Parental Involvement In Primary Education In Cambodia

Sing to the quality of instruction, parental engagement is of import in instruction sector. The engagement of parents in their kid ‘s instruction cause kids does better in school. ( Support this claim with some mentions ) Parental engagements do non hold yet their ain cosmopolitan definition Some give the definition that the great engagement of parent in school, parent aid kid with single in acquisition, parenting, and after school activities is parental engagement ( National Human Services Assembly,2004 ) . Another definition of parental engagement harmonizing to Zarate ( 2007, p.8 ) is:

Latino parents ‘ perceptual experiences of parental engagement could be grouped into two distinguishable classs: academic engagement and life engagement. Academic engagement was understood to embrace activities associated with prep, educational enrichment, and academic public presentation ; life engagement characterized ways that parents provided life instruction and were holistically integrated into their kids ‘s lives in school, every bit good as off from it.

When asked to specify parental engagement, Latino parents mentioned life engagement more often than academic engagement.

Harmonizing to Chia-Hui Chiu, and Hwa-Wei Ko ( 2005 ) there are many factors of parent ‘s engagement. The relationship between parental factors and kids ‘s reading behaviours and attitudes, kids who have a parent involved in their reading are more likely to bask reading so the kids who do non hold a parent involved.. Furthermore, kids ‘s motive, higher self-pride, improved accomplishment, better school attending, reduced dropout rates, and reduced delinquency are some of the results of parental engagement with school in their kids ‘s instruction. Indeed, kids have motive and assurance in survey because their parents ‘ attention and followup with the school, so the kids will believe that instruction is really of import for their life. That why the more parents are involved with their kid ‘s instruction the more successful kids ‘s accomplishment is ( Anchorage School District Online,2009 ) .

Family engagement can be more powerful to bring forth good consequences for kids and their school consequences. Furthermore, the relationship between the household and the school by formal or informal communicating give kids in simple school more positive benefited ( Harvard College,2007 ) .

In add-on, Cambodian ‘s parent have their ain civilization in order to hesitate their kid in acquisition by directing their kid to school and allow teacher or school do whatever they can to do their kid acquire high accomplishment in school. This civilization showed that some parent in Cambodia they care much about their kid instruction, but they still lack of cognition to how they can assist their kid more than this. Sing to Education Law of Cambodia ( 2007 in chapter 7, article 36 ) is:

Parents or defenders of minor kids, who are dependent, shall hold the undermentioned rights:

The right to take the educational plans and educational establishments to be attended by the scholar ;

The right to have information and survey records of the scholar from the educational establishments ;

The right to accomplish and full engagement in order to develop educational criterions at school and national degrees, straight or through their representatives,

Pare.nts or defenders of minor kids, who are dependent, shall hold the undermentioned duties:

To take the kids, whose age is 6 ( six ) old ages or at least 70 ( 70 ) months, to inscribe in class 1 ( one ) of the general instruction plan at schools, that have proper educational certifications ;

To seek their best to back up the surveies of the scholars, particularly for their basic instruction.

Kept the relationship between school household and community to take part in vocational instruction and reform the educational environment.

As seen above, parental engagement is needed for child instruction to take part in many activities for the intent of bettering the accomplishment of child instruction. Many research workers list legion benefits of parental engagement with their kids ‘s instruction. That is why parental engagement in their kid ‘s instruction is really of import and they besides taking portion in the school development every bit good.

Problem Statement

Numerous research workers have shown that many of parents are non involved with their kids ‘s instruction in school ( Ramey, & A ; Ramey, 2004 ) . Not merely the underdeveloped states but besides the develop states have been meet the same job about the deficiency of engagement in child instruction, ( Jeri, 2009 ) .

The deficiency of parental engagement in child instruction is traveling less and less went their kid is turning older ; it is depend on many grounds. Some parent they lack of involve or good trade with school, household are deficiency of household members, parent have no clip with their kid because the clip is occupied by other unrecorded activities, divorce ‘s parent or decease in the household is consequence to household environment, and unstable fiscal in household is besides the ground of the parent are deficiency of engagement in kids instruction ( Jeri, 2009 ) .

Sing to the consequence of some research worker above, in Kampuchean society besides have been seen many job that done by kids. Many kids use that clip for affecting with some negative activities in or outside school like taking intoxicant, drug maltreatment, pack kids and other activities. Most of them are non auto about their parents because they think parents are busy at work or busy with concern activities and deficiency of involve with school, so that the ground can give alteration to kids make something up to what they want without believing it is right or incorrect.

