The Definition Of Language Learning Strategies Education Essay

This survey was conducted in order to look into the effectual linguistic communication larning schemes employed by Kampuchean pupils -studying English as a 2nd linguistic communication or as a foreign linguistic communication. Harmonizing to research paperss from other beginnings, most well-known Oxford, Chamot, O’Malley, Stern and Rubin are interested in researching “ Language Learning Strategies ” . In world, the conceptual model of my research was selected from the Oxford ‘s theory customized into direct schemes dwelling of memory schemes, cognitive schemes and compensation schemes and indirect schemes including metacognitive schemes, affectional schemes and societal schemes. Sample of the research is about 100 pupils – analyzing progress degree in one English private school -who mark of proficiency trial from 80 upwards.

All of selected participants first are required to reply the questionnaires about the acquisition schemes which have done in two linguistic communications both English and Khmer. Second, the research worker will interview some of the pupils in order to guarantee what they have already answered in the Oxford ‘s SILL questionnaires ( 1990 ) is really accurate and trusting ; furthermore, the research worker besides need to make the interview with 10 instructors who are responsible for keeping progress categories in order to guarantee that informations of those pupils from different categories are knowing and dependable. All informations obtained will be analyzed by utilizing SPSS and so put into EXCEL to happen the mean and standard divergence.

After analysing the information, the research worker can see that the bulk of Kampuchean outstanding pupils preferred working with the first pick of compensatory schemes and the 2nd is cognitive schemes. Furthermore, it is anticipated that after the research undertaking pupils can work good with English linguistic communication through using new larning schemes which are effectual and dependable.

Cardinal words: Language Learning Strategies, Successful Language Learners, EFL, English as Foreign Language ( EFL ) Learners



Name of plan: Maestro of Education

Name of campaigner: Than Soklim

Title of research study: Effective linguistic communication larning schemes contribute to successful EFL scholars.

This is to attest that the research carried out for the above titled maestro ‘s research study was completed by the above campaigner under my direct supervising. This research study stuff has non been used for any other grade. I played the undermentioned portion in readying of this research study: supply critically constructive remarks and suggestions, guidelines, mistake editions, and grammatical edition.

Supervisor ‘s signature: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Date: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦



This is to attest that the research that I, Than Soklim, herewith presented entitled the effectual linguistic communication larning schemes contribute to successful EFL scholars.

for the grade of Master of Education at the Royal University of Phnom Penh is wholly my ain work and, moreover, that it has non been used to carry through the demands of any other making in whole or in portion, at this or any other University or tantamount establishment.

No mention to, or citation from, this papers may be made without the written blessing of the writer.

Signed by Than Soklim: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Date: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

Countersigned by the Chief Supervisor: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Date: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..


This research study is accomplished through many procedure of force per unit area with all of my best religious and physical attempt and ability. This is a list of those whom I deeply appreciate and thanks for their aid in this research study composing. Without those people, this research study could non be done successfully. I would wish to show my deepest gratitude and grasp to my supervisor, Dr. Nith Bunlay ; research expert, Dr. Chhinh Setha and Dr. Un Leang, Director of Master of Education Programs, who provide the academic counsel and promote me throughout the whole procedure of my research survey.

Furthermore, I would wish to show my thankful thanks to my schoolmate and M. Ed staff who shared paperss and offered good thoughts related to my research subject. I besides feel thankful to their being open-minded in replying my inquiries whenever I felt ill-defined with my research. Finally, I would wish to peculiarly present my heartfelt gratitude to my darling parents and relations, particularly my married woman, who ever support, encourage and actuate me to make my research study in any fortunes.


Abstract in Khmeraˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..aˆ‹aˆ‹ ( I )

Abstract in Englishaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .. ( two )

Supervisor ‘s research supervising statementaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .. ( three )

Candidate ‘s statementaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ ( four )

Acknowledgementaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .. ( V )

Table of contentaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .. ( six )

List of figuresaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … ( eight )

List of abbreviationsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.. ( nine )

Chapter 1: Introduction


2.1 Direct and Indirect Schemes

2.2 Diagram of the Memory Schemes

2.3 Diagram of the Cognitive Schemes

2.4 Diagram of the Compensation Schemes

2.5 Diagram of the Metacognitive Schemes

2.6 Diagram of the Affective Schemes

2.7 Diagram of the Social Schemes


LLS Language Learning Schemes

EFL English as a Foreign Language

ESL English as a Second Language

Chapter 1


1.1 Background of the Study

English has been considered as the predominant and common planetary linguistic communication for people populating in developing states in the beginning of 21st century because it is really indispensable tool -which is for tracking the cosmopolitan information and for planetary communicating -that can assist them happen a well-paid occupation in locally and internationally standardised company or endeavor. In Cambodia, as elsewhere in the globalized universe, English has gained a important function in different countries of life over the last decennaries. This is apparent by the increasing figure of English schools from kids to grownups in Cambodia. At the minute, the market for larning and learning English in Cambodia is so huge. In fact, over the past decennaries, McLaren ( 2000 ) illustrated that Kampuchean people have inspired themselves to analyze English because larning English is really worthy for them to hold a better life style ( as cited in Koji Igawa, 2008 ) . As a consequence, English is presently popular linguistic communication used for international concern and instruction in Cambodia ( Igawa, 2008 ) . Igawa. K ( 2010 ) English now is most interesting and popular linguistic communication in Cambodia and it is besides regarded as a span to have a high-paid work and to go on scholarship abroad. In add-on, futurists Naisbitt and Aburdence ( 1990 ) mentioned the chances of English in glowing colour:

The dramatic addition of development of a individual planetary life style is because of the proliferation of English linguistic communication and civilization transmittal. It is now approximately 1 billion and is likely to transcend to 1.5 billion English talkers in the universe by 2000. Language has been taught around the universe ; English is non replacing the original linguistic communication but it is supplementing the others ( as cited in Koji Igawa ) .

