Potential Of Renewable Energy Sources In Pakistan Environmental Sciences Essay

Energy is an indispensable ingredient of socio – economic development and growing. Pakistan, despite of tremendous potency of autochthonal energy resources, is dependent on external resources for run intoing their energy demand. Furthermore, Pakistan is among those developing states with low energy ingestion. Merely 55 % and 20 % Pakistan ‘s population has entree to electricity and natural gas severally. About 68 % Population is populating in rural countries and most of them have no entree to electricity. At present, the people are confronting terrible electricity burden casting jobs due to shortage of power supply. The state is confronting immense economic losingss due to the energy crises from the old two old ages. Oil ( 30 % ) and gas ( 48.5 % ) are the major portion of the current energy supply. The current oil reservoirs of the state are really low, which fulfill 15 % of the oil demand while staying 85 % oil is imported from outside universe. The autochthonal recoverable reservoirs of oil and gas will wash up in 13 and 21 old ages severally. Pakistan has broad spectrum of high potency renewable energy beginnings, conventional and every bit good non-conventional, which have non been adequately explored, exploited and developed. The development of the renewable energy beginnings can play an of import function to accomplish stable energy supply. This paper discussed possible of different renewable energy resources, which are technically feasible in Pakistan. The state can be benefited by tackling these options of energy coevals as utility energy in countries where beginnings exist and accordingly lending in poorness relief and cleansing agent environment in Pakistan

Cardinal Wordss: Pakistan, renewable energy, hydropower, wind energy, solar energy, biogas, geothermic, emergy

Introduction

Energy is an indispensable ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growing. Without sufficient energy in functional and at low-cost monetary values, there is a small chances of developments of bettering the economic system of a state and the life conditions of people.

It is good known fact that technological and industrial promotion is to a great extent dependent on the readily available energy particularly in the signifier of fossil fuel. The larger proportion of the today energy supplies is still made of fossil fuels. The universe is running on 60 % non – renewable ( Odum and Odum, 2001 ) . It is estimated that planetary energy demand will be increase by two tierces in 2001-2030 ( IEA, 2002a ) . The reservoirs of fossil fuel are non limitless and at the present rate of ingestion they will non last really long. The universe community today uses up in one minute what it took the Earth a millenary to make. The oil reservoirs are diminishing and it is predicted that fossil fuels can merely run into the universe ‘s energy demand merely for three decennaries more ( IEA, 2002a ) . Furthermore, it has been once and for all proved that clime alteration, which has been ensuing in planetary heating, is chiefly caused by nursery gas emanations from energy bring forthing systems based on fossil fuels. Yet another facet that has come into crisp focal point is that the developing states can ill afford to depend overly upon crude oil imports marked by volatile monetary value fluctuations

Since the origin of Pakistan, the primary power supplies from the conventional energy beginnings were ( and are still today ) non plenty to run into the state ‘s energy demand. Pakistan, despite the tremendous potency of its autochthonal energy, remains energy deficient and has to trust to a great extent on the imports of the crude oil merchandises to fulfill its present twenty-four hours need. Attempts have been made to work the bing conventional energy resources to construct a strong autochthonal geographic expedition and production base. In malice of all these attempts, Pakistan is non able to to the full work its autochthonal energy resources due to assortment of grounds. Although, the thermic power bring forthing capacity has increased quickly during the last few old ages due to foreign investing, but at same clip, it has caused increased air pollution and CHG emanation with the consequence of debasement of wellness and ecosystem ( Ziagham & A ; Nayyer, 2005 ) .

After the 1970 ‘s oil crises, the issues of “ security of energy supplies ” and “ sustainable usage of energy beginnings ” have become really of import policy issues. From so, there has been an increasing involvement all over the universe for option of conventional energy beginnings to guarantee eco – friendly sustainable development on the one manus and energy security on the other. This paper describe the potency of renewable energy beginnings in Pakistan

WHY RENEWABLE ENERGY?