Purpose of this survey

The intents of this research, we will carry on a instance survey in one private school in Phnom Penh on primary degree in order to ticket out the degree or per centum of Cambodian ‘s parents involved in primary instruction. And we have stated above, there are many sort of parental engagement so the engagements of parents have been done in how many sorts? And what are perceptual experiences of parents on parental engagement in kid instruction?

Research Significance

Sing to this survey it will go a use full papers that can affect in the development activities in instruction sector. Furthermore, the consequence of this survey will bring forth positive facet of parental engagement in primary instruction of any parents and stakeholders who need to be involve in. I am believe that this survey will promote parents in Cambodia are look back to their child instruction ; and they will pass more expensive clip of their concern and their work to back up their kid. On the other manus they will more and more cooperate with school in propose of assisting their kid to execute good in school.

Research inquiry

In order to accomplish the intent of this survey, we need to raise some inquiries:

How many per centum of parental engagement in primary instruction by each of the identified class?

Are there important different in trial mark of kids harmonizing to the degree of parental engagement by each of the identified class?

What are perceptual experiences of parent ‘s in Cambodia about the parental engagement?


Most parents tend to back up kids ‘s acquisition in the degree 1 and traveling less and less from degree 2 to level 6.

There is a important different between trial mark of kids harmonizing to the degree of parental engagement by each of the identified from degree 1 to level 6.

Please note: the Methods chapter is a base entirely chapter and the elements that are being marked have been outlined in the marker standards see below

The treatment and justification for selected informations aggregation method/s provides grounds of a well-developed apprehension of the method/s ‘ strengths and restrictions.

The proposed informations aggregation processes ( sample, method, instruments, informations aggregation and analysis ) are described clearly and fit the research inquiries

Questionnaires, interview inquiries, letters of debut ( where appropriate ) , Consent and Information Forms ( where appropriate ) provide grounds of a sound apprehension of ethical pattern in carry oning research.

The subdivision below is significantly unequal for the research study and needs considerable work to turn to the standards.

The research design


This survey is uniting the quantitative research and qualitative research. This research will be conducted in a private school is located in Sangkhat Tek Laak I, Khan Toul Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. For choosing sample, we use the entire figure of 150 parents of pupils are study from grad 1 to grad 6, all instructors are learning from grad 1 to grad 6, and school principal.


For this survey we will utilize the instrumentality as follow:

Questionnaire with parents of pupils and instructors of grad 1 to grad 6 and it will be including the interview if an reply which is get from questionnaire is non clear and understanding from those parents. In add-on, the pre-testing questionnaire around 10 to 20 transcripts is necessitating to be certain that the questionnaire are short cleared and consisted.

Interview with school principal.

Interview with category frequenters

Group treatment among 7 to 10 parents, 4 to 5 instructors of primary instruction, and school directions. This activity is wanted to cognize profoundly on the perceptual experience of parental engagement in child instruction.

For the trial I no demand to plan for all pupils, but I will utilize the trial mark of one-year test.

Analysis the articles best on observation and determination from the consequence of inquirer and interview.

Data aggregation process

The questionnaire is distributed to single parents are acknowledged and take parting in this study will be received from instructors and suggested to return back with day of the month required. In order to do certain that all parents are understand this questionnaire, we will do phone call to all engagement who get that paper in progress and tried to explicate each point if they are non good understanding.

For the interview will be conducted in the school country during clip available harmonizing to peculiar state of affairs of all instructors and school principal with good assignment. The interview ‘s clip is non limited. And before behavior the interview Ever engagement will be given an chance to inquire any inquiry before get downing their study.

The concluding trial mark of the one-year test will be collected from the academic officer with the later of blessing from the school principal.

Datas analysis

The information collected will be computerized in the manner of explain or analysis the information of this survey. Furthermore, there are many variables will be usage to analysis such as the criterion of parent engagement, the instruction degree of parent, parent ‘s age, parent ‘s business, the figure of household member, individual familyaˆ¦ est. related to the one-year trial mark.


