Strategy in education and a vision of the future

Strategy has a cosmopolitan nature whether it is in the educational field or the concern sector. It is a vision of the hereafter. Strategy is “ a program, a form, a place, a position and, in a footer, he indicated that it can besides be a gambit, a manoeuvre intended to overreach a rival ” Mintzberg ( 1995, p.36 ) . Harmonizing to Davies ( 2003 ) , “ scheme can be a specific form of determinations and actions taken to accomplish an organisation ‘s ends ” ( cited in class reader Kvm 56, p1 ) . We come now to a definition of scheme that I proposed for usage: Scheme refers to a general program of action for accomplishing one ‘s ends and aims. In the Mauritanian Education sector a batch of reforms have taken topographic point. An educational reform can be said to be a cardinal scheme by which authorities ‘s effort to act upon the procedures and results of schooling. A assortment of imperative motivates such reforms.

However, looking at the above mentioned definition, one thing that does non suit with the worlds in Mauritius is that no educational reform put in topographic point had a long term hereafter. All authoritiess have come with some sort of reforms different from their predecessors and accordingly harmonizing to me, there has non been a scheme put in topographic point for the instruction sector as the failure rates in both primary and secondary schools have increased ( see Strategy be after 2008-2020, inefficiencies in the current system, p37-42 ) . However, it should be noted that the current Education Minister has late come frontward with a program entitled: Education and Human Resources Strategy Plan 2008-2020. This is the first clip that the word scheme has figured in the rubric of an educational reform. Furthermore, in this piece of work, a strategic program including several policies has been set up to better pupils ‘ accomplishments and promote their personal acquisition and make a holistic environment which will authorise kids.

Furthermore, in Mauritius I believe that the direction theoretical account involved is the “ rational planning ” which derives from an attack to scheme. Harmonizing to Morrison ( 2003, p.13 ) , the “ rational theoretical account of alteration is really powerful and appealing, proposing that alteration can be planned and sequenced ” . As for Davies ( 2003 ) , the rational planning model presumes that “ a predictable hereafter allows determination shapers to carefully weigh up the effects of options and to take a class of action that maximizes the accomplishment of aims ” . Therefore, through this new scheme program, the Ministry is taking to “ transform Mauritius into an intelligent state province in the vanguard of planetary advancement and invention through the development of a civilization of accomplishment and excellence ” ( MOE, C & A ; HR, 2008, p.12 )

The college where I work as art and design pedagogue is a private secondary school which is directed by the PSSA ( Private Secondary School ) . It was founded in 1968 by the current director. The school population is 375 soon, and it offers classes up to HSC ( Higher School Certificate ) . The mission statement of the college goes along with the national vision and mission which are quoted in the ( Strategic Plan 2008-2020, p11 ) . Prior to execution of a peculiar alteration, it is important to research the school ‘s present state of affairs by reexamining its vision and aims. However, this new mission statement will be a apogee of working in partnership with all pedagogues and parents, the college will supply a happy lovingness larning community that promotes excellence ; where the singularity of each pupil will be valued and persons demands to be respected, developing each individual to their fullest potency, spiritually, emotionally, intellectually and in relationships with each other. Thus, I was rather perplexed that in my college art and design is non offered in the upper signifiers ( HSC degree ) . I felt that this state of affairs is unjust as it implies inefficient usage of human resources available and I believe that it should organize portion of the school ‘s course of study as specified in the National course of study. Students must be given the chance to hold Art & A ; Design as option otherwise they have to travel to other colleges and face many other troubles. Another issue is that I have noticed that pupils every bit good as parents tend to look down upon the capable Art & A ; Design, therefore detering pupils to give their best potency in this topic and they do non hold the inducements to take the topic even at SC degree as they knew they would non be holding it at HSC in the college. Some pupils merely take Art & A ; Design as sometimes they lack figure of topics to hold a full SC ( School Certificate ) , but they do non demo involvement at all, therefore diminishing the public presentation in the topic. For rather a long clip, I have been lodging on this state of affairs and now I am prehending the chance to undertake this strategic job. I believe it is high clip that the job is solved so as to include art & A ; design in upper categories. Discussions in our Critical Study Group have led us to recognize that educational reform is a signifier of reclamation or transmutation, where alterations are brought to an bing system of instruction as Morrison ( 2003, p.2 ) admitted that “ Change and reform in instruction are ineluctable ” .

