The intelligent control systems

Chapter 1

Introduction

The Introduction about what is the undertaking about, including the job statement and the range of the undertaking that will be discussed in this research.

1.1. Undertaking Description

One manner in making successful ripening is the capableness of holding a good wellness and to avoid disease. Unfortunately, there are a big per centum of the aged people that are populating with diseases and disablements, particularly for those who are populating entirely, far off from their kids or non being 24-hours a twenty-four hours with the health professionals. “The footings aged are normally applied to grownups older than 60 old ages, when certain physiologic features become apparent” ( Rossi, 2003 ) . The aged normally have lost their abilities in walk decently, utilizing their weaponries accurately such as opening a door, eating or even to entree to computing machine. In recent old ages, research workers have noted the job of autonomy particularly for the aged and it has attract attending in happening new solutions that can vouch a better life and easy life environment for the aged.

The intelligent control systems which so develop into smart places or smart environment system or automated places or intelligent edifice now can be proposed and would hold a major betterment along with the developing engineering. A definition of smart place can be described as “A brooding integrating a communications web that connects the cardinal electrical contraptions and services, and allows them to be remotely controlled, monitored or accessed.” ( King, September 2003 ) or besides can be define “A smart place is a place where the systems ( security, lighting, detectors, heating and air-conditioning, audio-video etc. ) are interconnected to let the automatic or distant control of the place to salvage energy, better comfort, safety and or convenience for the homeowner.” ( “ What is Home Automotion? , ” 13 June 2008 ) . The smart place system will hold computerized applications that synthesize informations from detectors implied in the applications and direct it to a cardinal monitoring system. This smart place can simplify the interaction between the aged and their environment while making the necessary mundane undertakings. The end of this research is to happen the solution or design or the manner out for holding a smart place system for the aged which provide relaxation of life. The undertaking will hold to implement a paradigm of a system that capable in fulfilling the demands of general undertakings of a certain group of people. The system can be used everyplace, such as houses, infirmaries, schools, eating houses, and so on. A smart place system will let the renters ; particularly the aged renters to hold control of many smart characteristics of their house. Those smart characteristics include dismay, gesture sensing detector, automatic blinds, window, smart bed sensing and other smart characteristics that can be implemented indoors and environing the house environment that can do the aged and the other renters have an easy life, safer and better life. By set up a system that can supervise user or the aged renters to guarantee their safety, and watchful health professionals, the kids and doctors or other people to stand by and offering aid when needed, a solution for the jobs that elderly tend to confront can be solved.

1.2. Undertaking Aims

  • Find out the existent demands of smart place for the aged
  • Based on the findings, design or happen a solution in order to happen the manner out for holding a smart place system for the aged
  • Research in intent of happening the paradigms that will be used inside the house
  • Finding the right system design that can incorporate with the development and diverse engineerings into a working system
  • Show the solutions in a user friendly interface that gives user the thought of what is a smart place and the use of it

1.3. Problem Statements

One manner in making successful ripening is the capableness of holding a good wellness and to avoid disease, unluckily there are a big per centum of the aged people that are populating with diseases and disablements, particularly for those who are populating entirely, far off from their kids or non being 24-hours a twenty-four hours with the health professionals. Due to the ripening, there are some basic activities that the aged find it hard to make entirely at place, whether it is merely to merely command the lighting at place, to command the room temperature, irrigating the workss, or to lock and unlock the doors and Windowss. Their incapableness of retrieving those simple activities might be reduced because of aging ; person can merely easy travel slumber without look intoing whether all the doors and Windowss are locked or the visible radiations inside the house on or off, and to protect themselves from foreigner.

The thought of holding a smart place for the aged might work out this job but other troubles might besides happen. The smart place is controlled by one cardinal remote control that has all the accommodation or scenes for the full house and system. Contending aging agencies besides contending the ability of non fring memory easy, like many elderly have, they might bury where they last put their remote control, or they might lose the distant control someplace around the house and when this issue occur, the map of smart place that supposed to supply easiness of everything can non be maximized for the aged. Security installations are the most of import thing inside the smart place for the aged. Whether it is means by secure from onslaught from interlopers outside the house, it is besides means by protecting the aged from accidents that might go on inside the house caused by themselves. By holding the full control of the distant accountant, it will do the aged have all the maximized maps of the smart place, including the security. The job is, one time they lost the distant control or when it is broken, the security enabled indoors and environing the house environment can non be applied to its fullest map.

