South Florida Scrub Ecosystem

South Florida Scrub Ecosystem

Contentss:

  1. Basic ecology
  2. Ecosystem services
  3. Biodiversity
  4. Human Impact ( Historical Landuse )
  5. Mentions

Basic Ecology

Scrub is a works community characterized by the laterality of bush, in contrast to woods which are dominated by trees, and savannas and prairies which are dominated by grasses [ floridata ] . This home ground occurs on countries of deep, well-drained, sterile sandy dirts that are typically white or close white [ ffwc ] . Florida gown may be classified as either coastal or inside, and are frequently named by the dominant works species ( though no individual works species that occurs in all Florida gowns and non in other home grounds as good [ multi ] . Florida chaparral in its assorted stages has been called sand pine chaparral, oak chaparral, xeric chaparral, sand chaparral, dune oak chaparral, slash pine chaparral, palmetto chaparral, large chaparral, evergreen oak chaparral, evergreen chaparral forest, rosemary chaparral, and rosemary bald [ multi ] . Scrub soils be given to be alimentary hapless and are dependent on regular wildfires to better nutritionary quality and food cycling within the dirt, every bit good as promote the blossoming and fruiting of some works species [ uf ] . Florida chaparral receives about 130 centimeter of precipitation annually, largely in the summer, but hapless keeping by the flaxen dirt leaves the country semi-arid [ weekley ] .

South Florida Scrub falls into the Neartic ecoregion class and is one of the smallest ecoregions in the Continental United States [ WWF1 ] . Harmonizing to GIS analysis, 1,500 square stat mis of Scrub home grounds exist in Florida, of which 76 % are in bing protected or managed countries [ ffwc ] . Overall about 60 % of Florida ‘s historical chaparral has been destroyed, and much of what remains is in stray packages. The largest countries of staying chaparral are found on The Atlantic Coastal Ridge, and the Lake Wales Ridge [ Weislo ] and in Ocala National Forest ‘s Big Scrub [ SERP ] ( both Ocala and Lake Wales are portion of the Central Ridge subdivision of this ecoregion ) [ wwf1 ] .

The Atlantic Coastal Ridge runs parallel and in close propinquity to the east seashore of Florida from northern St. Lucie county South to Miami-Dade and Monroe counties, scopes in tallness from 10 pess to good over 50 pess above sea degree [ Weislo ] .

Lake Wales Ridge which extends from Lake and Orange counties in the North, south through Highlands county and scopes in tallness from 70 pess to over 300 pess above sea degree at its highest point [ Weislo ] . Historically, sand pine and xeric oak chaparral covered over 30,000 hour angle of the southmost tierce of the Lake Wales Ridge. About 15 % ( 4,500 hour angle ) of these countries remain. With about 180 hour angle of true chaparral, Archbold Biological Station maintains the most extended staying piece of land of Lake Wales scrub presently under preservation direction [ SERP ] .

Today merely about 10-15 per centum of the chaparral home ground remains, the remainder replaced by citrous fruit Grovess and lodging developments [ WWF1 ] .

In diminishing order of size, other blocks of integral home ground in southern Florida include:

  • Jonathan Dickinson State Park ( Coastal scrub subdivision )
  • Avon Park Air Force Base ( Central Ridge subdivision )
  • Arbuckle State Forest ( Central Ridge subdivision )
  • Cedar Key Scrub State Preserve ( Coastal scrub subdivision )
  • Merritt Island Cape Canaveral ( Coastal scrub subdivision )

A more complete list of staying blocks is listed in Myers and Ewel ( 1990, p. 142-3 ) [ wwf1 ] .

Biodiversity

Current province of biodiversity

There are merely 4 species of craniates considered endemic to the Florida chaparral, but there are legion federally listed carnal species that depend upon or utilize the Florida chaparral [ multi ] , including the Florida jaguar (Puma concolor coryi,Florida chaparral Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) , Florida mouse (Podomys floridanus) , KirtlandA’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) , sand scincid (Neoseps reynoldsi) , bluetail mole scincid (Plestiodon egregius lividus) , Florida goffer toad (Rana capito aesopus) , Florida scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi) , and Florida worm lizard (Rhineura floridana) [ WWF1 ] [ multi ] . In general, the larger animate beings move freely into and out of chaparral. Most birds, every bit good as black bears, bay lynxs, raccoons and other mammals visit chaparral but ca n’t be considered purely scrub animate beings [ floridata ] ; although these animate beings are typically encountered in chaparral and are characteristic of the ecosystem, none are wholly restricted to the community [ multi ] . Deyrup ( 1989 ) listed 46 species of insects and spiders believed to be restricted to scour, including 20 species restricted to scour within the South Florida Ecosystem [ multi ] .