However, I do non wish the alteration I want to convey in my capable country to be undistinguished. Hence, I should be practical and there is great demand to travel beyond traditional planning and see a strategic attack for the inclusion of Art & A ; Design at upper degree in my college ‘s course of study. As a professional pedagogue, I must guarantee the success and hereafter of my topic in the school. With an oculus for reform, as many educationalists have either supported or criticized certain leading manners, I have to take which leading manner suits and works best to this state of affairs and this is subjected to a affair of sentiment. Education leading manners are based on the apprehension that certain features, such as physical energy and/or societal interaction play a portion in the manner instruction is imparted. Effective leading manners in instruction are about beef uping the public presentation of instruction leaders, chiefly the pedagogues, to better pupil accomplishment. Hence, effectual leading is important for instructors and pupils to heighten public presentation at the highest degree. “ For all facets of school direction, leading is a important ingredient ; most people in direction places within an organisation should be demoing leading in their country of work ” ( Fiedler, 1996, p.72/74 ) .

As this is my first strategic program, I have opted for one of the two attacks to strategic planning proposed by Fidler ( 1996, p.87 ) which is the “ accommodating the parts ” . This attack suits me being given that I am reacting to an “ internal dissatisfaction with the present province ” ( Fidler, 1996, p.87 ) of my capable country in the school. Although Fidler ( 1996 ) specified the possibility of failure with this method, I must ever maintain in head while strategically believing about my strategic job and vision that the direction, pedagogues, parents are all here working in coaction for the public assistance of all the pupils and this should be the “ consolidative rule ” ( Fidler, 1996 ) . Finally, the Fidler and Bowles theoretical account of strategic direction ( see theoretical account in Fidler, 1996, p.60 ) will be used to undertake my strategic job. This will guarantee feedback at each phase which will be one time once more analyzed to vouch execution and hereafter of my strategic program, therefore guaranting the endurance of my topic as it “ shows a cyclic nature of strategic direction with the rating procedure at the terminal of one rhythm feeding into the analysis phase of the following rhythm ” ( Fildler, 1996, p.60 ) .

Harmonizing to Johnson et Al. ( 2005, p.26 ) , “ the environment in which an establishment operates and the civilization within the establishment are two of import facets in executing a strategic analysis ” . Following the “ Fidler and Bowles theoretical account ” , I have performed my strategic analysis to measure the present province and possible hereafter of the Art & A ; Design in my college. It has been performed from April to June harmonizing to the three constituents proposed by Fidler ( 1996 ) , viz. the environment, the internal resources and the civilizations and values of the school. The SWOT analysis ( Knight, 1997 ) has been used as an analytical tool to understand the strategic placement of my college, which has guided me to carry on a better system analysis. SWOT is a strategic planning tool, normally used as portion of making an environmental scan, that help place external factors that need to be planned for, and internal factors that need to be planned for in finding where a concern should be traveling in the hereafter. More specifically, the procedure involves placing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. The SWOT analysis can be done as portion of strategic planning, but it can besides be done independently of the larger procedure as a standalone. ( See theoretical account in ACCA survey text, p.110 ) . The Deming ‘s 14 points ( Knight, 1997 ) is another appropriate tool which I used to hold a broader perceptual experience about the internal world of the school so as to vouch that meaningful alteration will happen from within the school.