Similarly, English is now of import communicating agencies in every country of life, including scientific discipline, concern, air power, amusement, Television, cyberspace and diplomatic negotiations in the universe. Most sorts of published paperss or stuffs written into English linguistic communication are available in the universe. Montgogomery ( 2004 ) , 80 to 90 per centum of paperss, diary or ( Graddol, 1999 ) information stored in the cyberspace is written or dominated by English linguistic communication ( as cited in Aslan & A ; Oktay, 2009 ) . In the same clip, Crystal ( 2003 ) mentioned that native English talkers are about 400 million when non-native English talkers -who used English as Second Language ( ESL ) and Foreign Language ( EFL ) – are more than 430 million and latter is around 730 million. Hence, the surprising figure of English linguistic communication talkers peak up to one and half billion worldwide ( as cited in Aslan.O, 2009 ) .

Harmonizing to what research worker mentioned above, it is highly clear that most parts of the universe are analyzing English linguistic communication in order to hold a better living criterion. However, up until now, larning English is tough for non merely Kampuchean people but besides other non-native English talkers whose linguistic communication has much difference from English. Apart from this, Cambodia is ; for illustration, non an English speech production state ; hence, English communicative competency is difficult to get. In this instance, linguistic communication larning schemes can greatly help linguistic communication scholars in Cambodia to larn English in more effectual and efficient ways. Harmonizing to Cohen ( 2005 ) mentioned that Language Learning Strategies ( LLS ) are really indispensable for “ linguistic communication acquisition and instruction ” for two chief grounds: “ ( a ) research worker can place the metacognitive, cognitive, societal and affectional procedure involved in linguistic communication acquisition by look intoing the scheme usage of 2nd linguistic communication scholars, ( B ) less successful linguistic communication scholars can be assisted to be better linguistic communication scholars through effectual scheme direction. The 2nd ground is more necessary for schoolroom teaching method and some research workers ( O’Malley & A ; Chamlot, 1990 ; Ozeki, 2002 ; Ikeda & A ; Takeuchi, 2003 ) have claimed linguistic communication scholars can better their linguistic communication public presentation by utilizing instructed acquisition scheme ” ( as cited in Kusumi, 2007 ) .

1.2 Problem Statement

Having been working as an EFL instructor for ages in public institute English is likely to utilize as support linguistic communication, research worker has observed that the bulk of Kampuchean pupils analyzing English there are confronting the obstructions of larning English because they are populating in non-native English speech production state whose linguistic communication is Khmer ; hence, they do n’t hold much opportunity sharpening and beef uping their English. Although the pupils change every twelvemonth, their learning attitude remains the same. Most of them do non hold successful educational history and Numberss of them are incognizant of linguistic communication acquisition schemes harmonizing to what the research worker ‘s observation. Furthermore, Kampuchean English scholars and instructors have deficit of effectual linguistic communication acquisition and instruction schemes.

1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study

The intent of this survey is to look into the effectual linguistic communication larning schemes used by the scholars, with specific emphasize on the great Numberss of schemes and the sphere differences and to bespeak the nexus between scheme usage and success degree. What ‘s more, research worker is willing to happen out how good the acquisition schemes helped Kampuchean pupils learn English. Harmonizing to Brown ( 1987 ) illustrates the interaction of “ what is larning and what is learning ” . After researching the effectual linguistic communication larning schemes, the pupils can use these larning schemes to get the hang their larning the linguistic communication. Besides, academic manager can carry on a workshop on the capable affair of how to larn the linguistic communication productively and successfully ; furthermore, instructors can clearly understand the attacks to construct up pupils ‘ ability and demands.

1.4 Research Question

What are the linguistic communication larning schemes that contribute to successful EFL scholars?

1.5 Rationale of the Study

Cambodia is now traveling towards the “ procedure of globalisation ” along with rank of ASEAN community ( Igawa, 2008 ) . Therefore, the findings on linguistic communication acquisition schemes towards successful EFL scholars will be good for scholars to reenforce their acquisition schemes or manners more and more effectual and for pedagogues to make more effectual learning methodological analysis in order to carry through pupils ‘ demands. Furthermore, working as a successful, standard and professional pedagogue, it is really indispensable to transparently and profoundly understand the ways to educate the pupils or kids both mental consciousness and academic abilities. In add-on, school principal or manager will be able to update the survey plan to fit the occupation market. Consequently, researcher unfeignedly hopes that this survey would help all school principal or director, pedagogues and EFL scholars to use in learning or analyzing severally.

Chapter 2


2.1 The Definition of Language Learning Strategies ( LLS )

Educators and scholars have now paid much attending on non merely ‘what to larn ‘ but besides ‘how to larn ‘ . In order to wholly accomplish linguistic communication acquisition, the focal point is placed on the development of the acquisition schemes by and large -the pedagogues ought to be cognizant the assortments of techniques in reassigning their English cognition to scholars. For case, with good linguistic communication larning schemes, instructors can teach the pupils good plenty. However, the first measure to realisation of this attack is to cognize what larning schemes are about.

Talking about linguistic communication acquisition schemes, most of research workers chiefly highlight on how to cover with linguistic communication larning schemes more easy and more efficaciously and present utile aid for linguistic communication scholars. Therefore, linguistic communication acquisition schemes are loosely defined by many research workers of 2nd and foreign linguistic communication larning depending on the capable countries including teaching method, psychological science, lingual.

Harmonizing to the linguist, LLS is by and large defined as ways the scholars to get and to utilize English linguistic communication efficaciously and right ( Richards & A ; Schmidt, 2002 ) . Furthermore, Tsan. ( 2008 ) , LLS refers to action or technique the linguistic communication pupils use in order develop their linguistic communication acquisition advancement ; for illustration, inquiries during instruction and feedbacks after reading.

Rubin ( 1975 ) defined “ successful linguistic communication scholars ” by merely looking at their schemes and their learning public presentation. Besides, Parrot defined a acquisition scheme as “ a step that the scholar actively employs to help or progress acquisition ” ( 1993: 57 ) .

Aslan. O ( as cited in Rigny, 1985 & A ; Oxford, 1990 ) defined that “ linguistic communication acquisition schemes ” were as “ operations employed by scholar to help the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and usage of information ” . Scarcella & A ; Oxford ( 1992, p.63 ) defined that larning schemes are “ stairss, behaviours, specific actions or techniques ” such as doing conversation, work outing tough job in linguistic communication acquisition. Learning schemes or learner schemes are stairss adopted by scholars to accomplish their acquisition and develop their linguistic communication acquisition ( Chamot & A ; O’Malley, 1996 ; Nunan, 1996 ; Oxford, 1996 ; Lessard-Clouston, 1997 ) .

