Quality Systems Of Dairy Industries In India Environmental Sciences Essay

After the formation of WTO Indian nutrient industry started utilizing quality and nutrient safety direction systems in nutrient industry in order to vie globally with other nutrient industries. Hence attempts were made to better quality and nutrient safety issues in Indian nutrient industries. The Indian authorities is actuating the dairy and other nutrient processing industries for acceptance of nutrient safety and quality confidence mechanisms such as Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) including ISO 9000, ISO 14000, Hazard analysis and critical control points ( HACCP ) . Good Fabrication Practices ( GMP ) , Good Hygienic Practices ( GMP ) .In the present essay I had mentioned about assorted quality and safety direction systems followed in Indian dairy Industry and Indian Government Regulation ‘s that to be followed in Dairy Processing Sector.


Harmonizing to the National Dairy Development Board, India the one-year production of milk during the twelvemonth 2007-2008 is 104.8 million metric tons.

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Status of Milk Production in India


Production ( MT )

Percapita Availability ( gms/day )



















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India has two types of sectors for the selling of milk and its merchandises, one is “ organized sector ” and another is “ unorganised ” sector. The unorganised sector histories for 88 % of entire milk production in India and it includes selling of natural milk and traditional merchandises such as locally manufactured ghee, fresh cheese, and Sweets. The organized sector histories for 10-12 % of entire milk production in India and it includes the dairy co-ops and organized private dairies which produces Western-style dairy processed merchandises based on pasteurisation. The portion of organized sector in the entire milk production handling is increasing by the old ages ( FAO, 2002 ) . India has now become the largest manufacturer of milk in the universe, with estimated production of about 81 million dozenss in 2001 ( FAO, 2002 ) .Milk production in India histories for more than 13 % of the entire universe end product and 57 % of entire Asia ‘s production. Top five milk bring forthing states in the universe are India, USA, Russia, Germany and France ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aavinmilk.com/dairyprofile.html ) .

Quality and Safety Management in Indian Dairy Industry:

After the formation of World Trade Organization ( WTO ) , there were some cases where foreign purchasers refused to accept Indian processed nutrient merchandises from Indian nutrient processing industries which did non follow HACCP ( Hazard analysis and critical control points ) system. Due to this Industries which are exporting were paying big sums of money to foreign advisers for HACCP Implementation ( CM, 1997 ) .And besides implementing HACCP system has become compulsory for nutrient companies after the formation of World Trade Organization ( WTO ) and this is due to HACCP is recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission ( CAC ) and the CAC recommendation has been approved by the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ( SPS ) reached under the marks of WTO ( Deodhar, 2001 ) .

Some of the major dairy merchandises makers in India:


Major Merchandises Produced

Quality and Safety Management systems followed

Mother Dairy

Condensed milk, pick and processed milk

ISO-9001:2000, HACCP AND ISO-14001.

Milk nutrient Limited

Ghee, ice pick, and other milk merchandises

ISO 9001:2000, HACCP, ISO-14001

Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation limited

Butter, cheese and Milk Powder

ISO -22000:2005, ISO 9001:2000,


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Codex Alimentarius Commission

It is an international Body which was established by Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) and World Health Organization ( WHO ) of the United Nations with an aim to protect the wellness of consumers and to guarantee just patterns in the nutrient trade. It gives specifications for International Standards for the safety and quality of nutrient codifications of good fabrication pattern. The Standards, guide lines and recommendations specified by Codex Alimentarius committee was recognized worldwide for international trade and dialogues and besides for settling of differences by WTO.

( Beginning: Government of India outcome budget of ministry of nutrient processing industries for 2008-2009 ) .

Government of India ( GOI ) Ministry of nutrient processing industries Financial Scheme for Quality Assurance, Codex Standard 2008-2009.

Aims of this Scheme:

-Motivating the nutrient processing industries in order to follow nutrient quality and safety confidence systems such as Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) which includes ISO 9000, ISO 14000 and safety confidence systems such as Hazard analysis and critical control points ( HACCP ) , Good Fabrication Practices ( GMP ) and Good Hygienic Practices ( GMP ) .

-To make the nutrient processing industries ready to confront them to planetary competition in international trade after the WTO formation.

-To make ready the nutrient processing industries in such a manner that it will follow rigorous quality and hygiene norms.

– Enhancing the merchandise produced by nutrient processing industries which will accept by abroad purchasers.

-To prepare Indian nutrient processing industry in technologically up to day of the month that it will pattern international best patterns.

The Scheme included the undermentioned activities:

-Total Quality Management ( TQM ) .

-Promoting of Quality Assurance / Safety Concept.

-Bar Coding.

-Strengthening of Codex Cell.

-Upgrading Quality Control Laboratories.

-Research & A ; Development Programmes for nutrient processing industry

-Total Quality Management ( TQM )

Ministry of Food Processing Industries ( GOI ) is running a Plan Scheme which is advancing nutrient processing industries to follow nutrient quality and safety confidence systems such as ISO 9000, ISO 14000, Hazard Analysis and Critical points ( HACCP ) , Good Fabrication Practices ( GMP ) , Good Hygienic Practices ( GHP ) .And it has assisted 10 nutrient treating units to implement the HACCP, IS09000, GMP, GHP patterns during the twelvemonth 2007-2008.