It is surprising to observe that although my school is in line with the national vision and mission of instruction, it does non offer Art & A ; Design at HSC degree as there was a deficiency of human resources since it started HSC degree. Therefore the topic was non given as option for HSC and the pupils finishing the SC degree have to travel to other colleges in order to acquire that option, therefore making version job. But really it has become a paradox as the quality audit of resources from the PSSA has confirmed that the school has now a to the full equipped specialist art room and professional pedagogues for the instruction of Art & A ; Design. Furthermore the Programme Based Budget Statement ( MOE & A ; HR, 2007 ) has among its precedence to lower wastage in the instruction system at all degrees. On the other manus, the National Curriculum Framework Secondary ( NCFS ) stresses the importance of Art & A ; Design by suggesting that “ Humanistic disciplines be to the full re-instated as an every bit relevant and necessary chase in the course of study at par with other academic topics and the interdisciplinary potency of the sphere in fostering cognition and accomplishments in other spheres be to the full explored. Given the current accent on touristry, developing the artistic accomplishments of our striplings by giving them the chance to experiment with the Humanistic disciplines and look into the sphere will turn out to be important in the close hereafter ” ( NCFS, p.23 ) . Hence, all pupils must be given the chance to choose for Art & A ; Design at HSC degree.

Furthermore, as the SWOT analysis showed that certain factors can be considered as both chances and menaces and these facets help me to convert the stakeholders so as to travel my capable frontward strategically in the school, guaranting a strategic tantrum ( Fidler, 1996 ) . During the strategic analysis stage, I have besides designed questionnaires for pupils and parents and so collected informations on their perceptual experience on the debut of Art & A ; Design at HSC degree. At the same clip, it was an chance to acquire the other staff members involved in the distribution and analysis of informations. I besides got the juncture to discourse with the members and president of the PTA who, in bend gave me full support. Information was besides gathered on the public presentation of the topic in other colleges so as to do a comparing of informations.

The school civilization is besides an of import component in the defining of the school, Peterson ( 1990, p.3 ) note that the definition of civilization includes “ deep forms of values, beliefs, and traditions that have been formed over the class of the school ‘s history. ” Paul E. Heckman ( 1993, p.2 ) reminds us that school civilization lies in “ the normally held beliefs of instructors, pupils, and principals ” . Without a school civilization, “ school betterment can be hindered ” ( Fidler, 1996, p.173 ) . The most effectual alteration in school civilization happens when principals, instructors, and pupils model the values and beliefs of import to the establishment. Principals shape the civilization in all of their day-to-day interactions. As Mauritius is a multicultural state and school is seeking to alter, it will be necessary to understand one ‘s ain reactions and oppositions. It will be necessary for the caput of a school to be able to pass on the procedure to the members of the school community. A greater apprehension of school and organisational civilization will allow that to go on. However, being a staff member of 11 old ages in that college, I have a clear thought of the school civilization and values. I can corroborate that there is a strong organisational civilization in my college and any staff members conveying any valuable alteration are welcomed with “ the recognized manner to run successfully in this organisation ” ( Fiedler, 1996, p.99 ) . Therefore, it is to my advantage to suggest my alteration and guarantee its execution with the support of other stakeholders. “ Alternatively, leading concerns the capacity to act upon a group of single to accomplish specific ends ” ( Coombs, 1995 ) .

In my college, there is a mixture of civilizations, viz. the “ Club Culture ” , the “ Role Culture ” , “ Undertaking Culture ” and the “ Experiential Culture ” ( Handy, 1995 ) . Irrespective of the type of civilization which prevails there are strong values and beliefs which are attached to the school. A strong household ethos is encouraged where all members of our school community attention for each other. Partnership with parents is indispensable in all these countries and there is regular duologue between place and school to supervise the pupil ‘s advancement. Open, honest and supportive relationships with parents are promoted. We value the part of parents and guarantee that their positions are heard enabling us to work together to better our college. We besides guarantee that parents receive good clear communications about their kids ‘s acquisition, current demands and how to assist at place letters are sent out to parents on a regular footing informing them about the different activities and doing them involved in our undertakings. Our college holds an Open Door Policy which is extended to all our parents.