All engagements are holding their ain duties with their occupation or concern. However, merely engagement those are willing to volunteer to reply the inquiry in questionnaire or interview signifier will be able to acquire replies. This survey is work with lone one of the private school in Cambodia so it is non average that it represent to Cambodia. But it can be a sample survey of one peculiar school in Cambodia.

Ethical issues?

Chapter II

Reappraisal of Literature

If we look back to the history of research papers that related to the parental engagement in kids instruction are non defined but it seem that there are many term of universe that they used to categorise the degree or steep of the manner that parent are involve in kids instruction. For illustration: Harmonizing to The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute “ TRPI ” ( 2007 ) , the perceptual experience of Latin American parents about the engagement of parent in kids instruction was divided in to two classs including “ Academic Engagement ” and “ Life Engagement ” . For these two sorts of the parental engagement have the characteristic as bellow TRPI ( 2007, p.8 ) :


Academic Involvement

Life Participation

Attend parent-teacher conferences.

Be cognizant of kid ‘s life.

Sign prep as required by the instructor.

Be cognizant of and supervise kid.

Know when to anticipate study cards.

Be cognizant of kid ‘s equal group and interacting with equals ‘ parents.

Ask about prep daily.

Teach good ethical motives and regard of others.

Listen to the kid read.

Communicate with kid.

Visit schoolroom during unfastened houses.

Be cognizant of and promote kid ‘s abilities and calling aspirations.

Ask inquiries about prep.

Provide general encouragement.

Ask friends, siblings, and other household members for prep aid for kid.

Discuss hereafter planning.

Have high criterions for academic public presentation.

Monitor school attending.

Purchase stuffs required for category.

Exercise subject and supply behavioural cuing

Drive them to tutoring and school activities.

Establish trust with kid.

Travel to the library with them.

Provide advice on life issues.

Be present when required to pick up study cards at school.

Warn of dangers outside the place, such as illegal drugs.

Get to cognize instructors to measure kid ‘s safety.

Volunteer to detect school environment.

Encourage siblings to look out for each other.

Furthermore, in context of Cambodian ‘s parent it is non so easy to divide between academic engagement and life engagement. It is so complicated when utilizing those term of universes. Most parents do non hold high degree of instruction background. For academic engagement as my observation parent have been applied but it is non intend that all parent have been done all points. But for life engagement it seem to be deficiency of engagement from parents because many Kampuchean parent including instructors are non clearly know about life engagement even they already done some of the component in these portion. Why I can state like this? If we say about the academic engagement most of activity is done by school policy or ordinance that push to all parents to make so. And life engagement is depend on how are characteristic of household ‘s life. As my observation Kampuchean people careless about emotional largely think about physical.

In add-on, the research consequence has found that there are relationship between positive school clime, household engagement, improved instruction, and pupil accomplishment. And the survey besides found many benefits of parental engagement for kids, parent, school quality, households, and communities every bit good, harmonizing to Family Strengthening Policy Center ( 2004 ) . This research besides found the National Parent Teacher Association criterions for parent/family engagement by Family Strengthening Policy Center ( 2004, p.6 ) :

Standard I: Communicatinga?’-communication between place and school is

regular, bipartisan, and meaningful.

Standard II: ParentingA­a?’Parenting accomplishments are promoted and supported.

Standard III: Student Learninga?’parents play an built-in function in helping pupil acquisition.

Standard IV: Volunteeringa?’Parents are welcome in the school, and their support and aid are sought.

Standard V: School Decision Making and Advocacya?’Parents are full spouses in the determinations that affect kids and households.

Standard VI: Collaborating with Communitya?’Community resources are used to beef up schools, households, and pupil acquisition.

Sing to the reviewed of literature above there are many good point in order to bring forthing the construct of this research. Some guide line that is utile for Cambodia context. For this research, I will divide the parental engagement in instruction as follow with the six criterions above ( Standard I, Standard II, Standard III, Standard IV, Standard V and Standard VI ) . If we compare to what are stated in the research of Tomas Rivera Policy Institute “ TRPI ” ( 2007 ) each standard degree from Standard I to Standard VI there are including the academic engagement and life engagement. This criterion is non so complicate because we merely set the degree of engagement of parent on their kid instruction in each degree.