After the oil crises of the 1970 ‘s, all the developed and non – oil bring forthing states were faced with huge oil supply jobs. There developed a broad spread economic recession all over the universe due to the high oil monetary values. Furthermore, with in lifting green motion, the environmental job became dominant in policy docket

The dodo fuel still continues to rule the universe energy supply. The dodo fuel ingestion is more than the Earth capacity to bring forth it. As a consequence, oil reservoir are run outing out really fast and it is predicted that the staying fossil fuels can merely run into the universe ‘s energy demand merely three decennaries more ( IEA, 2002a ) . Furthermore, the environmental harm that is created by fossil fuels is besides another important danger in the hereafter. Along with environmental jobs, clime alteration besides created economic and societal losingss. If the current gait continues, the conditions and clime losingss will make about $ 150 billion by following decennary ( IEA, 2002a ) . Because of these grounds, Renewable energy has gained importune in the energy policy docket

Two of import planetary environment enterprises have besides stimulated greater involvement in renewable in the universe. The first was the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ( UNCED ) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. Renewables featured in both Agenda 21 and the Climate Change Convention ( United Nations, 1992 ) . Because of the of import function of fossil fuels in the build-up of nursery gases in the ambiance ( it is estimated that the energy sector histories for about half the planetary emanations of green-house gases ) and attendant clime alteration concerns, renewable are perceived to represent an of import option for mitigating and slaking the emanations of nursery gases ( Socolow, 1992 ) .

Renewable besides featured high on the docket of the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development ( WSSD ) in 2002. One of the marks proposed at WSSD was for every state to perpetrate itself to run intoing 10 % of its national energy supply from renewable. Although the 10 % mark was non agreed to at the acme, there was general consensus that states should perpetrate themselves to publicity of renewable ( WEHAB Working Group, 2002 ) .

The chief advantage of renewable beginnings is that they are found in every portion of the universe depending on geographical and geological state of affairss. In other words, they are autochthonal energy beginnings. The states does non necessitate to import them, which means they can alleviate the dependence job on one manus and can salvage cherished foreign exchange militias on the other. Renewable energy has besides economic and societal benefits ; such as occupations creative activity. In 2002, more than 14 1000000s occupations have created universe broad in RE activities ( IEA, 2002a ) . Harmonizing to U.S. Department of energy, merely in 2002, 25,000 new occupations were created in photovoltaic ( PV ) industry ( Aitken, 2004 ) .

RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN PAKISTAN

Pakistan has broad spectrum of high potency of renewable energy beginnings, conventional and non-conventional every bit good, which have non been adequately explored, exploited or developed. As a consequence, the primary energy supplies today are non plenty to run into even the present demand. Furthermore, a really big portion of the rural countries does non hold the electrification installations because they are either excessively distant and/or excessively expensive to link to the national grid. So, Pakistan, like other developing states of the part, is confronting a serious challenge of energy shortage. Merely 55 % and 20 % of Pakistan ‘s population has entree to electricity and natural gas severally. Furthermore, approximately 80 % state ‘s population lives in rural countries and most of them have no entree of to electricity. In Pakistan, per capita primary energy supply is merely 0.33 million dozenss oil equivalent ( MTOE ) while per capita electricity supply is about 520 kWh compared to World ‘s mean 2,500 kWh At present people are confronting terrible burden sloughing ( about 10 hours a twenty-four hours ) due to shortage of 3 GW power supply. Pakistan has really low autochthonal dodo fuel resource base and with present rate of production, the autochthonal recoverable militias of oil and gas will exhausted in 14 and 21 severally. Though there is tremendous coal reservoir ( 185 billion dozenss ) in the state but has non utilized so far due to assortment of grounds. The chance of atomic energy is bright in Pakistan but high cost, engineering barriers and international trade stoppages are the large hurdlings in its class. This shows that conventional non renewable resources are grossly unequal for run intoing the hereafter energy demands of the state. Therefore, development of the renewable energy beginnings can play an of import function in run intoing this challenge ( Harijan et al. , 2008 ) .

Pakistan stretches from 24A°N to 37A°N latitudes and from 61A°E to 76A°E longitudes. The entire land country of Pakistan is about 800,000 kmA? . The landscape varies from exalted Karakoram and Himalaya mountains, with the K-2 extremum ( 2nd highest in the universe: 8,613 metres ) to the celebrated desert of Thar and includes fertile fields of the river Indus and its feeders. The offshore covers over 231,674 kmA? in the Arabian Sea. In Pakistan, cropped and forest lands cover an country of about 23 million hectares and 4 million hectares severally ( AEDB web site: www.aedb.org )

There are rather a figure of renewable energy beginnings, but the resources that are technologically feasible and have bright chances to be exploited commercially in Pakistan include, Solar ( PV, thermal ) , Water ( mega & A ; local macro-micro-hydel ) Wind. Wastes ( City solid waste, carnal waste ) geothermal. Pakistan can acquire benefit and utilize these as replacement energy in countries where beginnings exist.

