Solution Can Be Used Primarily Environmental Sciences Essay

At present, no company in the market trades in a complete rainwater reaping system. What is available in the market are expensive H2O filtrating system, using expensive commercial ceramic candle filters. The authorities sector is one of the possible market for IRHS peculiarly the military bureaus and those bureaus involved in national catastrophes every bit good as LGUs. The entire possible market base is estimated at P25, 700 billion. The estimated gross revenues is P13.7 million for the authorities market and the expected gross revenues based on capacity for the private market is P123.3 million. This undertaking requires good sum of capital. It is really hard for a private organisation to get down with this undertaking because boulder clay now the local authorities is covering with undertaking.

GSM Data Terminal

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Equipment/ Device Industry

GSM Data Terminal

Agency In-charge:

Advanced Science and Technology Institute


The GSM Data Terminal will give companies the convenience of a wireless entree to different information utilizing nomadic phones that will take to limitless Short Message Service ( SMS ) applications

Designed to do information system of different applications SMS-enabled Applications: reporting/requesting info from waiter via SMS programmed sending of SMS to individual/group receivers, and machine-to-machine communicating. Customized to let the clients to do their ain applications without internet connexion and utilizing any nomadic phone sim card. GSM modem and SMS package bundle.

Application of the Technology:

Can be used to develop text messaging applications.


Possible Areas of Technology Application:

All applications where SMS can be used for informations communicating.


Business application: –

There is a good chance for any package developers, system planimeters as such they will be able to function the terminal users. But once more here besides capital demand would be the confining factor.

Waste Plastics for Plywood and Particle Board


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Waste Plastics for Plywood and Particle Board

Agency In-charge:

Forest Products Research and Development Institute



Utilizes a mixture of assorted waste plastics, low and average denseness polythene waste plastics ( LMPE ) , oriented polypropene laminates ( OPL ) and waste fictile aluminium packaging laminates ( PAPL ) as binder in the production of plyboard, barricade board and particleboard. Eliminates waste stuffs that clog waterways and drainage systems. Passed the merchandise quality rating proving following PNS 16:1992 criterions for ordinary plyboard and the PHILSA 105 atom board criterion Exhibited excellent and increased mechanical strength.


Application of the Technology:

Plastics are non-biodegradable stuffs and represent a big per centum of day-to-day solid waste end product. Collection and usage of waste plastics as binder for the production of plyboard and particleboard can assist in the authorities ‘s plan of extinguishing waste stuffs that clog our waterways and drainage system.


Business application: -A

Waste plastic bonded plyboard passed the merchandise quality rating proving following PNS 16:1992 criterions for ordinary plyboard. The merchandise besides exhibited first-class and increased mechanical strength and passed the PHILSA 105 particleboard criterion. The production and selling monetary value of the merchandises are cheaper than the traditionally produced plyboard and particleboard being sold in the market. The industries which requires plastic as a basic natural stuff, there is a good chance for them because plastic is available at really cheep monetary value.

Rapid Earthquake Damage Assessment System ( REDAS ) Software


Catastrophe Management

Rapid Earthquake Damage Assessment System ( REDAS ) Softwarehttp: //


Agency In-charge:

Philippine Institute of Volcanology & A ; Seismology


The Rapid Earthquake Damage Assessment System ( REDAS ) package is a seismal jeopardy simulation package that aims to bring forth jeopardy and hazard maps instantly after the happening of a strong and potentially detrimental earthquake.A The REDAS package can be used to conductA seismal jeopardy and hazard appraisal, kind temblor informations parametric quantities, produce map of different sizes, perform screen digitisation, andA develop hazard database.A

Application of the Technology:

REDAS has been developed for usage of catastrophe directors for doing prompt determinations for speedy deployment of deliverance and relief operations. It can besides function as an effectual simulation tool for converting determination shapers and metropolis contrivers of the demand to fix thru serious land usage ordinance, rigorous enforcement of the edifice codification and retrofitting of critical constructions.


Possible Areas of Technology Application:

Whole Philippines and other Asiatic states



Non-commercial at this point. REDAS can be re-designed to do it commercially available to other mark users such as the insurance industry and private consultancy houses involved in temblor jeopardy and hazard appraisal.

Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

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Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines


Agency In-charge:

Filipino Council for Industry and Energy Research and Development



The Atlas was created utilizing an advanced computerized function system called Geographical Information System ( GIS ) which incorporates gridded terrain informations and formatted meteoric informations. Surface, orbiter and upper-air informations were assembled, processed, and analyzed. These datasets included information provided by the PAGASA, NPC, informations sets from the United States National Climatic Data Center ( NCDC ) , and other US informations.

The Atlas shows that the best air current resources are found in several parts. Over 10,000 Km2 of blowy land countries have been estimated to be with good-to-excellent air current resource potency. Using conservative premises of about 7MW per Km2, this blowy land could back up over 70,000 MW of possible installed capacity.

However, extra surveies are required to more accurately assess the air current electric potency, sing factors such as bing transmittal and handiness.


Application of the Technology:

Wind power is classified into fringy, moderate, good and first-class. The categorizations, based on air current power denseness and air current velocity, were established for two classs – 1 for public-service corporation graduated table applications, runing from fringy to excellent, and one for rural power applications, runing from moderate to excellent. In general, locations with an one-year norm wind velocity of 6.5 to 7.0 metres per second ( MPS ) or greater are most suited for public-service corporation grid-connected air current energy systems. Rural power applications are typically feasible at lower air current velocities ( 5.5 to 6.0 mononuclear phagocyte systems ) , and in some instances at air current velocities every bit low as 4.5 mononuclear phagocyte systems.


Possible Areas of Technology Application:

Energy sector



The map supports Filipino Government attempts to advance the development of air current energy and complements the current monitoring of prospective air current sites in assorted parts of the state. Developers will be guided to originate investing activities in either site-specific resource development or air current power coevals. So even local authorities is besides ready for privategition in this peculiar sector.


Transportation system:

In the Philippines the common manner of public conveyance is a jeepney and a coach. The transit substructure in the state is rather developing, chiefly because the state has cragged landscape and scattered geographics of the islands ; it is besides attributed by the authorities by non puting in the substructure installation of the state. In 2003, merely 3.6 % of GDP went to substructure development where as its neighbour state invested much more. While its consequence shows that there are 203,025 kilometres ( 126,154 ) of roads in the state and merely 20 % of the sum is covered. The estimated development in 2012 is 213,151 kmBlue and white jeepney with a green and white coach behind it

However there are many ways to acquire around in the urban countries chiefly. There are normally available conveyances in major metropoliss and towns are coachs, jeepneys, cabs and motorised trikes. In 2007, there were about 5.53 1000000s registered motor vehicles with enrollment increasing at an mean one-year rate of 4.55 % . Train services are provided by three chief railroad webs that serve different countries of Metro Manila and parts of Luzon: the Manila visible radiation rail theodolite system ( LRT ) , the Manila metro rail theodolite system ( MRT ) , and the Philippine national railroads ( PNR ) . The estimated development in railroad is 995 kilometer in 2012.

The chief gateway to the state is terminal 3 of Ninoy Aquino international airdrome, as an archipelago, inter-island travel via watercraft is frequently necessary. The Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga are the busiest havens in the state. Passenger ships and other sea vass such as those operated by Superferry, Negros Navigation, and Sulpicio Lines service Manila, with links to assorted metropoliss and towns. In 2003, the 919-kilometer ( 571A myocardial infarction ) Strong republic maritime main road ( SRNH ) , an incorporate set of main road sections and conveyance paths covering 17 metropoliss was established. The figure of airdromes in 2012 estimated to extent 247.

Some rivers such as Pasig River and Marikina River have air-conditioned commuter ferries which pass through metropolitan areas.http: //

The Pasig river ferry service has legion Michigans in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina. There are navigable inland waterways is of 3,219 kilometres ( 2,000A myocardial infarction ) .

There are 85 public airdromes in the state and around 111 more that are private. The chief international air port in the state is Ninoy Aquino international airdrome ( NAIA ) . Other of import airdromes include the Diosdado macapagal, Mactan Cebu international airdrome and Zamboanga International airdrome. Philippine Airlines, Asia ‘s oldest commercial air hose still runing under its original name, and Cebu Pacific, the taking low-priced air hose, are the major air hoses functioning most domestic and international finishs.

As such we know transit plays a really of import a function in economic sciences production, distribution and ingestion of goods and services. Population of state depend upon the natural resources to fulfill the demands of life but merely because of non unvarying surface of Earth and due to difference in local resources, there is a batch of difference in criterion of life in different societies

The concern of production of merchandises for which natural stuff or providers are easy available and close by available than the constitution of new concern is possible otherwise they will faced job of high cost of production.