In the interim, Cohen ( 2007 ) agreed with Oxford ‘s thoughts defined that the intent of linguistic communication acquisition schemes is to develop acquisition, to work with specific undertakings, to get by with specific jobs, to do larning easier, faster, and more gratifying and to counterbalance for a shortage in acquisition.

English as Foreign Language ( EFL ) : is defined as “ English linguistic communication larning occurs in a nonnative English environment where the native linguistic communication is spoken ” ( Tanveer. M & A ; Yang. M, 2010 )

Even though linguistic communication acquisition schemes are non merely defined, they all depend on to one common thing which helps scholars make their linguistic communication larning easier and get linguistic communication more efficaciously and successfully.

2.2. Importance of linguistic communication acquisition schemes

The linguistic communication acquisition schemes are particular ways to assist people to recognize, to larn, and to memorise new cognition. As an old Chinese expression goes “ Teaching a adult male how to angle is better than giving him a fish. ” Teachers can non ever learn him by his side throughout his life, so these schemes play an of import function in developing learner liberty. Learners can do the best usage of these schemes to set up the ability of autonomous acquisition. If people use these schemes expeditiously, they can larn by themselves and self-examine their ain advancement. Gradually, they can put up their assurance. Therefore, holding proper larning schemes can better scholars and heighten their abilities of linguistic communication.

2.3 Taxonomy of Language Learning Schemes

Harmonizing to the early surveies on linguistic communication acquisition schemes, the professional research workers involved in linguistic communication acquisition have had different constructs of categorization of larning schemes. The research workers ( Cohen, 2002 ; Ellis, 1997 ; O’Malley, 1985 ) indicate similar acquisition schemes categorized into metacognitive, cognitive, societal and communicating. Obviously, there are three chief types of larning schemes dwelling of “ metacognitive, cognitive and societal schemes ” ( Ghani as cited in O’Malley and Chamot, 1990 ) . Another research worker stated that three types of linguistic communication larning schemes have been classified such as ; “ acquisition schemes, communicating schemes and societal schemes ” ( Zare as cited in Rubin, 1987 ) . Mentioning to Oxford ‘s categorization, the professional and expertize research worker has divided the linguistic communication larning schemes into two chief classs ; direct schemes and indirect schemes which are subdivided into entire of six groups ( Zare as cited in Oxford, 1990 ) . Whereas, research worker ( Stern, 1992 ) stated that there have been five types of linguistic communication larning schemes such as ; ( 1 ) direction and planning schemes ( 2 ) cognitive schemes ( 3 ) communicative -experiential schemes ( 4 ) interpersonal schemes ( 5 ) affective schemes.

In research worker ‘s sentiment, research worker would prefer to follow the Oxford ‘s taxonomy instead than the others ‘ positions because its taxonomy clearly stated the processs and stairss of linguistic communication larning schemes divided into two major parts named direct schemes and indirect schemes. Unusually, these two schemes are non apart from each other but they are comparatively interconnected. Most interestingly, a few chief subdivisions for each scheme are besides closely interrelated and assist one another.

2.4 Conceptual model of LLS

Harmonizing Oxford ( 1990 ) , LLS is categorized into two major groups such as ; direct schemes and indirect schemes. The first 1 was the activities which straight consequence on the acquisition procedure including “ memory, cognitive, and compensation schemes that help scholars achieve the mark linguistic communication in communicating spreads. The latter is the indirect activities which have influence on tilting procedure. It consists of “ metacognitive, affectional and societal schemes ” . The conceptual model that informed this survey will utilize this categorization so as to research linguistic communication larning schemes for successful EFL scholars.



Cognitive Schemes

Compensation Schemes

Social Schemes

Affectional Schemes

Metacognitive Schemes

Figure 2.1 Interrelationships between Direct and Indirect Strategies and Among the Six Strategy Groups ( Oxford, 1990 )

2.4.1 Direct schemes

The direct schemes play really of import function because they help scholars store and retrieve the information easy and bring forth the linguistic communication. Harmonizing to Oxford ( 1990 ) , direct schemes are the learning schemes involved in mark linguistic communication -the metal processing of the linguistic communication ; for illustration, retrieving the information and practising the mark linguistic communication while the other three subdivisions of direct schemes activate this procedure usually. In world, Oxford ( 1990 ) classified direct schemes into three classs such as ; memory schemes, cognitive schemes and compensation schemes. These classs are stated as:

“ Memory schemes, such as grouping or utilizing imagination, have a extremely specific map: assisting pupils shop and recover new information. Cognitive schemes, such as sum uping or concluding deductively, enable scholars to understand and bring forth new linguistic communication by many different agencies. Compensation schemes, like thinking or utilizing equivalent word, allow scholars to utilize the linguistic communication despite their frequently big spreads in cognition ” ( Oxford, 1990 ; p.37 ) . Memory schemes

Memory schemes are defined as the acquisition schemes used for hive awaying, come ining and recovering the information. Memory schemes help scholars to link one L2 construct to another but it is non sophisticated. Additionally, memory schemes help scholars larn and form things in order ; nevertheless, with other schemes, linguistic communication scholars create acquisition and recovering through “ sounds, images, the combination of sounds and images, organic structure motion, mechanical agencies or a location ” ( Aslan as cited in Oxford, 1990 ) . Stevick ( 1982 ) , McCathy ( 1990 ) , Holden ( 1999 ) , and Cohen ( 2002 ) mentioned the similar method to retrieve the vocabulary and constructions easy for fresh linguistic communication scholars. “ Memory schemes can lend strongly to linguistic communication acquisition ” ( Aslan, 2009 ) .

Oxford ( 1990 ) distinguishes memory schemes into another set of four: making mental linkages, using images and sounds, reexamining good and using action. Here is the diagram of the memory schemes.