-Setting Up/Up step of Quality Control Laboratory

Strengthening or Puting up or Networking of research labs will assist in debut of quality and safety systems in nutrient processing industries and keeping quality of the merchandise at every degree of production. Ministry of Food Processing industries ( GOI ) has started a program strategy for puting up/ up step of quality control research lab with aims like guaranting acceptance of National nutrient criterions, helping nutrient industries to develop and implement quality direction systems such as ISO ( International Organization For Standardization ) 9000, HACCP etc. , analysing the samples received from nutrient processing industries, and other interest holder and preparation in the countries associating to quality betterment through ain expertness. The Ministry of nutrient processing industries ( GOI ) has approved fiscal aid to the some organisations during the twelvemonth 2007-2008 for puting up and up step of nutrient proving research labs like Maarc Lab private limited, Pune, Council for Food Research and Development, Government of Kerala, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Pradeshik Cooperative Dairy Fed. Ltd, Lucknow, Acharya.N.G. Agricultural University, Hyderabad and A.P. State Agro Industries Dev.Corpn.Ltd. Hyderabad.

( Beginning: Government of India outcome budget of ministry of nutrient processing industries for 2008-2009 )

Indian Government Regulation ‘s in the Dairy Processing Sector:

Compulsory statute law

– Prevention of Food Adulteration ( PFA ) Act, 1954

The Act was created in Indian Parliament in 1954 in order to forestall debasement of nutrient and it Rules were formed in the twelvemonth 1955.The PFA Act includes nutrient criterions, general processs for trying, analysis of nutrient, powers of authorised officers, nature of punishments and other parametric quantities related to nutrient. It will give criterions to nutrient additives, preservative, colourising affairs, packing & A ; labeling of nutrients, prohibition & A ; ordinances of gross revenues etc. Amendments are incorporated in PFA regulations with the recommendation made by the Central Committee of Food Standards ( CCFS ) which has been setup by Cardinal Government of India under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare consisting members from different parts of the state. The commissariats of PFA Act and Rules are implemented by State Government and local organic structures as provided in the regulations. The regulations of this act should be followed purely by dairy industries and any individuals who mislead it can hold both all right and imprisonment.

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-Milk and Milk Product Order ( MMPO )

The Govt. of India had announced officially the Milk and Milk Product Order ( MMPO ) 1992 on 9.06.1992 under the commissariats of Essential trade good Act, 1955.According to this order any individual or dairy plat managing more than 10000 litres per twenty-four hours of milk or 500 Million dozenss of milk solids per annum demands to be registered with the registering authorization appointed by the Cardinal Government of India. This order aims at to keep and increase in supply of liquid milk of coveted quality in the involvements of the general populace and besides helps in for modulating the production, processing and distribution of milk and milk Products. So far suited amendments were made by Government of India for this order from clip to clip in order to do it more broad and oriented to ease the dairy enterpriser. The latest amendment was made on 26/03/2002. At present there is no limitation on puting up of new milk works but demand of enrollment is for implementing the prescribed criterions of quality and nutrient safety. The outstanding characteristics of the new amendments include healthful, hygienic status, quality, nutrient safety issues and flexible review of dairy works.

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– Standards on Weights and Measures ( Packaged Commodities ) Rules, 1997

These Rules specifies obligatory conditions should be maintained for all milk and milk merchandises which are in jammed signifier and they should advert the weight it contains on milk merchandises bundles. And they are governed by the Directorate of Weights and Measures, under the Ministry of Food and Civil Supplies ( Government of India ) .

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-Export ( Quality Control and Inspection ) Act, 1963

This act was operated by Export Inspection Council ( Government of India ) . Harmonizing to this Act all exportable milk and milk merchandises should undergo mandatory review for quality control before transporting to other states. And they are maintained through a web of more than 50 offices located around major production centres and ship ports.

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– Pollution Control

The milk processing industry should take no Objection Certificate from Pollution Control Board which is Compulsory.

Voluntary Standards

In India there are two organisations which work with voluntary standardisation and enfranchisement systems in the nutrient sector. They are:

-Bureau of Indian Standards ( BIS )

BIS has two types of activities, one is proviso of Indian criterions in the processed nutrients sector and the other is executing of criterions through publicity and through voluntary and 3rd party enfranchisement systems. BIS criterions include natural stuffs which are permitted to usage and their quality parametric quantities, hygienic conditions during merchandise fabrication, packaging and labeling requirements.BIS will give “ ISI ” grade that can be written on merchandise bundles to those makers following with criterions formulated by the BIS. BIS has made compulsory enfranchisement for nutrient colourss or additives, vanaspati ( Hydrogenated vegetable oil ) , containers for wadding, milk pulverization and condensed milk.

