Swot Analysis Of Chongming Dongtan Environmental Sciences Essay

Obviously, Chongming Dongtan is the largest alluvial island all over the universe, which encompasses 750 square stat mis. It consists of mudflats, grass, reeds, and fish pool crab. Chongming Dongtan lies at the oral cavity of the Yangtze Rive. It is built of the Yangtze River deposit deposition. Biological sequence at the mudflat wetland occurs as the eastern beach of Chongming extends further each twelvemonth. Furthermore, Chongming Dongtan has a semitropical clime and four distinguishable seasons. The one-year mean temperature is 15.3a„? , the frost-free period of 229 yearss. Besides, the one-year rainfall of Chongming Dongtan is 1100 millimetres and the mean sunshine continuance is in 2129.5 hours. ( Chongming Dongtan, Shanghai )

This purpose of this study is to set about a SWOT analysis of the Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site. The construction of the undermentioned portion contains six major subdivisions such as the strengths, failings, chances, menaces, decision and mention. Following will expose those subdivisions in item.

Section 2 Strengths

There are three major strengths of declaring the Chongming East End Nature Reserve for Wetlands and Birds as an internationally recognized Ramsar site.

First of wholly, the declaration of Chongming East End Nature Reserve improves the cooperation between China and Australia. On Jan11, 2002, Chongming Dongtan Wetland was listed under Ramsar Convention as Wetlands of International Importance. The ground is that the rich dirts and extended resources like the fresh and saltwater fens, tidal brook and inter-tidal mudflats of Chongming Dongtan can supply a oasis for a assortment of birds and angle along engendering or migration paths. ( The Nature Conservancy ) The birds of Chongming are chiefly on the East Asian-Australian migratory paths. ( See Figure 1, Dr Lorne K. Kriwoken ) It is the first way station topographic point for many birds heading North in the spring and their last nutrient supply station when winging back to their wintering land in the southern hemisphere in the autumn. Besides, there are a assortment of rare migrator birds, particularly include National Class I and Class II protected birds such as greater white-fronted goose and small green Hero. ( Chongming, Shanghai ) Besides, there are 37 Migratory Birds Protection Agreements between China and Australia. And the certification of engagement of Chongming Dongtan in the East Asia-Australian Shorebird Site Network makes the Ramsar site as an of import significance of international topographic point. ( James Qiu, 2004 )

Middle Asia to India

East Asia to Australia

West Pacific

North & A ; south America

Africa to Europe & A ; Asia

Asia to to Pacific

( Figure 1, Dr Lorne K. Kriwoken )

Furthermore, the declaration of the Chongming East End Nature Reserve can be good to protect the ecosystem and biodiversity. Chongming Dongtan has a plentifulness of fish, amphibious vehicles, reptilians, invertebrates resources and works resources. Owing to the biodiversity preservation, the universe broad financess for nature ( WWF ) lists it in 200 planetary biological diverseness countries. Besides, the particular geographical place and the rapid development of ecosystem features make Chongming Dongtan become international of import. Furthermore, in November 1998, the constitution of nature militias was approved by Shanghai municipal authorities with a entire country of 241.55 kilometer. There are three constituents of it such as nucleus zone, buffer zone and experiment zone. ( See Figure 2 ) The country of nucleus zone is 165.95 square kilometres, which is colored with light viridities. The intent of it is to protect the natural scenery and ecosystem of Chongming preservation countries and continue the anchor species. Then the country of buffer zone colored dark green is about 10.7 square kilometres and is the natural barrier of nucleus zone. After that, the map of experience zone colored ruddy in the figure is to stabilise nucleus zone and screening human impact on the protected birds. In order to avoid marginalize of protection country and maintain the continuity of estuary wetland ecosystem and the unity of international wetlands, the peripheral buffer zone is built to heighten, organize the Nature Reserve as a ecological barrier.