Florida chaparral has no fewer than 40 species of workss that are endemic to Florida chaparral. Of these, approximately 20 are endemic to Lake Wales Ridge scrub specifically. Most of these are consideredEndangeredorThreatenedby the US Department of Interior and the State of Florida because their distributions are so little that they are vulnerable to extinction [ floridata ] .

Menaces to biodiversity in scrub home grounds include invasive animate beings, invasive workss, roads taking to habitat atomization, transition of the land to agriculture, transition to lodging, diversion, and urban development, transition to commercial and industrial development. Other menaces include incompatible recreational activities, incompatible resource extraction, incompatible forestry patterns, and an incompatible fire government. Threats specific to Scrub home ground include Incompatible forestry patterns because this home ground

supports Florida scrub-jays, which are non tolerant of heavy pine stands next to or within Scrub

sites [ multi ] . Of these emphasiss, atomization and deficient size and extent of communities or ecosystems are ranked high. A series of 16 specific stressors were considered in bring forthing preservation actions for the ecosystem. The statewide menace rank of chaparral home ground is “very high” [ multi ] .

Ecosystem Servicess

provided ( place important “ free ” services, such as H2O filtration, C sink, etc. This is non a comprehensive list but a elaborate treatment of what you find are THE most of import services provided by your specific ecosystem

Human Impacts ( Historical Landuse )

How worlds have impacted this ecosystem type in recent old ages. See landuse alteration, pollution, resource extraction. Include whether or non there is human acknowledgment of these impacts and if there are attempts to mitigate/restore them.

Florida ‘s Wildlife Legacy Initiative supports several undertakings designed to better the quality of: chaparral and sandhill ecosystems, considered precedence tellurian home grounds. These home grounds can be hard to pull off, particularly when natural fires are suppressed and big measures of fuel allowed to roll up. To safely pull off these potentially unsafe countries and prevent wildfires, interagency groups formed ecosystem support squads ( fire squads ) to work in countries with demands for aid during hard Burnss [ ffwc ] .

Nitrogen lading associated with fertiliser usage can speed up the diminution of works diverseness and impact the dirt organisms that play a polar function in dirt food cycling. Research done by Krumins, et al. , show that bacterial biomass respond negatively to nitrogen add-on. This can turn out damaging to the mycorrhizae assistant bacterium ( MHB ) and cut down Ns uptake by the workss. Soluble N non assimilated into biotic constituents of dirt will be transported to waterways and groundwater where it can take to eutrophication [ krumins ] .

Mentions

Cohen, J. “ Population Growth and Earth ‘s Human Carrying Capacity. ”Science269.5222 ( 1995 ) : 341-46.

Florida sand pine chaparral. ( n.d. ) .WorldWildlife.org. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/na

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2012.Florida’s Wildlife Legacy Initiative: Florida’s State Wildlife Action Plan. Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Floridata: The Florida Scrub. ( n.d. ) .Floridata: The Florida Scrub. Retrieved October 2, 2014, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.floridata.com/tracks/scrub/florida

Foreman, D. “The Human Population Explosion and the Future of Life” The Rewilding Institute www.rewilding.org March 11, 2008 Issue Twenty

Juday, C.The Annual Energy Budget of an Inland Lake, Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 4 ( Oct. , 1940 ) , pp. 438-450

Krumins, J. A. , Dighton, J. , Gray, D. , Franklin, R. B. , Morin, P. J. , & A ; Roberts, M. S. ( 2009 ) . Soil microbic community response to nitrogen enrichment in two chaparrals oak woods.Forest Ecology and Management,258( 7 ) , 1383-1390.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Southeast Environmental Research Program. , & A ; for Plant Conservation. ( 1995 ) .An action program to conserve the native workss of Florida. St. Louis, Mo. : Center for Plant Conservation.

University of Florida. ( n.d. ) . Fire and Habitat.– UF/IFAS Extension: Solutions for Your Life. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from hypertext transfer protocol: //solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/hot_topics/e

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999.South Florida multi-species recovery program.Atlanta, Georgia. 2172 pp.

Vitousek, P.M. , H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J.M. Melillo.Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494–499

Weekley, C. W. , Gagnon, D. , Menges, E. S. , Quintana-Ascencio, P. F. , & A ; Saha, S. ( 2007 ) . Variation in dirt wet in relation to rainfall, flora, spreads, and time-since-fire in Florida chaparral.Ecoscience,14( 3 ) , 377.

Weislo, E. ( n.d. ) . Florida Habitats & A ; Ecosystems.Florida ‘s Nature. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.floridasnature.com/florida_habita

Worm, B. , E. B. Barbier, N. Beaumont, J. E. Duffy, C. Folke, B. S. Halpern, J. B. C. Jackson, H. K. Lotze, F. Micheli, S. R. Palumbi, E. Sala, K. A. Selkoe, J. J. Stachowicz, and R. Watson. “ Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. ”Science314.5800 ( 2006 ) : 787-90.