Memory Schemes

Making Mental Linkages



Puting new words into a context

Appling all images and sounds

Using imagination

Semantic function

Using keywords

Representing sounds in Memory

Reviewing good

Structured reviewing

Using action

Using physical response or esthesis

Using mechanical techniques

Figure: 2.2: Diagram of the memory schemes ( Oxord, 1990, p.18 ) Cognitive schemes

Cognitive schemes are really indispensable schemes to heighten pupils ‘ ability in critical thought and enable the scholars to pull strings or alter the mark linguistic communication because of the above-named grounds, cognitive schemes are really utile for larning a new linguistic communication ( Aslan, 2009 ) . Cognitive schemes refer to the schemes which scholars employ to believe critically, analysing the information professionally, note-taking and summarizing and so on ( Oxford. L. R, 1990 ) . Chamot ( 1989 ) stated that scholars get the mark linguistic communication and finish the undertakings straight by themselves. Harmonizing to the old surveies, the cognitive schemes are conspicuously connected with L2 proficiency ( Kato, 1996 ; Oxford & A ; Ehrman, 1995 ; Oxford, Judd, and Giesen, 1998 ; and Park, 1994 ) . Furthermore, cognitive schemes popularize for linguistic communication scholars due to one survey conducted by Oxford ( 1989, 1990 ) .

Oxford ( 1990 ) illustrated that cognitive schemes have four sets such as ; “ practicing, having and directing messages, analysing and concluding and making construction for input and end product. Here is the bunch of cognitive schemes.

Memory Schemes



Formally practising with sounds & A ; composing system

Acknowledging and utilizing expression and forms


Practicing naturalistically

Receiving and directing messages

Geting the thought rapidly

Using resources for having and directing messages

Analyzing and concluding

Reasoning deductively

Analyzing looks

Analyzing contrastively ( across linguistic communications )



Making construction for input and end product

Taking notes

Sum uping


Figure: 2.3: Diagram of the memory schemes ( Oxford, 1990, p.18-19 ) Compensation schemes

Compensatory refers to the decrease of bad effects of something harmonizing Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Oxford ( 1990, p.47 ) compensatory schemes are schemes that scholars use new linguistic communication for either comprehension or production despite restrictions in information ; moreover, these schemes are willing to do up for an deficient repertory of grammar and, particularly, of vocabulary. Due to applied lingual lexicon ( 2002 ) defined the compensatory schemes as schemes which help scholars -children who lack linguistic communication experience enable to grok the losing the information. For illustration, scholars can non read the text or understand the text easy and expeditiously because of a few hard vocabularies. Nijmegen & A ; Kasper ( 1983 ) stated that compensatory schemes refer to schemes which linguistic communication scholars use so as to get the better of the intended significance during verbal communicating.

As above reference, these schemes assist scholars to bring forth spoken and written looks in the mark linguistic communication even though they have unequal cognition. Aslan. O ( 2009 ) mentioned that “ compensatory schemes for production service as assistant in transporting on using linguistic communication. Apart from these, some of these schemes help learners go more fluid in their anterior cognition ” .

Oxford classified compensatory schemes in ten sub-strategies which are under the two chief schemes. Ten of these schemes are thinking by lingual hints, thinking by other hints, exchanging to the female parent lingua, acquiring aid, utilizing mummer or gesture, avoiding communicating partly or wholly, choosing the subject, seting or come closing the message, coining words, and utilizing periphrasis or equivalent word. Below is the diagram of compensatory schemes taken from Oxford ‘s theory.

Compensatory Schemes

Get the better ofing restrictions in speech production and composing

Switch overing to the female parent lingua

Geting aid

Using mummer or gesture

Avoiding communicating partly or wholly

Choosing the subjects

Adjusting or come closing the message

Coining words

Using a periphrasis or equivalent word

Thinking intelligently

Using lingual hints

Using other hints

Figure: 2.4: Diagram of the compensatory schemes ( Oxford, 1990, p.18-19 )

2.4.2 Indirect schemes

Harmonizing to Oxford ( 1990 ) , indirect schemes can be classified as meta-cognitive, affectional, and societal schemes. She added that all of the schemes are indirect, since they help the linguistic communication larning without straight connected with the mark linguistic communication. Besides, she stated as the followers:

“ Metacognitive schemes enable linguistic communication scholars to pull off their ain cognition- that is, to organize the acquisition procedure by utilizing maps such as focus, set uping, be aftering the organisation either written and spoken discourse, and measuring the comprehension of receptive linguistic communication and linguistic communication production. Affectional schemes help to modulate emotions, motives, and attitude. Social schemes help pupils learn through interaction with others utilizing either interpersonal or intrapersonal communicating ” ( p.135 ) .

Similarly, Kozmonova ( 2008 ) agreed with Oxford ‘s that indirect schemes are non the same as direct schemes, for they are non straight related to the “ mark linguistic communication ” . Indirect schemes connected with linguistic communication larning direction such as ; “ planning and organizing clip for larning, measuring scholars ‘ advancement, paying attending to emotions, larning with other people, and others ” .

More significantly, Oxford ( 1990 ) and Filiz ( 2005 ) claimed that direct schemes and indirect schemes are interconnected and are good in all linguistic communication larning fortunes and assisting linguistic communication scholars to better and beef up all four macro accomplishments such as hearing, reading, speech production, and composing. Metacognitive schemes

Tsan ( 2008 ) indicated that meta-cognitive schemes referred to overall larning process direction. In add-on, Al-Buainain ( 2010 ) showed that metacognitive schemes are involved in one ‘s linguistic communication acquisition by be aftering, forming, monitoring and measuring and they help scholars to “ derive control over their emotions and motives related to linguistic communication larning through self-monitoring ” . Harmonizing to Oxford ‘s elucidation ( 1990 ) , metacognitive schemes are perfectly critical methods which the successful linguistic communication scholars need to use to incorporate the procedure of linguistic communication acquisition. For case, pupils who are unfamiliar with vocabulary and confounding the grammar regulations and so on so forth need these schemes.

Cohen ( 2002, p.3 ) accurately describes metacognitive schemes as those which “ [ … ] trade with pre-assessment and pre-planning, online planning and rating, and post-evaluation of linguistic communication acquisition activities and of linguistic communication usage events ” . Researcher, Ellis ( 1997, p.77 ) asserted that “ metacognitive schemes are those involved in planning, monitoring and measuring acquisition. Additionally, O ‘ Malley and Chamot mentioned that these schemes involve in planning and believing about larning, such as be aftering one ‘s acquisition, supervising one ‘s ain address or authorship, and measuring how successful a peculiar scheme is ( 1990, p.44 ) .