( See Figure 2, James Qiu, 2004 )

In add-on, the societal benefits of Chongming Dongtan have drawn high attending. The one-year economic value of tellurian ecosystem is $ 12 trillion, including 1/4 from tellurian wetland ; one-year economic value of marine ecosystem is $ 21 trillion, including 1/3 from the wetland. Harmonizing to the computation of wetland ecosystem, planetary production of ecological value totaled $ 10 trillion dollars each twelvemonth. As a consequence, the Chongming East End Nature Reserve can besides convey economic benefits such as piscaries economic system. ( James Qiu, 2004 )

Section 3 Failings

Meanwhile, the failing of the Ramsar declaration with regard to planning and direction besides emerges such as pollution, touristry and care of the Chongming Dongtan.

Initially, the pollution of Chongming Dongtan is serious job demand to be resolved thirstily. The chief pollution beginning of the coastal environment is doubtless the combined sewerage discharge such as industrial waste H2O, domestic sewerage, oil and surface pollution of chemical and fertiliser. After that, it will leads to the decease of the fish and workss. The migratory birds so would confront a terrible job to last. Nevertheless, the non-point pollution which comes from urban overflow civilization and aquaculture can non be ignored. For illustration, Case surveies in Shanghai have displayed that the non-point pollution contributes a considerable proportion of entire sums of pollutant particularly in rural country.

On the other manus, the tourer will convey some drawbacks to Chongming Dongtan. Tourists can convey the pollution like trash and waste which may non break up would upset the ecosystem of Chongming Dongtan. As a consequence, the touristry should be managed in an effectual manner and the tourers should be informed and controlled by statute law and enforcement. For case, the one-year sum of tourers is restricted.

Furthermore, how to keep Chongming East End Nature Reserve is the 3rd job occurs after declaration. The piscaries and mariculture of it are reply on the care of a healthy estuarine ecosystem. Changes of H2O quality may increase in sediment burden or the lessening in population of shellfish. Besides, the sewerage discharge, without any pre-treatment, mentioned above has badly hurt the hydrophytic resources near the mercantile establishments. Water pollution has a important influence on local aquatic resources. In add-on, the fish and crab may be the mark of the migratory birds so that fishers may kill those birds to support their involvements. ( C. , Shi, pp.411-427 )

Section 4 Opportunites

Due to its rare resources, beautiful scenery, and its intimacy to the metropolis of Shanghai 45km off, Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site is an attractive finish for ecotourism and environmental instruction and scientific research.

Obviously, Chongming Dongtan Wetland Park can supply an environmental instruction chance for people to grok the importance of birds. The beautiful scenery and the healthy ecosystem environment can pull a batch of tourers to see. It is an first-class topographic point for people to stand much closer to nature, particularly for urban occupants. Furthermore, people can hold a opportunity to larn the cognition of the home ground of those rare species and the map of the Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site thorough. Therefore, their environmental consciousness of protection will be improved.

The following chance is that the Chongming East End Nature Reserve is good for scientific researches. The sum of rare migratory birds placed in protection to over 130 species. In peculiar, it is the way station of international migratory path. Therefore, scientists from different states can come here to make some researches. ( Chongming, Shanghai )

Section 5 Menaces

Despite of the chances of Chongming Dongtan, many important menaces to the long term viability of the Ramsar site will be outlined in item below.

Reclamation is the first menace of Ramsar site. Chongming Dongtan had been enclosed for several times since the establishing a province, particularly three big graduated tables of renewal in 1990, 1992 and 1998. The renewal lands are non merely used as farming areas but besides used as fish and crab pool, and so turn into the impermanent humid land. From 1990 to 2000, the five categorizations of land usage in Dongtan are farming area, grove and works baby’s room, fishery H2O, colony, and wetland and fen. ( See Figure3, Dr Lorne K. Kriwoken, PPT43-46 )

( See Figure 3, Dr Lorne K. Kriwoken, PPT47 )

Furthermore, renewal has an inevitable negative influence. One representative impact is the loss of wetland. Migratory birds play a critical function in maintain a balance of ecosystem and stand foring environmental quality, which belongs to a class of wetland. Another one is the large-scale land renewal which start at early 1990s has significantly impact on the bird community. The bird ‘s natural home ground has been reduced so that their nutrient supply cut off and so the sum of assorted sorts of birds perceptibly decreased.