1.4. Undertaking Scope and Constraints

Having smart place is really utile and assisting, particularly for the aged. It provides better and easy life, more security inside and outside the house, but the jobs besides occur on the aged sides. By looking at some disadvantages one might hold in order to maximise the map of smart place for the aged, this undertaking will subjected the field of research to happen a solution in planing a user friendly interface that will gives an thought about what a smart place is and the use of it for the aged.

Chapter 2

Background and Literature Review

The background and literature reappraisal subdivision presents the research and findings about the facts and bing systems which is similar with this survey

2.1. Background

2.1.1. The Aged

The lifetime of worlds being can be classified based on their age scope, because biological alterations are slow moving and vary from individual to individual. Harmonizing to unstats.un.org ( 1982 ) , the age categorization can be grouped into six wide populations ; the baby ( under 1 twelvemonth old ) , youth ( age 1-14 old ages old ) , immature maturity ( age 15-24 old ages old ) , in-between maturity ( age 25-44 old ages old ) , older maturity ( age 45-64 old ages old ) , and late maturity or retirement age or the aged ( above 65 old ages old ) . By detecting this age categorization, we can cognize their physical characteristics, their abilities, and their capableness of making activities, particularly in day-to-day life. The focal point of this research is about the aged. Who are the aged? The aged are people, harmonizing to the age categorization, who aged above 65 old ages old and has some physical alterations and outlook alterations.

The aging advancement can decelerate one ‘s motion, manner of thought, and limit their activities. The aged seems to be holding more jobs due to diminishing of some basic abilities in running the basic activities in their day-to-day life. In every development, developed, and industrialised states, aging has been a phenomenon of population tendencies as the consequence of successful program to lower birthrate degree and increase the length of service in those overpopulated states. The challenges to be after, fix, supply a better life for the aged have been the concern of many states, establishments, and organisations. The demand of the demands of the aged has been diversely increasing.

To supply a better life for the aged, happen out foremost what their common jobs are, and what things they need to get the better of their jobs are. The jobs that the aged normally faced are the wellness job, the fiscal jobs, and the lodging jobs. The aged are largely suffered from common aging wellness jobs like arthritis and rheumatism, oculus upsets, and hearing disablements. “The aged are more likely to endure from wellness jobs like arthritis and rheumatism, oculus upsets and hearing disablements. They are more prone to endure due to hypothermia ( low organic structure heat ) , particularly during winter. They may even be enduring from psychiatric jobs such as Senile Dementia ( Alzheimer ‘s disease ) , which is a psychiatric unwellness that affects the brain.” ( Lee, 2007 ) . The retired aged may hold their ain income and therefore they can afford themselves the necessities they needed while others have their relations or households to pay for their lifes. The aided life is non every bit expensive as what they seem, after a individual, an aged, decided to at some point they need aid, they move into a installation that is normally lasting. With the former house sold, the most disbursals associated with aided life can be covered. Therefore, they need a house that will keep together all their demands. For the lodging, they need a sheltered lodging with furniture, system, and equipment that are designed to run into their demands, the house must supply them freedom and privateness and at the same clip it besides support the necessities during exigency or panic state of affairs. The solution for back uping the sort of house they need is the smart place system.

2.1.2. Smart place system

An aged must be fitted good in the house he is populating, though he is an grownup, he has some failings that can travel worse if the house he is populating is non safe. First of all, for the lodging demands, we must look into the full house, is it safe plenty for aged to populate? The basic criterions a place have must be adjusted and good designed to run into the aged demands and can covered the failings. There are some parts of the house that need strong attending in order to run into the rudimentss safety of life for the aged, these are some parts of the house that need to be examine and how to get the better of the jobs. There is a list about what are the country in the house that needs to be cheque for the safety for the aged intent, harmonizing to aging-parents-and-elder-care.com ( 2009 ) , these are some parts of the house that needs to be checked:

All countries at place

All countries at place must be checked for the electrical and telephone cords, carpets, telephone countries, fume sensors, electrical mercantile establishments and switches, lightings, and exigency issue program. The electrical mercantile establishments and switches can be checked by touch them, if they are remarkably hot or warm, it may bespeak an insecure wiring status. All the electrical and phone cords must be analyzed if they are placed out across walkway, it can do person to trip and fall down, falling down is one of the things that elderly must non see. The affiliated cords to the walls or floor or mopboards must be taped, non with nails or basics cause nails and basics can damage cords, showing fire and daze jeopardies. For the aged it is really immune to hold a bone fractures or some other serious hurts if they fallen down, to cut down this possibility, use the carpets and smugglers that are slip immune and take all that are non slip resistant or tend to do person faux pas or trip. The hearing troubles is one of the jobs that elderly may hold, so to avoid many unreciprocated phone call, blinking visible radiations that will blink along with the rings of the phone may assist to get the better of this issue and besides place some exigency Numberss near the phone is of import so the aged can seek aid easy when needed, the same goes for the buzzer, the buzzer with blinking visible radiations can assist bespeak the aged to cognize there ‘s person at the door. Puting at least one fume sensor on each floor near the sleeping rooms is one of the basic first fire safe stairss. Plan an exigency issue in instance if there ‘s fire inside the house and pattern the stairss to safe themselves in instance there ‘s fire when the aged is place entirely so he will non bury how to make it.

Kitchen

There are some of import parts in the kitchen that need to be pay attending, the scope are of the fire, all electrical cords, illuming, stool, carpets and telephone country. Check if the towels, drapes and any other stuffs that may catch fire are located far from the scope. All electrical and contraption cords should be located non near the sink and scope countries because those cords can do daze or burning if they have contact with the H2O. The lighting in the kitchen must be in equal part, less illuming can lend cuts or Burnss. All outdated nutrient in the electric refrigerator must throw out to avoid nutrient toxic condition.

Bathroom

Bathroom countries besides have of import characteristics that need serious attending such as bathing tub and shower countries, H2O temperature, carpets and mats, illuming, and electrical contraptions. The bathing tub and shower topographic point should be equipped with grab bars and non-skid mats, or scratchy strips, or surfaces that are non slippery to avoid holding wet soapy tiles or porcelain surfaces that might do falls. The illuming switch should better be placed near the entryway door so the aged does non necessitate to walk through dark to happen the switches. Beware of the little electrical contraptions such as hair driers, shavers, curving Fe, etc that are plugged in when non in usage can do a deadly daze if it falls into H2O in sink or bathing tub.

Bedroom

Rearrange the furniture if the light switch is non located near the bed. Aged tend to hit things or fall down in the dark of dark when they are awake and want to make something because they have to walk far from bed in the dark to happen the switch foremost, besides put a torch in the scope of the bed to do it easier to catch in instance if the electricity is down.

Stairss, stepss, and paseos

Make sure there is no slippy surface ; the lighting besides needs to be adjusted during twenty-four hours and dark because one might fall if there is non plenty illuming to walk

Those are simple things that should be good cognizant in footings of safety for the aged. Planing smart places for older people should be done by run intoing the demands and desires of the residents at place, the attention givers every bit good as a figure of other interest holders. Often, the technological facets are implemented minimum due to the cost factors and other fortunes. “A smart place or edifice is a place or edifice, normally a new one, that is equipped with particular structured wiring to enable residents to remotely control or plan an array of automated place electronic devices by come ining a individual command.” ( Redriksson, 17 August 2005 ) . The footings smarting here is derived from the installing, execution and constellation or devices and equipments that are able to be programmed to make some undertake undertakings. A figure of electrical devices at place could be controlled and automated to work through a control unit or automatically in a manner which determined by the user or coder. The simplest illustration of a undertaking could be turn on the visible radiation by utilizing a distant control, which means the visible radiations will be activated automatically by pressing the suited button on a distant accountant. Through suited engineering, the aged can associate better to their environment and able to hold better control over their place. By utilizing this engineering, it is possible to watch the activities of the renters, particularly the aged renters, to supply qui vives to specific agents or health professional or other external assistant if there is any instance of exigency. These automatic devices or robotic devices can be described as domotic systems. “Domotics is the combination of engineering and services for improved life in the countries of safety, comfort and proficient management” ( “ Domotics, ” 2009 ) . The renters do non hold to worry about some things that usually forgotten, particularly for the aged because everything will be done automatically, but besides can be adjusted to be done manually or by manus. It is more similar tools to assist people.

2.2. Material Research

2.2.1. Smart Home System Prototypes

The smart place system consists of several elements and paradigm that connected to a chief web to be a possible working system that can command the full house. A cosmopolitan distant control with multifunction buttons can be used to command several undertakings in the same clip and to command the work flow indoors and outside the house environments. In order to do this possibly go on, a system that constructed by several devices or paradigms is needed. Those paradigms will so piece smart place characteristics that are extremely engineering and automatic system. The house contraptions and smart devices will link to each other through a well defined web system which will unify the system inside and outside the house.