It is important for leaders to “ advance the civilization of larning within the organisation by promoting staff to encompass the organisational fright that comes with alteration ” ( Heslop, 2007, p.4 ) so as to promote the investing of all the stakeholders and guarantee sustainable success. Schools that implement alteration are more likely to prolong betterment over clip as they can bring forth the preparedness to alter and the internal capacity to pull off the alteration procedure ( Harris & A ; Lambert, 2003, p.52 ) . Therefore accent should be laid on “ transformational leading ” ( Jameson, 2006, p.65 ) instead than “ transactional leading ” ( Jameson, 2006, p.64 ) . Measuring the leading qualities of my curate, I would state that I found her to hold good leading traits. From the different types of leading theoretical accounts which exist I would impute a mixture of “ instructional leading ” ( Bush & A ; Glover, 2003, p.7 ) , “ transformational leading ” ( Jameson, 2006, p.65 ) and “ shared leading ” ( Jameson, 2006, p.68 ) to my HOD. I appreciated the considerate touch she gave to the undertaking. On the other manus the theory of educational direction which she preferred was the “ collegiality ” ( Bush, 2002, p.25 ) attack which implied that pedagogues were involved in determination devising refering the methods of including Art & A ; Design at HSC degree. However, Riches ( 1997, p.165 ) stated that “ errors are frequently made because communicating is non seen as a bipartisan exchange ” . There should be unfastened and honest communicating for the success of any alteration. Furthermore Heslop ( 2007, p.4 ) suggested that “ communicating is critical to understanding the context of cognition direction, enabling it to be reinterpreted and doing it applicable to new scenes ” . Teamwork promotes larning jointly and collaboratively ( Harris & A ; Lambert, 2003 ) . Since departmental members, other staff members, curate, attenders, PTA are involved ; this attack must be implemented ab initio and sustained systematically. The leader must keep ongoing engagement and the stakeholders given strong support, consistent feedback, and continual chance for treatment. Harmonizing to Maslow motivational theory ( Maslow, 1954 ) deputing duties for certain actions motivate members to accomplish purpose. Staff will take part, portion their thoughts on how to better and hence this will make a sense of ownership.

However, there is still some staff members who are ever immune to anything that disturb their day-to-day modus operandi and in other words it means more plants and attempt for them. As I will necessitate the aid of all staff in my section, I could non put on the line holding some of them demoing opposition when they will understand that they will be involved in the analysis and execution stage of my strategic program. So, careful planning and direction is needed to take attention of the proposed alteration procedure to avoid unneeded pandemonium because people are involved. Here, the appropriate method to diminish defying force is the Lewin ‘s theoretical account of unfreezing, altering, and refreezing ( Lewin, 1951 ) though old but still stands good as it is simple, goal-oriented and easy-to-understand model and can be cyclical if a new demand arises. ( Bronwyn, 2006, p.2 )

After the strategic analysis done on the current state of affairs of instruction in our school and “ a strategic pick which is concerned with generating and measuring options before doing a pick ( Fidler, 1996, p. 145 ) . As the college possesses equal physical and human resources, I believe it should offer all topics specified in the NCFS ( National Curriculum Framework Secondary ) , therefore diversify its pick of topics at HSC degree in order to fulfill the demands and wants of the school population. The strategic program was set which will be followed by the execution, control and larning harmonizing to Grundy ‘s theoretical account ( Fidler, 1996, p.150 ) . It was decided that a 5 twelvemonth program would break run into the school ‘s demands and concern.

The sequencing, gait and phasing of execution will, to a big extent, be determined by the

development of increased direction capacities at all degrees in the schools. Another tool which helped to transport frontward in my strategic thought was the “ scenario planning ” ( Schoemaker, 1995 ) as it is a technique which is applicable to “ virtually any state of affairs in which a determination shaper would wish to conceive of how the hereafter might be unfold ” ( Schoemaker, 1995, p.27 ) . Concentrating on these characteristics, the thoughts were discussed in a staff meeting in order to better the quality of strategic thought to assist me to capture the other possibilities which I may hold ignored. My strategic pick will concentrate on the constituent of Art & A ; Design which is non offered at HSC degree, hence my choice has both rational and political procedure ( Fidler, 1996, p.36 ) as I am sing the organisational civilization of the school and the hereafter of my topic in the school including the policy of the Ministry of Education. The strategic program I propose is to accomplish my vision for my topic ‘s, pupils ‘ and school ‘s hereafter. All pedagogues including me, the curate, and the pedagogical commission will be involved in the execution procedure every bit good as in the monitoring of the program following the “ audience theoretical account ” of engagement proposed by Fidler ( 1996, p. 84 ) . Even the IT section will be involved for the inclusion of ICT in the instruction and acquisition of Art & A ; Design. The undertaking will be monitored on a regular footing through structured meetings. Throughout the twelvemonth, regular meetings will be organized in order to maintain all stakeholders informed about advancement made and jobs encountered during program execution. However, I expect the sustainability of the undertaking to be positively satisfied and it moves successfully forward with in the hereafter old ages.