Communication: Communicationss, Internet and societal networking in the Philippines.

The Philippines has an urban cellular phone industry and a high attending of users. In the Philippines there are 67.9 1000000s cellular endorsers as on 2008. In this technological universe as cell phones are at that place the text messaging is a popular signifier of communicating and has fostered a civilization of speedy salutations and forwarded gags among Filipinos. In 2007, the state sent an norm of one billion SMS messages per twenty-four hours. Out of this turning figure of acute text message transmitters, over five million of them use their cellular phones as practical billfolds, doing it a leader among developing states in supplying fiscal minutess over cellular webs

The taking telecommunications supplier is universally known as the Philippine long distance telephone company ( PLDT ) . It is the largest company of the company every bit good. Its entirely owned subordinates Smart Communications and Piltel, along with Globe Telecom of the Ayala Group, BayanTel, and Sun Cellular are the major cellular service suppliers in the state.

There are about 383 AM and 659 FM wireless Stationss and 297 telecasting and 873 overseas telegram telecasting Stationss. Estimates for cyberspace breach in the Philippines differ widely runing from a depression of 2.5A million to a high of 24A million people. Social networking and observation pictures are among the most frequent cyberspace activities.

In 2009 the planetary fiscal crisis had a major impact on the local economic system and in bend on the local Mobile market, drawing the growing rate down. Nevertheless the market has continued to turn and 2010 saw a positive recoil. PLDT subordinate Smart remains the dominant participant in the market ; by 2011 held a 52 % market portion, followed by Globe Telecom with 32 % and Digitel with 16 % . The major market development in 2011 was PLDT ‘s acquisition of Digitel and its reverberations were being felt into 2012. The acquisition proved controversial and finalizing the trade took considerable clip. When the regulator concluding gave its blessing it was to a great extent conditional. This study provides an overview of the major operators in the Philippine Mobile market with some pertinent statistics.

Due to good development of electronic media any organisation can market themselves in better mode. As such this engineering would be really much helpful for selling of merchandises and services. This televising engineering is something which helps to assorted trade names to make at consumer ‘s house. This engineering helps to pass on advantages and benefits of merchandises and services.

Water and Sanitation

Entree to quality H2O beginnings is comparatively high at 85 per cent of the population in 2002.But on the impudent side, substructure coverage has non kept up with the population growing and the national norm is non a true contemplation of the disparity in entree across parts. Access to improved sanitation installations, was at 73 per cent in 2002 and estimated 65per cent in 2012.


In footings of entree to electricity, the Philippines perform rather adequately. By 2002, 89.1 per cent of the population had entree to electricity. This scenario has improved farther to 93.7 per cent by the terminal of 2005 and 96 per cents in 2012.However the state faces jobs with the quality of the service. Transmission and distribution losingss in the state have been a major constriction ( barrier, hinderance ) for substructure development.

The map supports Filipino Government attempts to advance the development of air current energy and complements the current monitoring of prospective air current sites in assorted parts of the state. Developers will be guided to originate investing activities in either site-specific resource development or air current power coevals. So even local authorities is besides ready for denationalization in this peculiar sector.


Most of the national load of wellness attention is taken up by private wellness suppliers. In 2006, entire outgos on wellness represented 3.8 % of GDP. 67.1 % of that came from private outgos while 32.9 % was from authorities. External resources accounted for 2.9 % of the entire. Health outgos represented about 6.1 % of entire authorities disbursement. Per capita entire outgo at mean exchange rate was $ 52The proposed national wellness budget for 2010 is 28A billion ( about $ 597A million ) or 310 ( $ 7 ) per individual. The authorities portion of entire disbursement on wellness has declined steadily, and with more people, there has been less to pass per individual.

There are an estimated 90,370 doctors or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 tooth doctors, and 1 infirmary bed per every 769 people maintaining the ownership of skilled practicians is a job. 70 % of nursing alumnuss go overseas to work. The state is the biggest provider of nurses. In 2001, there are about 1,700 infirmaries, of which about 40 % were government-run and 60 % private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25 % of all deceases.


Philippines Geography

The Philippines is the biggest archipelago in the Earth that is found in the south-eastern seashore of the Asia mainland. Philippines is bounded by watercourse in which inside the E by the soothing the bottomless, on the South by the Celebes Marine, and on the West and north by the South China Marine.