“In a conventional manner, a smart place can be described by a house which is equipped with smart objects, a place web make it possible to transport information between objects and a residential gateway to link the smart place to the outside Internet universe. Smart objects make it possible to interact with dwellers or to detect them.” ( D. M. Vincent Ricquebourg, David Durand, Bruno Marhic, Laurent Delahoche, Christophe Loge, 2006 ) . There are some smart objects criterions that smart place devices normally used to plan the house, most of these are used within the security sectors which are able to be linked to each other and are able to hold some communicating within each other through wire such as optical fibre, overseas telegram ( coaxal and distorted brace ) and power line or radio such as wireless frequence ( Bluetooth, GPRS, Wi-Fi, and UTMS ) and infra ruddy.

A research by Guy Dewsbury about Smart places devices and characteristics presented on the website smartthinking.ukideas.com ( 2 May 2008 ) , says that following are the chief devices or paradigms that are used normally in a smart place:

  1. Actuator
  2. Actuator is another name for a motor. It is a mechanical device that used to travel or command a mechanism or a system which takes energy that normally created by air, electricity or liquids and converts them into some sort of gesture. Some illustrations of this mechanism are plasma actuators, pneumatic actuators, electric actuators, motors, hydraulic cylinders, and additive actuators.

  3. Assistive engineering
  4. Assistive engineering can be describe in generic term that includes assistive, adaptative, and rehabilitative devices for people with disablements or restrictions to make some undertaking they are unable to make and increase the easiness and safety with which undertaking can be performed.

  5. Bus System ( field coach )
  6. The conventional usage set of wiring specifically installed for the intent of conveying informations to and from the electronic devices within the house which normally runs in analogue to the conventional house wiring system

  7. Communication Protocols
  8. Communication protocols are the linguistic communication used in the electronic system to acknowledge and go through information to each other. The protocols work in a manner so it can specify how the message will be sent, every bit good as how the response should be to corroborate the information has been received

  9. Computer Peripherals
  10. The computing machine constituents that will back up how the devices will work indoors house that includes the basic demand of a computing machine which are processor, proctor, keyboard and mouse. Extra constituents such as pressmans, scanners, external storage devices are besides normally used

  11. Dependability
  12. “Dependability is defined as that belongings of a computing machine system such that trust can justifiably be placed on the service it delivers. The service delivered by a system is its behaviour as it is perceptible by its user ( s ) ; a user is another system ( human or physical ) which interacts with the former” ( Laprie, 1995 )

  13. Electronic Assistive Technology ( EAT )
  14. The EAT is any supportive electric devices engineering that are normally used by handicapped people or for those who use wheelchair. The assistive engineering ranges from wheelchair through the whole house system.

  15. Environmental Controls
  16. The environmental controls will let the user to be in charge over simple devices in a room surrounds them, for illustration door opener and the maps are run through a control box or a distant accountant to supply control in different undertakings

  17. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning
  18. Mechanisms that are used to command environmental conditions inside the place including the temperature inside the house, the air conditioning flows and it will besides set the place temperature to follow the renter ‘s temperature.

  19. Information and Communication Technologies
  20. The information and communicating engineering is a bundle of engineering that is related to the electronic storage, retrieval of the information given, and transmittal of the information.

  21. Infrared
  22. “ ( ¦in·fr?¦red ?rad·e?a·sh?n ) ( electromagnetism ) Electromagnetic radiation whose wavelengths lie in the scope from 0.75 or 0.8 micron ( the long-wavelength bound of seeable ruddy visible radiation ) to 1000 microns ( the shortest microwaves ) . ( “ Sci-Tech Dictionary: infrared radiation, ” 2009 ) . The most common application that can be found at place that utilizing infrared applications would be in a Television remote contol

  23. Iridium
  24. In the context of smart place, IR stands for Infrared Receiver, which can be found as in a signifier of a receiving system that located on the wall or within a convenient location, or a accountant that can direct Infrared signals to the receiving system.