Harmonizing to what above reference, research determination of metacognitive schemes has common schemes which refer to scholars ‘ planning, forming, and measuring of their acquisition. Hence, pupils can recover their focal point by utilizing metacognitive schemes and use the schemes for doing usage of other necessary acquisition schemes for a successful result.

Metacognitive schemes consist of 11 sub divisions such as: focus oning your acquisition, set uping and be aftering your acquisition and measuring your acquisition ( Oxford, 1990 ) . Here is the diagram of meta-cognitive schemes.

Metacognitive Schemes

Focus oning your acquisition

Overviewing & A ; associating with already known stuff

Paying attending

Delaying address production to concentrate on listening

Arranging and be aftering your acquisition

Finding out about linguistic communication acquisition


Puting ends and aims

Identifying the intent of a linguistic communication undertaking

Planing for linguistic communication undertaking

Seeking pattern chances

Measuring your acquisition



Figure: 2.5: Diagram of the metacognitive schemes ( Oxford, 1990, p. 20 ) Affectional schemes

“ Affectional ” refers to the emotions, attitudes, motives and values by Oxford ( 1990 & A ; Cohen, 2002, p.3 ) . Tsan ( 2008 ) defined affectional scheme as process that identified one ‘s temper and anxiousness degree. Apparently, in linguistic communication acquisition procedure, good linguistic communication scholars employ different types of affectional schemes. Sometimes, it can be thwarting to larn another linguistic communication. It can elicit feeling of strangeness and confusion. In some other instances, scholars might non hold a positive position towards native talkers. On the other manus, good linguistic communication scholars are comparatively cognizant of these emotions, and they try to construct positive feelings towards the foreign linguistic communication and its talkers every bit good as the acquisition activities. Positive feelings will ensue in better public presentation in linguistic communication acquisition. To a great trade, preparation can be of aid to the pupils to confront these controversial feelings and to get the better of them by pulling attending to the possible defeats or adverting them as they come up ( Chamot, 1992 ) . As other celebrated research workers get bying with affectional schemes, Ellis and Sinclair ( 1989 ) put affectional schemes into metacognitive 1s, whereas Ellis ( 1997 ) includes them in societal 1s.

Therefore, while larning a new linguistic communication, scholars can derive control over factors which are relevant with emotions, attitudes, emotions and values through the usage of affectional schemes.

Harmonizing to Oxford ( 1990 ) , affectional schemes cover a few bomber schemes including “ mooing your anxiousness, promoting yourself and taking your emotional temperature. Here is the diagram of affectional schemes.

Affectional Schemes

Lowering your anxiousness

Using progressive relaxation, deep external respiration and speculation

Using music

Using laughter

Promoting yourself

Making positive statements

Taking hazards sagely

Honoring yourself

Taking your emotional temperature

Listening to your organic structure

Using a checklist

Writing a linguistic communication acquisition diary

Discoursing your feelings with person else

Figure: 2.6: Diagram of the affectional schemes ( Oxford, 1990, p. 20 ) Social schemes

Social schemes are indirect schemes which refer to communication held with other scholars or native talkers. Social schemes are the activities in which the linguistic communication scholars can pattern their bing cognition of linguistic communication through interaction ( Zare as cited in Rubin, 1987 ) . Rubin ( 1975 ) finalized that successful linguistic communication scholars are thirstily inspired to hold a strong thrust to pass on and to larn from communicating [ … ] . In fact, if you contact others, so you are using these schemes. Our relationship between people is of import, and the relationship can assist us to make something that we ca n’t complete it by ourselves.

Therefore, societal schemes support the scholars to work with others and understand the civilization every bit good as the linguistic communication, as Aslan ( as cited in Oxford, 1990 ) states “ linguistic communication is a signifier of societal behaviour. ” Finally, societal schemes play really important function in communicative linguistic communication either 2nd or foreign scholars.

Six accomplishments listed under three sets of societal schemes are “ inquiring inquiries, collaborating with others and sympathizing with others owing to Oxford ( 1990 ) . Here is the diagram of the societal schemes.

Social Schemes

Asking inquiries

Asking for elucidation or confirmation

Asking for rectification

Collaborating with Others

Collaborating with equals

Collaborating with adept users of the new linguistic communication

C. Empathizing with others

Developing cultural apprehension

Becoming aware of others ‘ ideas and feelings

Figure: 2.7: Diagram of the societal schemes ( Oxford, 1990, p. 21 )

Chapter 3


3.1 Introduction

This survey chiefly focuses on the linguistic communication acquisition schemes used by Kampuchean pupils. Survey questionnaire and an interview will be used to happen out about the effectual schemes employed in larning English as a 2nd linguistic communication ( ESL ) or foreign linguistic communication ( EFL ) . In fact, the participants of the survey are pupils and place category instructors analyzing and learning in one English private school in Takhmau town, Kandal state. The research worker will take this English school to carry on the research because it is close to the research worker ‘s adjustment ; hence, it is convenient to go and acquire the rich information. The research worker will carry on a research at one private school -same plans for full-time and parttime -which has offered different degrees of English instruction including novice ( flat 1-3 ) , simple ( flat 4-6 ) , pre-intermediate ( flat 7-9 ) , upper-intermediate ( flat 10-12 ) and progress ( flat 13-15 ) . Harmonizing to school information collected from school principal, this school has 120 from novice category ; 250 from both full-time and parttime simple category ; 200 from pre-intermediate category ; 200 from upper-intermediate category and 170 from progress category. Wholly, this school has 820 pupils -450 pupils from basic degree, 200 from pre-intermediate up and 170 from progress degree. Hence, the sample size of this survey is 170 pupils who are from beforehand degree. With appropriate and logical ground, the research worker selected those pupils to make the research because those of whom have better English instead than the other degrees mentioned above.

The research worker will roll up the information for the survey via two ways: foremost, a research questionnaire administered with the pupils of selected pupils from progress degree ; secondly and interviews with selected pupils and with the selected instructors.