In add-on, the overexploitation of the resources is another menace of Chongming Dongtan. Owing to the overexploitation of resources with high strength and high frequence, the fewer and limited resources will be used up. The deficient resource of Yangtze juvenile crab and babe eel is one illustration. In 1990s, the war of babe eel in Yangtze estuary caused serious effects. It non merely destructed resources but besides make the many birds particularly the cygnet wing off from Chongming Dongtan. Furthermore, beaches croping destruct the grass of Dongtan. At the same clip, the cowss will vie with the birds for nutrient. Every twelvemonth, the reed is used for papermaking after crop. Nevertheless, the bird provender on the reed may non survival.

What ‘s more, poaching is a really serious menace to Chongming Dongtan. Chongming is traditional birds runing countries. Although the authorities conducted extended propaganda, instruction and enforcement action, poaching still happens. ( Shanghai Chongming Dongtan Birds nature modesty direction station, PPT75 ) In add-on, a new span has been constructed to associate Shanghai with the island of Chongming. Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site have noticed that poaching of birds is increased. Therefore, how to pull off and command this illegal action is really important to see. If the poaching can non prohibit wholly, the endangered species would confront the great danger. ( Shanghai Chongming Dongtan Birds nature modesty direction station, PPT )

Section 6 Decision

In my point of position, Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site faces many environmental force per unit areas such as the renewal, pollution, overexploitation of the resources, deforestation and poaching. By standing on the fishers ‘ position, they want to do more net income. However, Nature Reserve should be protected for the healthy ecosystem. The struggle between two groups should be resolved in an effectively manner. First, statute law is an enforcement to curtail people ‘s behaviour. In peculiar, poaching should be forbidden strictly. Besides, Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site can see as a people return to natural leisure bases and primary and in-between school pupils education environment and the societal pattern field base. Therefore, people will be educated to protect the wetland and the birds themselves.

Furthermore, there are two chief jobs of Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site. One is the environmental pollution. Water pollution can dispatch from the industrial waste H2O, domestic sewerage, and oil. Therefore, industrial should be encouraged to utilize the H2O recycle system and can non dispatch the sewerage without intervention. Besides, the pollution from touristry is inevitable job. Another one is poaching. In order to decide the job, the authorities and director of nature modesty should carry on extended propaganda, instruction and enforcement action and besides develop some professional hunting decision makers to hold on poachers.

In decision, Chongming Dongtan Ramsar site ‘s chance is to build a friendly and dynamic environmental and a sustainable wetland ecosystem. Based on to the full esteem on elements and characteristics of wetland environment, do a wisely usage of through luxuriant planning and designing in order to carry on an eco-friendly wetland Ramsar site. After that, Chongming Dongtan will go an international criterion wetland has a alone feature, which integrated with nature preservation, scientific research, ecotourism. ( James Qiu, 2004 )

Section 7 Mention

Chongming Dongtan, Shanghai, The background of Chongming Dongtan

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Chongming, Shanghai, Dongtan Migrant Birds Conservation Zone

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C. , Shi et Al. Ocean & A ; Coastal Management 44 ( 2001 ) pp.411-427 PDF

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Dr Lorne K. Kriwoken, Chongming Dongtan Ramsar Area ( PPT ) .

James Qiu, 2004, the projection of the Undertaking of Dongtan International Wetland Park, Shanghai Dongtan International Wetland Co. , Ltd. ( PPT ) .

Shanghai Chongming Dongtan Birds nature modesty direction station, Students instruction environment ( PPT ) .

The Nature Conservancy, China, Places We Protect: Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nature.org/wherewework/asiapacific/china/work/chongming.html & gt ;