  25. Iris Recognition
  26. In order to hold iris acknowledgment system to work, a camera will be used to capture and analyse the spiels of person ‘s flag with better degree of certainty that can be applied to fingerprint

  27. Kbytes
  28. Kbytes can be defined as “Volume of informations that can be transmitted by a specific medium each second.” ( Dewsbury, 2 May 2008 )

  29. Microprocessor
  30. Harmonizing to wordnetweb.princeton.edu, a Microprocessor is an incorporate circuit which categorized as a semiconducting material bit that can execute a mass size of the processing and command a specific portion of a device or system. It is functioned as the Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) of a personal computer. For illustration, a disc thrust that contains a microprocessor, the microprocessor will manage the internal maps of the thrust

  31. Optical Fiber
  32. Electrical wiring optical fibres can be used to convey informations ; the optical fibres will utilize light which will allows immense sum of informations that can be transmitted through a comparatively narrow overseas telegram. Example of the equipment utilizing this medium of transmittal is telephone and overseas telegram telecasting, but the signal is converted into more conventional electrical signals in place or workplace

  33. PIR
  34. PIR or Passive Infra Red Sensor is the device which used to observe motion within a room that can trip devices by observing a presence

  35. Personal Data Assistance ( PDA )
  36. PDA is a little computing machine with restriction functionality. PDAs are really utile for people who have memory jobs and any other damage. Nowadays PDAs are progressively going more complex, resides the restriction of the functionality, and are able to utilize IR Bluetooth connectivity every bit good as an altered Windows interface

  37. Plug and Play
  38. The stopper and drama equipment is designed to be to the full compatible and recognizable for the web and package it is related to and it is able to link and being configured by a specific system, even there is no input from the user or merely a small input from the user.

  39. Power line
  40. The power line transmittal will direct informations signal at a different frequence for the usage of normal electrical current transmittal which so detected by devices that are connected to the circuit

  41. Pressure Pad
  42. The force per unit area tablet will trip an action if a individual stairss on it and a signal will be sent to command unit for security intents

  43. Smart Card games
  44. Smart card is a normal size card, similar to recognition card, but this card contains informations about a individual it belong to which can be retrieved by merely merely infix them in an appropriate machine or remotely over merely a short distance

  45. Telecare/ Telemedicine
  46. It is the bringing of response and medical services by the usage of webs to remote links which can be measured in a far distance by distant diagnosing held a physician from symptoms described so direct them over a transmittal utilizing a elaborate X ray or photographic images by a medical opposition to hospital

  47. Teleworking
  48. Telecommuting is a pattern of carry oning work remotely from workplace using computing machine and communicating systems. An illustration of teleworking that can be applied inside the smart place is that the place has the entree and to modify informations and information stored on waiters that are located in chief office from a distant location by utilizing a conventional telephone line

  49. Twisted Pair
  50. Twisted brace is a sort of telegraphing where two thin wires are twisted together. This type of telegraphing normally used in telephone cabling in the place for transmittal of sound and informations.

  51. Graphic User Interface ( GUI )
  52. GUI provides user the interface on a screen of the system as a feedback from of device from the purposes or instructions from the user.

  53. Warden Call systems
  54. The warden call systems is an exigency communicating systems that applied by a warden or a guardian which can be used to direct an exigency warnings or let two manner communicating system between guardian and the individual in exigency status

Those are the normally used paradigm for the smart place system today. A conference paper released by ieeemalaysia.org ( 2009 ) about smart place characteristics describe about the paradigm of the smart place that complete the whole system and characteristics of the smart place which are:

  1. Energy direction
  2. The energy direction plays an of import function in the smart place system ; it controls the lighting and light degree. The illuming system can be automatically turned on or off, therefore it will salvage a batch of the electric measures. A detector which consists of some input of agenda about when the visible radiations need to be turned on or off is needed. The system will do certain that the visible radiations are turned off when no needed, for illustration, in the dark or when there is no 1 in the room. This simple automatic system can assist to forestall the cachexia of electricity. This called the programmable visible radiations. A cardinal unit or computing machine can assist to do this work by merely put the timing when will the visible radiations goes out. The lighting system is besides utile in footings of security facets. Owner can put lightings at apparently random times during twenty-four hours and dark ; it will forestall felons go on around the house and neighbours. Remote entree lighting is besides normally used for a typical smart house ; the best thing about it is that the proprietor can remotely command the lighting inside and outside house. For illustration, an aged can bury to turn off kitchen lamp, and he or she retrieve when he or she is in the life room. A PDA will be used to turn the visible radiations off ; this could even be done outside the house, such as eating house or at office