And other research, Maria, Jennifer, Bruce, et Al. ( 2009 ) has conducted the research on parental engagement and kids ‘s school accomplishment sown that there are relationship between the engagement in instruction of parents and the academic results of pupils. There are several ways in order to do higher on kids ‘s academic accomplishment such as parents have good direction and good pattern on larning at place, reading together with their kids, kids ‘s school-related behaviours are governable, good manage on their survey clip of their kids, place environment, motive to larn, and more involve with kids ‘s making prep. Furthermore, survey besides found that parents ‘ emotional tone is related to kids interaction sing school issues merely like parents ‘ encouraging manner and supportive from parental engagement. In the other manus, the negative kids ‘s school results are related to force per unit area from parents sing with some activities like bids, penalty, or coercive interactions.

In add-on, the family-school relationships have the theoretical account was non related with female parents ‘ and male parent ‘ engagement, by Maria, Jennifer, Bruce, et Al. ( 2009, p.39 ) found:

The family-School Relationships Model


Social- Personal General General School-Focused Child ‘s

Cultural/ Characteristics Family parent-Child parent-child Personal Child Outcomes

Biological of Parents Relations Interactions interactions Features


Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 0

Context Parent features and household processes Child Traits Child behaviour

of household or competences or achievements

What are the APA ethical criterions with respects to copying a figure? Please cgeck the APA book about admiting beginnings etc.

With this theoretical account they divided the degree of parental engagement in six degrees but it is different from the consequence of other research above. The kid traits or competences is in the degree 1, Parent features and household procedures is in degree 2 to level 5 and flat 6 is context of household. Furthermore, in each degree this theoretical account has their ain feature to place the engagement on their child instruction.

This chapter needs considerable work – please aline the work with the standards in the marker sheet – pasted below

Evidence of rating of the method/s used to roll up literature ( e.g. description of databases and beginnings used to place literature ) .

Literature reappraisal of research problem/question – the extent, currency and ability to warrant inclusion of literature in reappraisal.

Evidence of designation of subject developed from literature instead than a simple chronological list of authors in the field/topic

Evidence of designation of theoretical models used by authors

Evidence of thoughtful reading and analysis of the informations aggregation methods reported in literature.

Evidence of thoughtful reading and analysis of the reported consequences found in the literature.



Chapter III


Mentions please look into APA manner for composing Refernce lists and amend this list to reflect APA manner.

Chia-Hui, C. , & A ; Hwa-Wei, K. ( 2005 ) . Relations between parental factors and children’s reading behaviours and attitudes: Consequences from PIRLS 2005 field trial in Taiwan.

Craig, T. R. , & A ; Sharon, L. R. ( 2004 ) . Parents engagement in kids ‘s instruction. The newssheet for the centre for development and acquisition. Plain Talk, 4 ( 9 ) , p. 1.

Harvard household research undertaking, ( 2007 ) . Family engagement in simple school kids ‘s instruction: Family engagement makes a difference. 2 in A series, winter 2006/2007.

Jeri LaBahn. Education and parental engagement in secondary schools: Problems, solutions, and effects. Retrieved September 08, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: // whuitt/ files/parinvol.html

Maria, E. Z. ( 2007 ) . Understanding Hispanic parental engagement in instruction: Percepts, outlook, Retrieved September 12,2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: // data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/3e/55/da.pdf

National Human Services Assembly ( October, 2004 ) .Parental engagement in instruction, Family beef uping policy centre, Brief ( 3 )

Maria A. Rogers, Jennifer Theule, Bruce A. Ryan, et Al. ( 2009 ) . Parental engagement and kids ‘s school accomplishment: Evidence for interceding procedures, Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Retrieved August 20, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //cjs. at James Cook University

Students benefit from parent engagement, Anchorage School District Online. Retrieved August 18, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Tomas Rivera Policy Institute ( 2007 ) . Understanding Latino Parental Involvement in Education: Percepts, outlooks, and recommendations. LA: California.