Water Energy Potential

Hydropower is one of the oldest signifiers of energy world has used on a mass graduated table. Mechanical usage of hydropower began 1000s of old ages ago by the Egyptians and Greeks for irrigation and milling of grain. Its usage for production of electricity day of the months back to the nineteenth century – in 1882 electricity was produced for the first clip by the usage of hydropower ( Asif, 2008 ) . It is the most various beginning of energy being used in the universe. It is renewable, abundant, environmentally friendly and technically mature. It is besides regarded as the most economical signifier of energy. Hydropower is regarded as one of the most of import beginnings of energy Pakistan can number on. Despite the presence of a strong base for

Table-1: Proposed sites and their discharge, autumn and power potency

S #

Name of Channel

Location

Discharge in fee/second

Fall in Feet

Power Potential in MW

1

Baloki-Sulamanki Link-1

RD106250

12500

10.64

10.00

2

Baloki-Sulamanki Link-2

RD33430

9000

17.86

10.72

3

Chanab-Jhelum Link ( Tail )

RD316622

13527

41.70

40.00

4

Upper Chanab

RD0

16500

8.83

9.70

5

TP Link Canal ( DG Khan )

RD183000

12000

3.00

12.28

( Beginning: Hassan, 2002 )

this signifier of energy, non plenty has been done to tap the cherished resource. The hydro potency was estimated at about 50,000 MW out of which about 4,800 MW has been developed over the past 50 old ages through mega-hydel workss and the remaining has yet to be exploited ( Kazi, 1999 ) . The northern countries of the state are rich with hydropower resources. Hydrological study besides revealed that there is a great potency for 300 MW power coevalss through building of micro – hydropower workss in northern countries of Pakistan ( Hassan, 2002 ) . Besides, there is an huge potency for working H2O falls in the canal web peculiarly in Punjab, where low caput high discharge exists on many canals. Irrigation system of Pakistan is one the largest in the universe holding extended web of canal of 160,000 km length. The canal system has a immense hydropower potency at legion sites/locations on these irrigation canals, runing from 1MW to more than 10MW, which can be utilized for developing little hydro-power Stationss ( Hussan, 2002 )

Wind Energy

Harnessing air current power to bring forth electricity on a commercial graduated table has become the fastest turning energy engineering. Economic, political and technological forces are now emerging to do air current power a feasible beginning of energy. Data shows that worldwide installed air current power capacity during the period 1996-2008. The entire air current power capacity was merely 6,100 MW which has increased enormously and reached to 120791 MW in 2008. Pakistan has a considerable potency of air current energy in the coastal belt of Sindh, Baluchistan and every bit good as in the desert countries of Punjab and Sindh. This renewable beginning of energy has nevertheless, non so far been utilised significantly. The coastal belt of Pakistan is blessed with a God gifted air current corridor that is 60 kilometer broad ( Gharo ~ Kati Bandar ) and 180 kilometers long.This corridor has the exploitable potency of 50,000 MW of electricity coevals through air current energy ( AEDB web site: www.aedb.org )

Fig.1. Worldwide installed air current power capacity 1996-2008 ( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ewea.org/ )

Fig. 2. Pakistan Meteorological Department ‘s air current function Stationss Beginning: www.aedb.org

Pakistan is a late starting motor in this field. It is estimated that more than 5000 small towns can be electrified through air current energy in Sindh, Balochistan and Northern countries Country foremost of all time commercial 50 MW air current farm has been inaugurated in April 2009 with cooperation of Zorlu Enerji Group of Turkey at Jhimpir, District Thatta, Sindh. Furthermore, Undertakings for coevals of 1200MW of electricity from air current are in different phases of development ( AEDB web site: www.aedb.org )