3.2 Sample and Sampling

This research survey will be conducted in one English private school in Takhmau town, Kandal state. Furthermore, blessings from school principal and other participants in the school will be needed before the survey will be conducted. Merely 100 pupils from assorted degrees whose mark of proficiency trial is about 80 upwards will be invited as participants in the study questionnaire following Oxford ‘s SILL ( 1990 ) required for this survey and the remainder of pupils will non be invited because they are non qualified plenty. Furthermore, Of 20 pupils numbered consecutively will be indiscriminately selected to take part in structured interviewed every bit good as 10 place category instructors.

With school principal ‘s blessing of carry oning research in his school and understanding from place category instructors, a questionnaire will be given to selected pupils from progress degree to finish during their survey clip in order to happen out the ways of their learning English linguistic communication swimmingly and efficaciously. In the questionnaire, there are plentifulness of closed-ended inquiries needed the participants to accurately set figure ( 1-5 ) a circle so that the research worker could clearly see that what effectual linguistic communication larning schemes employed through those outstanding participants are.

After questionnaires completion, because of clip restraint, 20 pupils who are indiscriminately selected from 100 will be invited to take portion in structured interview -face-to-face interview in one assigned category. Interviewing with selected pupils, the research worker would wish to guarantee that their responses are perfectly true and dependable comparison to whatever closed-ended inquiries they answered in the questionnaire.

Additionally, in order to do informations more and more dependable and trusty, the research worker will carry on structured interview -face-to-face -with 10 place category instructors. In fact, the research worker interviews them because they can supply the trusting replies about their pupils ‘ academic public presentation. Students ‘ replies entirely are non accurate so that the research worker needs to acquire those instructors to take part in this research survey.

3.3 Research Design

Blessings from school principal, instructors and pupils are really important for this survey because informations aggregation will be needed for the research subject of this survey. Without their permission, the survey will non be successfully completed. I will compose a missive, along with a missive from Royal University of Phnom Penh ( RUPP ) , to the school principal to inquire for blessing to make a research at his school. The missive will besides advert the elaborate information of the research, the purpose and aims of the survey, and the principle of the survey related to my research subject.

Teachers and pupils will be invited to take part in the research survey. Therefore, the research worker needs to officially compose and direct one permission missive enclosed to 10 relevant place category instructors and another 1 for selected pupils. Clearly, those pupils will acquire the rich information about take parting in this research survey from their place category instructor. In the missive, the research worker will province the elaborate information of the research, the purpose and aims of the research and the principle of the survey which are relevant to my research subject.

After those selected pupils agreed on this research survey, questionnaire will be sent to place category instructor to present to their pupils participated in the research to reply at the terminal of the clip around 20 before go forthing category and the remainder of the pupils will be asked to go forth earlier. Before finishing the questionnaire, the category instructors explained them what they are supposed to make in this questionnaire. After finishing the questionnaires, the pupils need to return their questionnaire to their category instructor. Then, the relevant instructors dropped pupils ‘ replies at aid desk enclosed with A4 envelop.

3.3.1 Pilot Testing

To avoid any unexpected errors in roll uping informations for the survey, the research worker prepared a pilot trial survey which will be used to detect any misinterpretations or unwilled errors prior to the research questionnaire delivered to the participants. Furthermore, pilot proving needfully needs to be carried out around one hebdomad before the existent interview begins to vouch the cogency and dependability of questionnaire and the structured interview inquiries as good. From this pilot testing, it can assist better inquiries contents and its prospective mark consequences.

The SILL will be translated into Khmer linguistic communication to avoid any jobs participants might meet in understanding the points and response graduated tables. The SILL interlingual rendition procedure will travel through four phases: Translation, appraisal, redacting, pretesting. First the research worker will interpret the SILL into Khmer, maintaining every bit much as possible the referential significance of the words. Second, the Khmer-translated version will be assessed once more by the beginning version by an English-Khmer transcriber, who will be requested to measure the textual quality of the interlingual rendition in footings of appropriate translational equivalency. Third, the revised version will so be checked by a Khmer linguist for naturalness, lucidity, and smooth reading. Finally the revised version will be pretested by inquiring some progress scholars to finish the study. Upon completion of the SILL, the respondents will be invited to do any remarks on the diction and lucidity of the points and the response graduated tables. In general, they will show satisfaction.

Similarly, the structured interview inquiries for instructors and pupils were prepared and translated with the aid from a individual who is adept for interlingual rendition so as to avoid some errors in interlingual rendition from English into Khmer. The inquiries used in the interviews with the instructors and the pupils were besides tested before the existent 1s in order to avoid unexpected errors. After the inquiries prepared and translated, the research worker interviewed a few instructors and selected pupils to happen out about some mistakes with the inquiries which would do those instructors and pupils dubious, or confused.

More significantly, after pilot testing, the research worker made some alterations on misinterpretation and baffled facets including the phrases, sentences and other points that participants are non clear. One once more, the research worker doubled look into the interlingual rendition between English and Khmer linguistic communication with the aid from adept adept in interpreting.

Unusually, this pilot trial was conducted with instructors and pupils ; hence, while making the existent 1s, the participants are clear. To sum up, after look intoing and redacting the inquiries, the interview will be held cleverly and comfortably.

3.3.2 Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed to roll up the dependable and trusting informations. In this survey, quantitative method was used with selected pupils to finish the questionnaire through seting the Numberss ( 1-5 ) a circle in order to happen out their linguistic communication acquisition schemes. Besides, face-to-face interview was conducted with some selected pupils so as to guarantee that their replies in the questionnaire were true and dependable ; furthermore, the research worker interviewed with some instructors followed the qualitative method. During the interview, the research worker asked permission from participants to audio-record their replies and besides took notes so that he was able to analyse their responses for informations aggregation.