Kimberly S. Adams and Sandra L. Christenson ( 2000 ) . Trust and the Family-School Relationship Examination of Parent-Teacher Differences in Elementary and Secondary Grades Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp MN: United states


Kimberly S. Adams and Sandra L. Christenson ( 2000 )

Table 1

Trust Scale From the Family-School Relationship Survey

Parent/guardian signifier

I am coni¬?dent that instructors:

aˆ? are making a good occupation learning my kid academic topics

aˆ? are making a good occupation learning my kid to follow regulations and waies

aˆ? are making a good occupation assisting my kid decide coni¬‚icts with equals

aˆ? are making a good occupation maintaining me intelligent of my kid ‘s advancement

aˆ? are making a good occupation promoting my engagement in my kid ‘s instruction

aˆ? are making a good occupation training my kid

aˆ? are easy to make when I have a job or inquiry

aˆ? maintain me cognizant of all the information I need related to school

aˆ? are making a good occupation promoting my kid ‘s sense of self-pride

aˆ? are making a good occupation promoting my kid to hold a positive attitude toward larning

aˆ? are making a good occupation assisting my kid understand his/her moral and ethical duties

aˆ? are friendly and accessible

aˆ? are receptive to my input and suggestions

aˆ? are sensitive to cultural differences

aˆ? esteem me as a competent parent

aˆ? attention about my kid

aˆ? have my kid ‘s best involvements at bosom

aˆ? are worthy of my regard

aˆ? will make what is best for my kid in the schoolroom Teacher signifier

I am coni¬?dent that parents/guardians:

aˆ? are making a good occupation learning their kid academic topics at place

aˆ? are making a good occupation learning their kid to follow regulations and waies

aˆ? are making a good occupation assisting their kid decide coni¬‚icts with equals

aˆ? are making a good occupation take parting in their kid ‘s instruction

aˆ? are making a good occupation training their kid

aˆ? are easy to make when I have a inquiry or job

aˆ? make me cognizant of all the information I need about their kid

aˆ? are making a good occupation promoting their kid ‘s sense of self-pride

aˆ? are making a good occupation promoting their kid to hold a positive attitude toward larning

aˆ? are making a good occupation assisting their kid understand his/her moral and ethical duties

aˆ? are friendly and accessible

aˆ? are receptive to my input and suggestions

aˆ? are sensitive to cultural differences

aˆ? esteem me as a competent instructor

aˆ? are clearly committed to their kid ‘s instruction

aˆ? are worthy of my regard

aˆ? have their kid ‘s best involvements at bosom

Interview List


Appendix A: Information Sheet

Information FOR PARTICIPANTS – Focus Group Discussion

Plan: Maestro of Education

Research Title: Parental Engagement in Primary Education in Cambodia: A Case: Survey in a Private School

Supervisor: Dr Chhinh Sitha

Research Student: Tan Sophondarith


tansophondarith @

The purpose of this survey is to research maestro pupils ‘ perceptual experience of their development as novitiate research workers and place factors that have assisted or blocked their development as get downing research workers. It consists of two phases- Phase 1 is Questionnaire for Parents, Phase 2 is Focus Group Discussions.

The focal point group treatment involves 10 parents run intoing with the research worker to discourse their perceptual experience toward the research as the beginning research workers and the experiences of carry oning their initial research. the treatment group is expected to take no more than 60 proceedingss or more deepen on the existent state of affairs and will be audio recorded for written text and analysis.

The research worker stresses that taking portion in the treatment group is voluntary. , Due to the nature of a treatment group confidentiality can non be assured but there will be no placing names used in the concluding research study or any other documents produced from this research.

If you have any inquiries refering this survey, delight contact either Mr. Tan Sophondarith through the item listed supra. If you have any inquiries sing the ethical behavior of the research undertaking, delight contact Dr Chhinh Sitha phone figure: 012-722-297, Email: sithachhinh @


Research Title:

Masters of Education

Parental Involvement in Primary Education in Cambodia: A Case: Survey in a Private School.

Contact Detailss:

Tan Sophondarith


tansophondarith @

The intent of this survey is to research parents ‘ perceptual experience of their engagement as novitiate research workers and to place factors that have assisted of out of use parents non actively to affect with their kids in child instruction as get downing research.

The purpose of this survey have been clearly explained to me ( in composing and/or verbally ) and I understand what is wanted of me.

I know that taking portion in this Focus Group Discussion is voluntary and I am cognizant that I can halt taking portion in it at any clip and may decline to reply and any inquiries.

I understand that no names will be used to place me with this survey without my blessing.

I understand that by its nature a Focus Group Discussion can non be guaranteed of confidentiality.

Appendix B: Informed Consent

INFORMED CONSENT FORM – Focus Group Discussion

I consent to take parting in an interview for this research. YES i?? NO i??

I consent to holding my interview recorded and a transcript made. YES i?? NO i??

Name: ( printed )

Signature ( or hitchhike print )