13 ; Tolfree, 2005: four ; UNICEF, 2004a ; Skinner, Tsheko, Mtero-Munyati, Segwabe, Chibatamoto, Mfeccane, Chandiwa, Nkomo, Tlou, and Chitiyo, 2006:266 ) .

‘Total orphans ‘ are kids under age 18 whose female parent or male parent ( or both ) have died. The entire figure of orphans is equal to the amount of maternal orphans and paternal orphans, minus dual orphans ( because they are counted in both the maternal and paternal classs )

‘New orphans ‘ are kids under age 18 who have lost one or both parents in the old twelvemonth ( UNICEF, 2004a:6 ) .

Orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC )

The abbreviation OVC is frequently used in literature and relates to orphans ( from all causes ) and vulnerable kids ( Smart, 2003:3 ) . The term OVC does, nevertheless, have its ain troubles as a construct, since it has no complete definition or clear statement of inclusion and exclusion ( Skinner et al. , 2006:619 ) . This term, hence, needs to be used with great cautiousness when used as a general inclusion, foremost, because it implies that all HIV and AIDS-affected kids, irrespective of their state of affairs, are ‘vulnerable ‘ ; and secondly, because it can insulate HIV and AIDS-affected kids from other vulnerable kids in the community ( Tolfree, 2005: four ) . Due to the debatable around the term, the abbreviation ‘OVC ‘ will non be used in this survey. This is in visible radiation of the UNICEF ( 2004a:6 ) recommendation in this respect.


This term is by and large used to depict the kid ‘s biological female parent and male parent. However, it is of import to observe that in some societies it is really common for misss and male childs to pass assorted periods of clip with other members of their extended household and sometimes with unrelated households. Throughout this survey the term ‘parent ‘ will by and large mention to the biological parent, but sometimes it will besides mention to the individual ( s ) who have assumed the kid ‘s attention on a lasting footing – e.g. , adoptive parents or extended household members supplying long-run attention ( Tolfree, 2005: V ) .


This term is used in its broadest sense to depict activities that aim to protect kids from injury ensuing from development, disregard and maltreatment. Injury can take a assortment of signifiers, including impacts on kids ‘s physical, emotional and behavioral development ; their general wellness, their household and societal relationships, their self-esteem, their educational attainment, and their aspirations ( Tolfree, 2005: V ) .

Primary Caregiver

An person who has the parental duty or right to care for the kid, and who exercises that duty and right ( Department of Social Development, 2005:5 ) .

Vulnerable Child

A kid whose endurance, attention, protection or development may be compromised due to a peculiar status, state of affairs or circumstance and which prevents the fulfillment of his or her rights ( Department of Social Development, 2005:5 ) .


Chapter 1 – Problem statement, motive, methodological analysis and conceptualisation

The job statement, motive and methodological analysis of research and work scheme will be discussed.

Chapter 2 – The exposure of kids and lending factors

From the researched literature survey, the province of South African kids is provided in visible radiation of an apprehension of the worlds of kids. These worlds straight relate to factors lending to the exposure of kids and an understanding thereof is needed to hold on the awaited crisis associating to orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) in the close hereafter. This is provided through statistical information limited to the South African life conditions of kids and a limited description is provided of the part thereof to the apprehension of exposure.

Chapter 3 – The church as agent for transmutation

A literature survey with no exegesis will be conducted, to see the church ‘s duty, authorization and ability to turn to the awaited demand. This will be done in visible radiation of a theological apprehension of God ‘s properties, specifically associating to the marginalised and kids. This will be considered in the apprehension of God ‘s actions that show his attention and proviso towards the marginalised of society. Further to this, is the dynamical part of Jesus Christ through his workss and instructions. The chapter besides includes the call towards an ‘integral ‘ attack, the dynamic parts of the church and possible function as accelerator towards a more effectual practice of community development. Reasoning the chapter is an overview of the church ‘s current practice and possible grounds for ineffectualness.

Chapter 4 – An overview of basic rules of community development including general guidelines sing intercessions for orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC )

This chapter starts with an interdisciplinary overview for understanding community development in visible radiation of the interconnected elements and rules of community development. An overview of the apprehension of poorness and consideration of the call for a accelerator within the procedure of community development is provided. With a clear apprehension of the worlds of kids in South Africa and the factors lending to their exposure, an overview of recommended schemes associating to family- and community based intercessions is provided. This is from an interdisciplinary position and besides relates to advocacies actively involved in current tendencies and related research in the field of orphans and vulnerable kids ( OVC ) . The intent of the inclusion of these recommendations stems from unfavorable judgment towards the church associating to old and out-of-date methodological analysiss sing the attention of kids.

Chapter 5 – Qualitative research sing Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) and their SEED Strategy

First, an overview of ttt4c ‘s beginnings, history and aims is provided. Second the qualitative research is explained and the responses of the interviews are discussed. The research and penetrations obtained from literature are compared with field research and qualitative research. Attention is concentrated on the rating of the SEED Strategy and the constitution of new penetrations.

Chapter 6 – Recommendations and decision

From the information in Chapter 3 sing the church ‘s authorization, the information from the interdisciplinary literature survey in Chapter 4 and the consequences and penetrations from the qualitative research in chapter 5, recommendations sing the church ‘s battle with the SEED Strategy of Turn the tide 4 kids ( ttt4c ) will be provided. A literature control will be used to confirm and develop any new penetrations.

It is anticipated that through this survey, a model for the apprehension of the primary methodological analysiss for the church to prosecute in a more effectual manner in the community, could be established. Such a model could be recommended to advance a nature of rating of any partnership the church plans to prosecute in when sing a response within a community development scene.