3.4 Research Instrument

In order to work with this research good, researcher will plan some utile tools including Oxford ‘s SILL ( Strategy Inventory Language Learning ) questionnaire to acquire the rich information from successful EFL scholars analyzing progress degree. In add-on, assorted types of inquiries were developed in this questionnaire. Obviously, Oxford ‘s SILL ( 1990 ) consists of 50 points that represent the six classs of schemes mentioned supra. First, memory schemes help scholars to retrieve and recover information through making mental linkages, using images and sounds, reexamining good, and using action. Second, cognitive schemes help scholars to understand and bring forth new linguistic communication through practicing, having and directing information, analysing and logical thinking, and making construction for input and end product. Third, compensatory schemes enable scholars to utilize the linguistic communication despite spreads in their linguistic communication cognition through thinking intelligently, and get the better ofing restriction in speech production and composing. Fourth, metacognitive schemes allow scholars to command their ain acquisition through forming, planning, and measuring their acquisition. Fifth, affectional schemes help scholars to derive control over their emotions, attitudes, and motives through take downing their anxiousness, promoting themselves, and taking their emotional temperatures. Six, and eventually, societal schemes help scholars to interact with others through inquiring inquiries, and collaborating with others and sympathizing with them.

Additionally, structured interview inquiries will be developed to be better and better. Besides, structured interviews with purposeful inquiries will be besides used for roll uping information from both pupils and instructors in order to guarantee the informations aggregation are crystalline and trusting.

3.5 Data Collection Procedure

The procedure of informations aggregation will be described as the followers. Here are the descriptions of informations aggregation process.

3.5.1 Questionnaire completion

Selected pupils will be asked to finish the inquiries given through place category instructors at the terminal of learning hr around 20 proceedingss left before go forthing category. Before finishing the study questionnaire, the research worker will inquire mark place category instructors to inform their pupils the day of the month of making the study and time-consuming needed. Besides, instructors will inquire them non to be absent on that twenty-four hours. After completing the questionnaire completion, the participants will manus in the questionnaire to place category instructor to maintain it and hive away it at aid desk land floor where it is easy to entree. The questionnaire will be kept in secret in enclosed envelops from different categories.

3.5.2 Face-to-face interview

Besides finishing the questionnaire, interview with some selected pupils will be likely to take around 15-20 proceedingss. Perceptibly, the research worker has the selected participants ‘ phone Numberss ; hence, before the interview, the research worker will reach and do on-phoned understanding with selected participants about the status of research. Particularly, inform them about the record of the interview. After acquiring permission from the pupils, the research worker assigned suited clip to run into and interview them face to face. It will be clearly informed that all the recorded replies will be kept confidential and destroyed sometime later after the survey finished.

Similarly, other 10 instructors will besides be informed about the interview which will take no more than 20-25 proceedingss because they will be really busy with their instruction. Before the interview, research worker will read the research information for instructors, and the consent signifier to guarantee that they will understand clearly about the intent of the interview, and so they are supposed to subscribe the consent signifier to demo their understandings. It will be clearly informed that all the recorded replies will be kept confidential and destroyed sometime later after the survey finished.

3.5.3 Purpose of informations aggregation

The intent of this information aggregation was to garner rich information from varied beginnings so that the research worker would be able to acquire clear studies that would take to foreground some of effectual linguistic communication larning schemes. The research worker sought to obtain a to the full informed position from the different classs of participants refering the exploratory of linguistic communication acquisition schemes. In order to obtain a truly informed reply, the research worker used both Oxford ‘s SILL ( Strategy Inventory Language Learning ) questionnaires with selected pupils, every bit good as elaborated replies from interviews with the pupils and the instructors.

3.6 Limitation of Research

The range of this survey is targeted to the EFL pupils in one private school carry oning in English linguistic communication with English-speaking environment located in Takhmau Town, Kandal Province. It was chiefly held with little Numberss of 115 top pupils analyzing in different degrees -granted into pre-intermediate, intermediate, upper-intermediate and progress degrees. With effectual linguistic communication larning schemes, those of who can bring forth end products of four-macro accomplishments good with other conversationists both native talkers and non-native talkers such as: Kampuchean, Vietnamese, Chinese and so on. However, the intent of this survey is non to supply the wide generalisation for the survey because this research was merely chiefly highlighted on one English private school ; hence, the Numberss of participants were little comparison pupils analyzing English as a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication in countrywide. Additionally, the research worker was merely willing to research what effectual linguistic communication acquisition schemes are.

3.7 Ethical Consideration

In order to acquire successful in carry oning the research, the research worker is required to take into consideration about some precautions. A missive of debut from the M. Ed plan of Royal University of Phnom Penh will be sent to happen the blessing from school principal about the research survey.

The consent and information signifiers are really indispensable information which explains about the purpose and aim of the survey and my personal background. The research worker introduced himself to all selected participants and intent of the survey ; he besides asked those of whom to take part in making the research survey. After seeing the consent signifier, the relevant participants could do a determination whether to voluntarily take portion in the survey or non. It was clearly stated that the engagement is non mandatory. What ‘s more, during the interview, the interview will be based on the participants ‘ clip ; hence, the research worker is flexible due to the participants.

Confidentiality is really of import. All questionnaires and interview paperss will be stored in a safe topographic point out of making from other people. The research worker will utilize code figure instead than specific names of selected participants. Apparently, these research paperss will be destroyed whenever the research worker completes his research survey.

In add-on, the voluntaries acquiring involved in assisting carry on the research successfully will be asked to maintain confidentiality about whatever inquiries they answered. The force per unit area will non be put on the respondents. After the interview, they will merely enter the informations and destruct it sometime later after the survey finished.

Chapter 4


4.1 Data Analysis

To analyse the information faithfully, the research worker will utilize the codification figure of each reply responded to the questionnaires provided by selected participants and it will be entered into the plan SPSS ( Statistical Package for the Social Science ) based on descriptive statistics in order to happen the “ average ” and “ standard divergence ” . Furthermore, the qualitative information analysis which will be obtained from questioning with selected linguistic communication scholars and few Numberss of instructors ‘ will be based on subjects and emerging forms from the participants ‘ responses.