Solar Energy

Direct solar energy can loosely be categorized into solar photovoltaic ( PV ) engineerings, which convert the suns energy into electrical energy ; and solar thermal engineerings, which use the Sun energy straight for warming, cookery and drying ( Karekezi and Ranja, 1997 ) . Solar energy has for a long clip been used for drying carnal teguments and apparels, continuing meat, drying harvests and vaporizing saltwater to pull out salt. Substantial research has been done over the old ages on working the immense solar energy resource. Today, solar energy is utilized at assorted degrees. On a little graduated table, it is used at the family degree for illuming, cookery, H2O warmers and solar architecture houses ; medium scale contraptions include H2O warming in hotels and irrigation. At the community degree, solar energy is used for vaccine infrigidation, H2O pumping, purification and rural electrification. On the industrial graduated table, solar energy is used for pre-heating boiler H2O for industrial usage and power coevals, detoxification, municipal H2O warming, telecommunications, and, more late, transit ( solar autos ) ( Karekezi and Ranja, 1997 ; Ecosystems, 2002 ) .

Solar energy has first-class potency in countries of Pakistan that receive high degrees of solar radiation throughout the twelvemonth. Every twenty-four hours, state receives an norm of about 19 Mega Joules per square metre of solar energy ( AEDB web site: www.aedb.org ) .

During last twenty old ages Pakistan has shown rather encouraging developments in photovoltaic ( PV ) . Currently, solar engineering is being used in Pakistan for rural telephone exchanges, repeater Stationss, main road exigency telephones, cathodic protection, infrigidation for vaccinum and medical specialties in the infirmaries etc. The Public Health Department has installed many solar H2O pumps for imbibing intents in different parts of the state. Both the private and public sectors are playing their functions in the Popularization and up scaling of photovoltaic activities in the state. A figure of companies are non merely involved in trading photovoltaic merchandises and contraptions but besides fabricating different constituents of PV systems. They are selling PV faculties, batteries, regulators, invertors, every bit good as

Beginning: www.aedb.org

Fig. 3. Annual mean average day-to-day Solar Radiation in Pakistan KWH/sq.m

practical low power appliances for burden casting such as photovoltaic lamps, battery coursers, garden visible radiations System ( SHS ) undertaking in 2005 and basic installations of lighting, cookery and H2O disinfection were provided to 11 small towns in distant countries of Pakistan. Based on success of this plan, the authorities had approved reproduction of this undertaking in 400 small towns in Baluchistan & A ; Sindh ( Source: www.aedb.org

Energy from Waste

For more than twenty old ages, Waste to Energy has been recognized as a clean, dependable, renewable beginning of energy. In America today 2,500 MW are entirely generated by the waste-to-energy workss. Many other states including Sweden and Japan have applied this engineering since the last 20 old ages. In the subcontinent, India installed three undertakings to bring forth electricity from waste with a entire capacity of 17.6 MW ( Shahid 2009 )

It is estimated that the urban countries of Pakistan generate over 55,000 tones of solid wastes daily ( Ziagham & A ; Nayyer, 2005 ) Unfortunately in Pakistan this beginning of energy has non been utilized for power coevals in the yesteryear. The turning urbanisation and alterations in the form of life has given rise to coevals of increasing measures of wastes and it ‘s now going another menace to our environment.

Energy coevals from the Animal Waste

Pakistan is an agricultural state. About 70 % of the population resides in rural countries who meet 95 % of their domestic fuel demands by firing bio-fuels

Biogas is a possible renewable energy beginning in Pakistan. An estimation indicates that Pakistan has potency of bring forthing 8.58 A- 1010 three-dimensional metre of biogas 1287 million tones of cowss dung yearly produced. The heat value of this gas amounts to 1.8A-112 MJ. In add-on, 350 1000000s dozenss of manure would besides bring forth with biogas ( Illyas, 2006 ) . More than 0.024 1000000s domestic biogas programs have been installed in Pakistan. These workss are of little size ( 1-10 m ) capacity and chiefly used for cookery and other domestic applications.