The province consists of 7,107 land mass and islet. Merely 2000 of these islands are reserved. The occupied and high island is group into3: Luzon, the chief land mass set, cover 141,395 unfastened topographic point mail ; Visayas, 56,606 unfastened country ; and Mindanao, 102,000 unfastened country.

Previous Main Island are Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, The Philippine Archipelago is alienated into 15 parts. These parts are separated into state, and the state into metropoliss and municipality… Barangay is the least encouraging component inside the Philippines.

The Philippines is a alone mixture of varied topography. Luzon and Mindanao is renowned by slender vale. Undulating hill besides elevated mountain. The topmost mountain is established within the well-built island which is Luzon and Mindanao to the mass scope is organisation North to South.

The height of the mountain differs as of 1,790 to 3,144 metres. This mountain scope is the natural barriers of the state. This graduated table is the sierra Madre, the Cordillera, and the Catabatic scopes.

The 4 major lowland are set up in Eastern Cordillera, Central field of Luzon, Agusan every bit good as Zambales. The smaller island of the Philippines is hilly in the Centre and envelop by all right flooring of irregular degree lowland which comprise the coastal rim. There are about 221 vents, 21 of which are lively.

Filipino have the best havens in Southeast Asia the Manila Bay that has part of 1,970 square kg metres and coastline of 192 kilo metres. Philippines has an estimated coastline of 18,411 kilo metres. There land mass of the Philippines have gorgeous coral reefs which attract tourer from all over the universe.

Philippines besides have a volcanic landscape for the ground that it sits in the unsteady pacifying “ Ring of Fire ” . Philippines had experience minor usual catastrophe in the history. Two chief volcanic eruptions that struck the state are from Mt. Pinatubo and Mt. Mayon Volcano. The roseola putting to deaths 100s and exiled 1000 of individuals. Home and footing of life were damaged that left non anything to the people.

Philippines – landscape

Around major unreal construction traveling the topography of the Philippines. The landscape is extremely assorted, with volcanic mountain multitudes organizing the nucleus of most of the large island.

A Numberss of vents are dynamic, and the island has been capable to constructive temblor. Lowland is normally all right coastal strips.

The shore of many of the island are embayed ( Manila Bay is one of the finest seaports in East Asia ) ; nevertheless, more than a few islands lack deficient seaport and demand offshore lightering for sea transit. The lone two inland H2O organic structures of undistinguished scope are Laguna de Bay in Luzon and Lake Sultan Alonto in Mindanao.

The major towns & A ; metropoliss of Philippines

Topographic point




WesternA Visayas


NorthernA Mindanao


CentralA Visayas


SouthernA Mindanao


NationalA CapitalA Region

Type of conditions in the Philippines

The Philippines has a marine temperate type of conditions conditions and has two distinct season raining and dry season. The high temperature mean scope from 23A° to 32A° Celsius ( 73A° to 90A° F ) in the uncomplete archipelago all through the twelvemonth.

The aridity vary as of 75 % to 85 % depending on the minute of the twelvemonth. The dried out period is November to April and the moist period is May to October. In Baguio heat is 18.3A°C.

Since of these air currents belt that have an consequence on our clime, the E seashore receive insignificant winter rainfall and the West coasts undistinguished summer rainfall. Rainfall steps from 5,000 millimetres in the hilly east shore portion of the province, other than less 1,000 millimetres in some of the sheltered vale in the uncomplete twelvemonth.

The Philippine archipelago is situated excessively in the storm strap. That is why Philippines is strike by few typhoon and storm concluding in the month of July all the manner from side to side October except from clip to clip it expand to December. The seats that the storm work stoppages are the Northern and Eastern Luzon and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas Region.

The strong point of the typhoon is different each twelvemonth. An norm of 25 typhoons visits the Philippines each year.A Not merely storm, Philippines is excessively strike by copiousness called the El Nino. This happen from the dry period and develop to the moist period. There is no rainwater in a drawn-out period.

Climate Change

Dry season

December to June, 7 months are the dry season of Philippines. In this period trade air currents blows from north-east which by and large are dry. If it does rains in this dry season so it feels like afternoon shower to chill you down.

This rain will non traveling to impact you more than that. In this dry season of Philippines, you will happen two differences. You will happen cool and dry conditions during the December to February.

In Philippines the coolest month is January in the twelvemonth. Coolest means temperature around 25 grades Celsius, which is quite nice.