4.2 Consequences of the survey

Harmonizing to the old survey on the rubric of linguistic communication larning schemes of other states, the research worker has learnt that some successful linguistic communication scholars employed the same schemes ; whereas, the others are different. As a consequence, Shu Chuan Tsan ‘s survey ( January-December, 2008 ) critically analyzed linguistic communication larning schemes based on descriptive statistics in order to happen “ average ( M ) and standard divergence ( SD ) ” and this research worker found that the schemes the 2nd or foreign linguistic communication scholars preferred to utilize most often to the least are compensatory scheme, cognitive scheme, meta-cognitive scheme, societal scheme and affectional scheme. Another research survey Al-Buainain, H ( December, 2010 ) revealed that linguistic communication pupils were likely to use metacognitive schemes most ( 75.3 % ) , cognitive ( 70.9 % ) , compensation ( 68.2 % ) and societal ( 65 % ) ; while memory and affectional schemes were used the least ( 58.6 % ) .

Furthermore, sing to the 3rd research survey of larning schemes, it was shown that pupils frequently chronologically used societal schemes and meta-cognitive schemes, “ compensation and cognitive in middle-range ” ; whereas, scholars seldom employed the affectional and societal schemes ( Griffiths, C and M.Parr, J, July, 2001 ) .

Therefore, harmonizing to my exploratory survey, the consequence of the research replies my research inquiry “ what are linguistic communication larning schemes contribute to successful EFL scholars in Cambodia? ” Owing to this exploratory survey, the research worker will reason the consequence as the followers.

Finally, after seeing the consequences of linguistic communication larning schemes of other states, the research worker will analyse that the acquisition schemes will be utilized otherwise following their learning penchants. Harmonizing article of “ Principles of Integrated Language Teaching and Learning ” , linguistic communication scholars use a assortment of linguistic communication and larning schemes to spread out larning beyond the schoolroom and go independent, womb-to-tomb scholars. Ghani. M ( 2004 ) successful linguistic communication scholars tends to use acquisition schemes that match to the “ stuffs, the undertakings, and to their ain aim, demands and phase of larning ” . ( as cited in Skehan, 1989 ; Oxford, 1989 ; Oxford & A ; Crockall, 1989 ) Additionally, Ghani continued clearly stated that “ good linguistic communication scholars ” pay much attending and attempts to linguistic communication acquisition. Besides, the determination of linguistic communication larning schemes in Spain indicated that the schemes were used in term of their native linguistic communication such translating ( Pineda. E. J, November, 2010 ) . To sum up, the bulk of Kampuchean linguistic communication scholars will utilize compensatory schemes and cognitive schemes instead than other schemes.

Chapter 5


5.1 Introduction of research survey

In the fulfilment of the Master of Education plan, all pupils are required to happen a subject for their research work. I feel really interested in making research because I would truly wish to cognize something new and updated ; I besides can catch some farther new information in order to do my workplace more productive. In fact, after a long procedure of composing research study, I did larn a batch about how to make research good.

The research survey is a long procedure of undertaking alteration and development. Each portion needs to be linked cleverly and swimmingly in order to synchronise it into individual and common thoughts. If one portion is updated or changed, it will impact other parts of the research automatically ; hence, good readying and clip direction are really important to accomplish the undertakings successfully and efficaciously. What ‘s more, the research work is required the pupil to set tonss of attempts to pool the thoughts together because it is independent undertaking needed to utilize in-depth apprehension to analyse the work and to construct up critical thought accomplishment.

5.2 Literature Review Discussion

Reviewing the literature reappraisal is the hardest work and it provided me tonss of larning experiences because I have been through Numberss of texts, articles, published proposals and relevant books. Furthermore, happening relevant beginnings and good desired information is a time-consuming occupation and need to pay much attending and great attempt to seek out in the library and to be on the cyberspace. Necessarily, if research worker does n’t cognize the relevant key word to seek on the cyberspace, it is much hard to happen the productive and moneymaking beginnings which are relevant with the proposed subject since cardinal words are utile tool to garner the advantageous information. Harmonizing to go toing this maestro class, I have learnt some good web site and well-known bookmans which are truly dependable and trusty ; hence, I can acquire good beginnings from the cyberspace. In world, if research worker has poor-quality information, the research worker will ensue in hapless research work. As a consequence, limited and unequal beginnings are truly debatable that earnestly affects the quality of the research. Furthermore, the procedure of happening beginnings has helped me understand more when seeking for information from one peculiar topographic point. I know more and more about the existent on the job environment and society and how to acquire the information. To sum up, developing a research study is really expensive undertaking for me because I have learnt tonss of undertakings.

Through these beginnings, it shows the research workers that tonss of well-known bookmans are interested in making research related to the linguistic communication acquisition schemes which are utile for 2nd linguistic communication scholars or non-native talkers to catch up with English linguistic communication easy. Making the research chiefly focuses on proposed subject, the research worker has found out the Oxford ‘s Language Learning Strategies categorized into two built-in portion such as ; Direct Strategies and Indirect Strategies which are subscribed into sub-parts.

5.3 Methodology Discussion

Having been through this subdivision, I have clearly learnt both qualitative and quantitative research methodological analysis. In my research study, I have employed the quantitative method which make me understood clearly how to carry on quantitative research. Besides, I have learnt how to do and fix the questionnaires for roll uping the information in an accurate and purposeful manner with no injury to selected participants. Data aggregation must be trusting, so if the research worker does n’t cognize to acquire along with the participants, the research worker can non acquire clear and trusting information or information. Additionally, it besides taught me how to happen failing and strengths of the informations aggregation, proposed me to see the connexion with school principals and the mark participants needed.

Furthermore, while carry oning single interview, I myself need to guarantee that it is non accused of offense or political bullying. My researcher study chiefly highlighted on merely one country of the linguistic communication acquisition schemes ; hence, it does n’t reflect other learning perceptual experiences.

Chapter 6


6.1 Decision

Based on the findings synthesize from old research survey on the rubric of linguistic communication larning schemes applied by successful ESL or EFL leaners, it is found that there are two chief types of larning schemes such as direct schemes dwelling of memory, compensatory and cognitive schemes and indirect schemes including meta-cognitive, societal and affectional schemes. These schemes were excerpted from Oxford ‘s theory which is specialized in linguistic communication acquisition schemes. Successful linguistic communication scholars used these schemes otherwise owing to their penchants, ain acquisition manners and aims. For illustration, some of those scholars often prefer compensatory schemes instead than other schemes, while the others are most likely to use societal and meta-cognitive schemes among the others as the consequence shown in the old chapter