AEDB has facilitated the Landhi Cattle Colony Biogas undertaking, which upon its completion will be one of the largest wastes to energy undertakings in the universe, bring forthing up to 50 MW of electricity. The pilot stage of 250 kilowatt has been successfully initiated. This undertaking is being implemented by Empower Company of New Zealand and will use waste of 400,000 cowss in the country to bring forth electricity ( Beginning: www.aedb.org )

Geothermal

Geothermal energy is the energy derived from the heat of the Earth ‘s nucleus. It is clean, abundant and dependable. If decently developed, it can offer a renewable and sustainable energy beginning. At an international degree, about 8,100 MW of geothermic power is generated, out of a planetary potency of 60,000MW ( Marietta, 2002 ; Bronicki, 2001 ) . Most of the high heat content geothermic resources of the universe are within seismal belts associated with zones of crustal failing such as home base

borders and centres or volcanic activity. A planetary seismic belt passes through Pakistan and the state has a long geological history of geotectonic events: Permo-carboniferous volcanism ( Panjal traps in Kashmir ) as a consequence of rifting of Iran-Afghanistan micropiates, Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting of the Indo-Pakistan Plate, widespread volcanism during Late Cretaceous ( Deccan traps ) attributed to the visual aspect of a “ hot topographic point ” in the part, outgrowth of a concatenation of volcanic islands along the borders of the Indo-Pakistan Plate, hit of India and Asia ( Cretaceous-Paleocene ) and the consequent Himalayan turbulence, and Neogene-Quaternary volcanism in the Chagai District ( Kazmi & A ; Jan, 1999 ; Raza & A ; Bander, 1995 ) . This Geotectonic model indicates that Pakistan should non be missing in commercially exploitable beginnings of geothermic energy. Potential geothermic energy sites are identified at Sehwan in Sindh and Koh-e-Sultan in Baluchistan state

Fig 4. Geothermal Springs of Pakistan Source: www.aedb.org

Emergy, Net energy ratings and environmental burden of Renewable Energy Beginnings

There is a great potency of renewable energy beginnings in Pakistan. However, there are some cardinal inquiries to be address before working these resources.

What will be the net energy and emergy from these energy systems?

What will be new environmental burden they create?

Are these energy systems sustainable or non?

Explaining these inquiries is beyond the range of this paper but I will show a general position of above mentioned constructs.

Net Energy Analysis

Net energy refers to the ratio of the sum of energy produced to the sum of energy expended to bring forth it Net energy determines the utility of energy system to society. The utility of an energy system is determined by a complex combination of physical, proficient, economic and societal properties. This includes energy denseness, power denseness, emanations, cost and efficiency of transition, fiscal hazard amenableness to storage, hazard to human wellness, and easiness of conveyance. These properties combine to find energy quality. Energy returns for investing ( EROI ) is an of import tool utilizations for net energy analysis. EROI is used to compare the sum of energy delivered to society by a engineering to the entire energy required to happen, pull out, procedure, deliver, and otherwise upgrade that energy to a socially utile signifier. Hydropower has the highest EROI among the renewable energy resources. Wind energy system has really favourable EROI in the right status while solar thermal have low EROI compared to hydropower. They cardinal issue is the size of the excess that can realistically be delivered by renewable energy system ( Cleveland, C.J. 2008 )

Beginning: ( Odum, H.T. 1998 )

Fig. 4 Energy transmutation, storage, and feedback support found in units self organized for maximal public presentation

Emergy Synthesis

Emergy refers to Available energy of one sort antecedently required straight and indirectly to do a merchandise or service ( Odum, H.T. 1998 ) . Emergy synthesis serves as an alternate method to measure the energy flows of a system. It provides a manner to account for differences in energy quality, for environmental services provided to a system, every bit good as a agency to mensurate a system ‘s degree of Emergy sustainability. To deduce the solar emergy of a resource or trade good, it is necessary to follow back through all the resource and energy flows that are used to bring forth it and show these input flows in the sum of solar energy that went into their production. This has been done for a broad assortment of resources and trade goods every bit good as for the renewable energies driving the biogeochemical procedure of the Earth ( Brown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. 2002 )