We will happen hot and dry conditions in months of March to June. May is the hottest month of the twelvemonth. We can anticipate temperature more than 30 and low 40 grades.

Rainy or moisture season

After the heat of May and June, the season will interrupt in July. The period of July to November it rains. These rains calls monsoon. And this changeless air current brings rain.

During the monsoon, the Philippines clime attracts typhoons which beat the aggressive eastern coastline of Luzon, samar, Leyte but about ne’er Mindanao.

The typhoons blow from the way of the western Pacific in a north-western.

In 2011, Philippines counted less typhoons per twelvemonth. But this clip they were more peaceable and made landfall more in the North.

Natural Catastrophes:

The Philippines is uneven to natural catastrophe, peculiarly typhoons, inundations, landslides, volcanic eruptions, temblor, and tsunamis, lying as it does across the storm strap, in the lively volcanic country recognized as the “ Pacific Ring of Fire, ” and in the unnaturally imbalanced part between the aggressive and Eurasiatic tectonic home bases.

The Philippines besides suffer major human-caused environmental debasement angry by a high one-year people growing rate, include loss of agricultural lands, deforestation, dirt abrasion, air and H2O pollution, unacceptable discarding of difficult and toxicant waste, loss of coral reefs, misconduct and maltreatment of coastal assets, and overfishing.

The Hazards ness:

The Philippine archipelago owing to its site and usual property is level to usual jeopardy.

It is located in the soothing circle of fires where 2 chief tectonic topographic point of the Earth, i.e. the Pacific topographic point and the Eurasiatic topographic point, the incidence of temblor and tsunamis, and endurance of 220 vents of which 22 are secret as dynamic for the ground that their eruptions have been found in past study.

It is located along the storm strap on the Western North Pacific Basin where 66 % of hot cyclone come in or make. Typhoon standard 20 actions per twelvemonth ; 5 to 7 of which can be rather critical.

Denote annually rainwater in the province vary from 965 millimeters to 4,064 millimeter. Excessive rainfall events activate landslide and lahars flow and are accountable for harsh and repeating flood in fallacious country. Steamy cyclones are accountable for an normal of 40 % of the annual rainwater in the province. Sluggish moving or about inactive steaming cyclones study for extended periods of rainfall.

Natural jeopardy are portion of the Philippine environment, but catastrophe happen because human being colony, substructure, people and their pecuniary actions are located where jeopardies occur. Costss of catastrophe clang are bear by disposal and individual family, therefore intimidating socio-economic enlargement addition. old force per unit area that license notice are complex exigency that are chiefly unreal frequently with linked with equipt clang

Natural Resources: A The major natural mineral income contain coal, Co, Cu, gold, gypsum, Fe, natural gas, nickel, fuel, salt, Ag, and S. There are lesser sedimentation of bauxite, quicksilver, and Zn. Other indispensable assets are geothermic and hydroelectric power, fish, and wood.


Scheme for farming in the Philippines comprises doing the universe ‘s largest rice client, which presently import the basic, self-sufficing. Multi-million dollar irrigation undertakings are presently underway to assist accomplish this end, while a National Irrigation Administration is seeking to learn husbandmans sustainable irrigation techniques.

The authorities is besides forcing husbandmans to follow more commercial attacks to their concerns, organizing co-ops and specialising in high-value subsectors like organics. Finally, the sugar cane industry, face the chance of the sugar market place being flooded with inexpensive import when ASEAN liberalisation boots in, is looking toward value-added green goodss like bio ethyl alcohol.

Crop turning and workss:

Farming, including piscary and forestry, plays a of import function in the Filipino market. At present, it provides employ to refering 9.6 million Filipino who create up one semi of the entire work force. Farming continues to account for the majority of entire service. The agrarian country registries a optimistic addition rate balance to other fabrication and fix.

The export of farming merchandise carries on traveling up peculiarly now that wide assortment of undeveloped manufactured goods like veggies, fruits, and cosmetic harvest is booming in abroad trade. The established harvest exported by the Philippines is honey, coconut oil, banana, Ananas comosus in sirup, copra bar or repast, Mangifera indica, and other veggie.