The strategic program consists of a clip program and a form of engagement ( Fiedler, 1996, p.83 ) . The basic repetition rhythm as based on “ Fidler and Bowles theoretical account ” ( Fidler, 1996, p.60 ) will be for a period of one academic twelvemonth. The advancement will be reviewed and the strategic program updated at the terminal of each academic twelvemonth. The strategic program will be in four different stages where Phase 1, the transitional degree will get down from August 2010 to December 2011 and will dwell of puting up the system. Phase 2 get downing from January 2012 to December 2012 will be based on monitoring success and widening scope. Phase 3 from January 2013 to December 2014 will be for honing the system and the Phase 4 is meant for January 2015 to December 2015, it will consist the auditing and reviewing and finally be aftering to travel frontward.


Strategic ends

Strategic Aims

2010-2015 Targets



July 2010-2015

Minimize wastage of resources in art section ( based on PBB )

Efficient usage of equipment and country available for the instruction and acquisition of art & A ; design

Full usage of specializer room and equipment by all pupils up to HSC

Classs mentioned on the clip tabular array for all categories on a hebdomadal footing

HOD and myself to guarantee efficient usage of resources by maintaining a practical record book for the dept

August 2010-December 2015

Introduce and guarantee endurance of Art & A ; Design at HSC degree

To be in line with policy in NCFS – to supply the topic as an option at HSC degree

Art & A ; Design on option signifiers at Lower Six as from 2013

Review learning schemes at lower degree to maximise involvement and develop originative accomplishments in art & A ; design.

Career counsel to inform pupils about occupation chances in this field.

HOD and the curate to execute category visits and verify lesson programs and rede on effectual usage of learning schemes.

Inclusion of a resource individual for calling counsel

January 2011-December 2015

Undertake annually reappraisal of lower secondary course of study for art & A ; design

Curriculum reappraisal for practical work as a uninterrupted procedure based upon demands of capable tendencies

Revision of course of study in departmental meeting at beginning of each academic twelvemonth based on feedback utilizing the “ Fidler and Bowles theoretical account ”

Continue alteration by sing involvements of pupils in relation to commercial art that prevails in the state, supplying extrinsic motive

HOD in coaction with all members of the art & A ; design section

Blessing of the curate and pedagogical commission

August 2010- December 2016

Improve quality of consequences in art & A ; design as from lower secondary degree utilizing mensurable acquisition results

Improve appraisal manner

Integrate remedial instruction by 2011

Shift from summational appraisal to formative appraisal

Developing mode for remedial instruction

Develop standard appraisal standards for art & A ; design

One activity period to be devoted on a hebdomadal footing for those who require remedial work

Art & A ; Design pedagogues under supervising of HOD


January 2012-December 2015

Introduce the usage of ICT as support tool in the instruction and acquisition of art & A ; design

Introduce the usage of ICT as support tool by all art pedagogues in the instruction and acquisition of art & A ; design

ICT program to be developed for all categories of Art & A ; Design by 2012

To update bing ICT installations in specializer room by adding internet connexion to let entree to online stuffs

Pedagogical commission

IT Department

January 2011-December 2015

In-service usage preparation of art & A ; design pedagogues

To advance in-service preparation as a agency of professional development

Graduate professional development encouraged at development and school degree

Art pedagogues trained to be more polyvalent in the topic



Finally, this strategic program is indispensable for prolonging school betterment as it is looking frontward to offer more pick and more topics at HSC degree. “ The formation of a strategic program enables schools to be proactive by developing a coherent attack to raising degrees of quality ” ( Fidler, 1996, p.163 ) . However, as mentioned in the strategic program, it besides involves willingness on the behalf of the school staff to travel frontward the school ‘s vision and guarantee overall development of pupils.