Emergy and energy accounting require systems diagrams to form ratings and history for all inputs to, and escapes from, procedures. The constructions and storages that operate our universe of humanity and environment are sustained against the depreciation of the 2nd jurisprudence by productive inputs for replacing and care. Maximizing the merchandises and services for growing and support appears to be a design rule of self organisation as given by Alfred Lotka as the maximal power rule. Nerve pathwaies in Figure 4 illustrate the flows and preservation of energy. The storage is represented with a armored combat vehicle symbol. The heat sink symbol represents the dispersion of available energy from procedures and storages harmonizing to the 2nd jurisprudence. The feedback from right to go forth interacts as a multiplier increasing energy consumption. This autocatalytic cringle is one of the designs that prevail because they reinforce power consumption and efficient usage ( Odum, H.T. 1998 )

Beginning: ( Brown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. 2002 )

Fig 5 Aggregated energy systems diagram of an electric power works, with chief inputs and end products shown and used to cipher public presentation

emergy based indexs. Legends: R1=renewable inputs straight falling on the works site ( sun, air current, rain ) ; R2=renewable inputs supplied by the local ecosystem and used by the works in the production of electricity ( chilling H2O and air, O for burning ) ; R=locally renewable input to the process=max ( R1 ; R2 ) as these inputs are driven by the same ( solar ) beginning ; N=nonrenewable inputs ( such as coal, oil, nd natural gas or groundwater that is used faster than it is recharged ) ; F=goods and services from the economic system ( F ) that are used to build, run, and keep the power works ( building stuffs, machinery, general supplies, human services, etc. ) ; Y=Output of a procedure. Here, the electricity yielded by the works. By definition, the end product is assigned an emergy Y=R+N+F ; =chemicals released by the power works to the ambiance ( from burning ) ; H = Heat released by the power works to the ambiance and the chilling H2O

Brown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. ( 2002 ) evaluated six electricity production systems by utilizing energy and emergy accounting system, in order to rank their comparative thermodynamics and environmental efficiencies. They explored out/input energy ratio, emergy output ratio ( EYR ) and environmental burden ratio ( ELR ) . Coevals of CO2A has besides been accounted for in order to compare renewable and unrenewable energy beginnings

Emergy output ratio, EYR=Y/F= ( F+R+N ) /F

Environmental lading ratio, ELR= ( F+N ) /R

Emergy index of sustainability, IS = EYR/ELR

The emergy output ratio ( EYR ) provides insight into the net benefit of the assorted production processes to society. In fact, the higher the fraction of locally available energy beginnings ( R+N ) that are exploited by agencies of the investmentA FA from exterior, the higher the value of this index. Environmental lading ratio expresses the usage of environmental service by the system. Environmental service is measured as the emergy of that portionA RA of the environment that is ‘used ‘ . When EYR is high due to a high value of local renewable resources, so ELR is little, therefore bespeaking a little environmental emphasis. On the contrary, when a high value of local unrenewable beginnings contributes to EYR, so ELR additions, therefore proposing a larger environmental emphasis. Therefore, a coincident addition of both EYR and ELR, indicates that a larger emphasis is being placed on the environment ; on the contrary, when EYR increases and ELR lessenings, the procedure is less of a burden on the environing environment.

Brown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. ( 2002 ) concluded that air current coevals and hydroelectric power workss have the highest EYR, while the oil fired power works was the lowest. They besides found that electricity generated utilizing air current, geothermic, and hydro power workss had the lowest environmental impact, while fossil fired workss the highest. Further more they besides found that the air current and hydroelectric workss had the highest-over-all aggregated ( economic and ecological ) sustainability, followed by geothermic electricity.

Decision:

Pakistan is confronting terrible energy crises. It is projected that energy demand-indigenous supply spread is additions from 27 % in 2005 to 57 % in 2030. It is planned that demand – autochthonal supply gape would be bridge by imported oil and gas. Consequently, import of energy would increase the energy import measure every bit good as energy security issues. The ingestion of fuel will besides degrade the environment. Renewable resources in the signifier of hydropower, air current. Solar PV, Biogas, geothermic etc. are suited renewable engineerings for Pakistan There is significant potency of these Renewable Energy resources and should be developed for pull offing the current energy crises and run intoing the hereafter energy demand for Pakistan. However there is demand of a thorough analysis of net energy and emergy additions from utilizing renewable energy beginnings. There is besides demand of look intoing the new environmental these alternate beginnings will make. They cardinal issue is the size of the excess that can realistically be delivered by renewable energy system