The Philippine have a wide assortment of flora from forestry to agricultural works life. The chief cardinal harvests grow in the Philippines are cereal, chief harvests ( Banana, coconut, Ananas comosus, sugar cane, java, Mangifera indica, baccy, Manila hemp, gum elastic, chocolate tree manioc, hooded coat, peanut, onion, garlic, tomato, aubergine, chou and citrous fruit. )

The Philippine vegetable industry:

Vegetable is a large and diverse merchandise in the Philippines. Assortment of these workss can be established in the state. This is educated intensively in concern farms and garden Plant. parts use as vegetable include anything from whole foliages, fruits, blossom root, root tubers and seed storage infinite line and corm ( onion, garlic and shallot ) . The most normally grown-up vegetable in moorland is white murphy, chou sweet Piper nigrum, Brassica oleracea italica, Brassica oleracea botrytis, boodle and tomato. For Lowlandss, vegetable such as solanaceous, cucurbits, roots, and leguminous plants.

Exports: State ‘s export depends on lone few harvest ( fresh or chilled ) 43 % of this are from Asparagus officinales, 28 % from shallots, 9 % on onion and the residuary 20 % are dispersed to other vegetable harvests.

The Filipino Plantation Crops Industry: The agricultural estate harvests industry is a turning fabrication in the Philippines. This is conveying approximately by the assortment of utilizations obtain from these harvests. Among the agriculture land harvests educated in the Philippines are coconut, rubber, chocolate tree, sugar cane, indispensable oils, and Manila hemp.

Medicative Plants Plan: There are about 15,000 category of works in the state. A measure of this category is curative vegetations and herb by agencies of separate medical worth recognized for their healing belongings. These workss are good beginning of pharmacological ingredient able of healing adult male ‘s unwellness. a figure of the ingredient are unstable oils, rosin, alkaloid, glycoside and intoxicant.

Location tendency: Surveies have exposed that a big measure of people in the Philippines are awake of the potencies medical values of around 7000 works assortment. The sector of Science and cognition has conduct hold found out that 80 category have been established to be unafraid and effective.

Current Development in Horticultural Crop Production

Turning System: Even unreal mulching is non loosely use in the Philippines ; it is non new to agriculture production. Melon and strawberry agriculturists in Luzon are the bulk experiential to be utilizing the accomplishment numbering unreal wrap on top of the works life to support it as of rainfall as such off-season crop is achieve. One kerb of such engineering is the stuff cost concerned and the proper disposal of the usage plastics. This will give the agriculturists high-quality works resources for horticultural reap create.

Climate, the most of import environmental factor traveling works growing and advancement is the mean long-run clime of a situate, determined over a period of at least 30 old ages. In contrast, A climateA is the short-run atmospheric status of a topographic point. TheA climatic factorsA includeA rainwater, A visible radiation, A temperature, comparative humidness, A airA andA air current. Any difference in one of these climatic factors can hold of import belongings on the others and accommodate the assorted physiological procedures in workss numbering photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration.

The Philippines ‘ rich volcanic dirt, superb sunshine and sufficient rainfall description for the fit expansion of 1000s of works category in the archipelago. From refering 3000 category of monolithic leaf to 1000s extra category of mosses and lichens, Philippine forest include diverseness of works life that non one of its neighbours.

For most of the occupants, there are 3 types of lodging. They are:

Nipa huts: – Home made of bamboo, with nipa roof. Even foreigner will populate in a nipa hut as they are cool to populate in. normally, they use coco timber for the environment ; have bamboo bulwarks, top complete as of banana leaf and cookery is on an release flames. Improved lower status places will hold bamboo floor or else the floor will be grime. There are no glass windows.

Plywood: -Homes made of plyboard with corrugated Fe roof. Normally, they will utilize coco bunch for the frame, 3 ply plyboard for the bulwarks. 5 or 7 ply plyboard for the floor. Grooved degree for the roof. Window will often be the slat type. Most often, these are unpainted and will worsen in a few old ages because of contact to the conditions.

Hollowblock: -home made of cement block call hollow blocks. They are a big long pillow brick with holes from side to side the center. For the period of edifice, the hole are filled with strengthen and steel bars for reinforce. Empty ball place attack in sizes scope as of lone scope to more than a few floor ‘ . Some contain cemented roofs and some have ridged Fe roofs. Bathrooms are frequently indoors. Smaller hollow block place will the bulk probably have slat type window. Improved value place will incorporate aluminium window or imagine made of wood lineation window.

Philippines Earthquake-2012

A strong temblor of 7.9 magnitudes work stoppage off the eastern beach of the Philippines trigger tsunami warning across Asia. The temblor struck on August 31, 2012 at 20:47 local clip.