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-Directorate of Marketing and Inspection ( DMI

Agricultural Produce ( Grading & A ; Marking ) Act was formed in the twelvemonth 1937 which had given power to Cardinal Government of India to border grade criterions for agricultural green goods. It has formulated certain Standards under scientific mode and is popularly known as AGMARK criterions. Recently nutrient safety factors are being incorporated in these criterions in order to vie in World trade and they are harmonized with international criterions maintaining in position the WTO demands. They will supply Certification to adulteration prone milk merchandises like Butter and Ghee in order to profit producer/manufacturer and consumer. The Certification grade under the Agricultural Produce ( Grading & A ; Marking ) Act is popularly known as “ AGMARK ” .

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Other Government Regulations

-Industrial License

Normally in India no licence is required in order to get down a Dairy Project but a Memorandum has to be given to the Secretariat for Industrial Approvals ( SIA ) and an recognition should take from it.

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– Foreign Investing

An blessing should be taken from Secretariat of Industrial Approvals ; Ministry of Industry ( Government of India ) is required in order to foreign investing in Indian Dairy Industry.

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-Foreign Technology Agreements

It besides requires anterior blessing from the authorities of India.

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– Import of capital Goods

Import of capital goods for dairy processing industry is allowed if it is financed through Foreign Equity and it besides need a anterior blessing from the Secretariat of Industrial Approvals.

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– Import of Second Hand Capital Goods

Second manus machinery can be imported if it meets conditions like lower limit residuary life of 5 old ages, equipment age should non be more than 7 old ages old, certification from the Chartered Engineers of the state of beginning attesting the age, the Residual life is to be produced and import will be allowed merely for the users who really use the machinery.

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The Management Systems Certification ( MSC ) activity of the Bureau of Indian Standards ( BIS ) :

It consists of a series of activities with which it will measure the capableness of an organisation ‘s Management Systems such as IS/ISO 9001:2000 ( Quality Management Systems ) , IS/ISO 14001:2004 ( Environmental Management Systems ) , IS 18001:2000 ( Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems ) , IS15000:1998 ( Food Hygiene – Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) System ) and the combination of two or more than two systems ( incorporate direction systems ) and it will supply 3rd party Certification to the organisations.

BIS offers enfranchisement to the undermentioned criterion:

IS/ISO 9001:2000: This criterion comes under Quality Management Systems Certification Scheme ( QMSCS ) provided by Bureau of Indian Standards and it is indistinguishable to ISO 9001:2000 -`Quality Management Systems ‘ . BIS does non supply any signifier of consultancy services for execution of the demands of IS ( Indian Standard ) /ISO 9001:2000 criterion as under its Quality Management Systems Certification Scheme but it grants licences against IS/ISO 9001:2000 criterion. Accreditation of BIS QMSCS by Raad voor Accreditatie ( RvA ) , Netherlands, is a testimony of BIS QMSCS runing to internationally recognized standards. BIS Quality Management Systems Certification Scheme is accredited by RvA for 20 three sectors.

IS/ISO 14001: This criterion comes under Environmental Management Systems Certification Scheme ( EMSCS ) and is indistinguishable to ISO 14001 -Environmental Management Systems. This criterion helps the organisations to accomplish and show sound environmental public presentation. It does non supply any signifier of consultancy services for execution of the demands of IS/ISO 14001 but it grants licences against IS/ISO 14001 criterion.

IS 18001:2000: This criterion comes under Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems and helps in good wellness and safety public presentation guaranting an accident-free industrial environment. This will besides improves organisation ‘s smooth and effectual operation.

IS 15000:1998: This criterion comes under Food Hygiene -Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) – System and it is designed to place and forestall microbic and other jeopardies in nutrient production. It helps the manufacturers, processors, distributers, exporters, etc, of nutrient merchandises to use proficient resources expeditiously and in a cost effectual mode in guaranting nutrient safety.It does non supply any signifier of consultancy services for execution of the demands of IS15000 criterion as under its HACCP & A ; HACCP-Quality Management Systems ( QMS ) Certification Scheme but it grants licences against IS 15000 ( HACCP stand-alone enfranchisement ) or IS 15000 incorporate with IS/ISO 9001:2000 criterion ( HACCP integrated with QMS Certification ) .

The Benefits of BIS Certification for direction systems:

It improves both internal operational benefits and external selling advantages of an organisation. And it besides provide an confidence of consistent quality, pollution bar, waste decrease, safety and wellness of employees to extremely competitory international market-place, clients, authoritiess, general populace, employees and stakeholders.

( Beginning: Bureau of Indian criterions Management Systems Certification Quality Manual, issue 1, 2004 ) .

Major job associated with quality criterions:

Small holders have trouble following with SPS/ QUALITY STANDARDS ( FAO, 2002 ) .


There is demand of Training of suited adult male power on Quality and nutrient safety direction systems such as ISO Standards, good hygienic patterns and good fabrication patterns and application of construct and rules of healthful and phyto healthful ( SPS ) and Hazard Analysis and critical control point ( HAACP ) systems throughout the nutrient Chain from husbandman to consumer, becomes of import for bring forthing quality milk merchandises. So, Indian authorities should take proper steps in order to better people skill in the quality and safety direction systems so that Indian dairy sector Quality and Safety direction systems will better.