Date and Time of Earthquake – 02:48 AM HST on August 31, 2012

co-ordinate – 10.9 NORTH 127.1 EAST

site – Filipino Islands country

scale – 7.6 on the Richter Scale

Location of Earthquake: The temblor was hit at a deepness of 21.7 stat mis and was centered 66 stat mis east of Samar Island and 91 stat mis off the town of Guiuan in Samar state.

Impact: The clang was felt at metropolis of Davao, approximately 250 stat mis south of Guiuan. One place was distorted in southern Cagayan de Oro metropolis. There was no electrical energy in several Philippines towns and metropoliss.

Which authorities bureau do people turn to for in sequence during natural catastrophes?

For conditions updates and typhoon signal qui vives:

Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomical Services Administration ( PAGASA ) hypertext transfer protocol: //

PAGASA is an bureau under the subdivision of Science and machinery. A It provides real-time update about the conditions and typhoon qui vives.

Legend of PAGASA ‘s color-coded rainwater advisories, which may be issued through Twitter, the medium and coordination with the local authorities.

For more information about the color-coded warning signal

How to do sense of PAGASA ‘s colour-coded warning signals: -A hypertext transfer protocol: //×121.png

Undertaking NOAHhttp: //

The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards ( NOAH ) is a plan Begin by the DOST to set in topographic point a receptive plan forA disasterA turning away and decrease, utilizing advanced information to heighten current geo-hazard susceptibleness maps.

For volcanic activities, temblors, and tsunami qui vives: hypertext transfer protocol: //×573.png

Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology ( PHIVOLCS )

PHIVOLCS is a service institute of the DOST. The organisation is tasked to extenuate catastrophe that may originate from volcanic eruptions, temblors, tsunami and other related geotectonic phenomena.

( ) A

For harm appraisal and amalgamate studies on authorities action: hypertext transfer protocol: //

National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council ( NDRRMC )

The NDRRMC was established to follow catastrophe turning away and hazard decrease. ItA reports updates on the belongings and preparedness steps of catastrophe state of affairs such as typhoon, temblors, etc.

For NCR inundation updates: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Metropolitan Manila Development Authority ( MMDA )

Provides real-time studies on traffic and flooded countries in Metro Manila ; AIDSs in inundation control in Metro Manila.

Where do people direct contributions for those affected by catastrophes?

Department of Social Welfare and Development ( DSWD ) hypertext transfer protocol: //×524.png

The DSWD is the organisation in charge for the distribute societal services to the Filipino people. It spearheads authorities alleviation operation for the period of incidents of catastrophes.


The Philippines honestness strategy is brace of the Supreme Court, the tribunal of entreaties the regional test tribunals, the tribunal of revenue enhancement entreaties and the metropolitan and municipal test tribunals. In Philippines there is a great degree of criminalism due to the state ‘s imbalance ; one of the ways of authorities has done attempt to increase stableness by adding decease punishment in 1993.

Filipino Ownership Laws and FDI

The Philippines foreign direct investing policy is really broad besides release to any corporation or moneyman that would wish to pass in it. In October 2009, more or less $ 22.9 billion were invested in the Philippines. An assured Torahs command how much of a corporation foreign concern can have in a host state and if a company can to the full integrate in that state. These Torahs set a degree, or proportion, at which a corporation can have a corporation or market portion in the Philippines. at present, the Philippines let 100 percent foreign ownership of Philippine retail trade endeavor with a rewarded up assets of $ 2.5 million. The bounds on how much advertise portion a corporation can have in the Philippines are a small stricter. For any corporation looking to pass in the Philippines, 60 per centum of any domestic market is necessary to be Filipino owned and 40 per centum can be foreign owned. This income that any foreign concern can have up to 40 per centum of a market portion based in the Philippines.

Filipino Environment Control Laws

Air feature organisation:

Ambient Air characteristic rules

countrywide release rules

group of people sound rules

rules for Noise-Producing tackle

aeroplane release and Sonic Booms

Water characteristic organisation:

classification of Philippine Waters

Reclassification of Waters Based on projected helpful brand usage of

betterment of Water value

Water characteristic rules

Clean-up Operationss

Water Quality proctor and observation

Land Use Management:

National Land Use system

Location of industry

To guarantee that these countries of organisation are following proper directing, these bureau put into consequence the Philippine ecological Code:

nationalized Pollution Control charge

Civil Aeronautics direction

Land conveyance charge

Filipino Atomic power charge