  3. Heating and air conditioning
  4. A certain warming and air conditioning system can be used in order to expeditiously command the temperature in a smart place, salvaging enormously cost of keeping the temperature in a big house. The simplest illustration is the system will turned off air status automatically when there is no 1 at place

  5. Safety and security
  6. The safety system in a smart place can make a batch more than merely normal or traditional dismay systems. Almost all equipments, elements and tools in smart place networked together, an dismay can be set into making some actions. The development of smart engineering and the promotions of security systems these yearss are capable to do the user to command the armament and demilitarizing the dismay, or edit specific scenes on the dismay and security scenes such as cardinal codification, configure the invasion sensing system scenes. For illustration when there is fire, the dismay will be set when the fire is detected and will besides turn on the visible radiations to demo the residents of the house the safest manner out, moreover, the system will unlock all the doors and Windowss to let fume to be ventilated and automatically dial to the nearest exigency and deliverance services. The security system in the smart place is somewhat different with 1s with the traditional burglar dismay system which include turning on and off the lighting system when cipher at place and utilizing camera to observe and demo to the proprietor who is coming up the private road whereas in smart place system, when it observe there is an interloper coming, the system will trip the camera used to enter a picture, take image, digitise it and direct it to the user and nearest constabulary via electronic mail. The system can besides be set to holiday or vacation manner where it will turn on and off the lighting system and certain contraptions to randomly so it will give some image or feeling of person is still present in the house. The security system can be integrated with the lighting system which can be set to observe curious gesture so warn the security forces or the house proprietor if there is any window or door that is being forced unfastened through the detectors that are connected to the system.

  7. Multi-functional Buttons and distant accountants
  8. The multi functional buttons and distant accountants are taking a really of import portion in the process of how the smart place will work. These buttons connect all of the functional system inside and outside the house and can be controlled by several different beginnings at the same clip even when the user is located in different topographic points by wired or wireless devices. The distant control system can be presented by wall-mount touch screen devices, Windowss based PDA or by any calculating devices that is networked to the system. For illustration, one button for illuming can command every lighting system and lamps inside and outside the house. It can be scheduled when the visible radiations will hold to be turned off and on harmonizing to the status of the clip, if it is twenty-four hours, the visible radiations will be turned off automatically and when it is dark clip, the visible radiations will be turned on automatically. The same thing goes for dismay and security system ; the buttons can command or put the dismay manner. For illustration, when the renter is off for vacation, the dismay environing the house can be set to holiday manner or when the renter is traveling to kip at dark he can put the dismay and the security system into dark manner. The distant accountant which consists of several buttons can be in the signifier of a PDA or Personal Digital Assistant which makes the renters possible to entree the system in their house even when they are far off from their house. The distant accountant grant relaxation for a life, particularly for the aged who is normally tend to bury little things but of import to make like for illustration when he goes out from the house, he have the inclination to go forth the doors unlocked, or forgot to turned off any electronic devices that still work. The distant accountant can be set to be at a manner when the aged acquiring out of place, he can merely merely press a button that will turn off the visible radiations, turn the shutters down, lock all the doors and Windowss, turn off all air conditioning system at place, and arm the security system such as dismay, CCTV, et cetera.

  9. Entertainment
  10. The amusement characteristic in the smart place can be really diverse in so many ways for a to the full capable smart place system. By utilizing multiple amusement system the user can acquire a different music or wireless or any audio in different suites. ( Richard, 2008 ) Touch Media Systems Ltd ( 2008 ) described that there are several facets of attack in implementing the amusement system, they are:

  • Design: a well designed amusement system is extremely required in order to maximise the benefits in utilizing the multiple amusement system.
  • Convenience: the waiter that control the system must be made available to anyone who wants it and it should be done in a manner that will non upset the neighbours or foreigner.
  • Quality: the quality of the sounds, images, pictures must run into the user ‘s coveted design and budget in consecutively to acquire the high quality sound system that will be implemented inside the house

  • Emergency direction
  • A smart place can find and inform the household member or the appropriate redemption governments or group of what the exigency is approximately. If there is a gas leak, the system will observe and instantly shut down the chief gas and disable all electronic devices and easy combustion devices to forestall by chance flickers generated, so the house will the residents about the leak with dismay, farther engineering of the smart place utilizing voice mechanization which will state the residents what is traveling on and what to make about it.

  • Loging an Tracing
  • The smart place system presents a capableness of the system to enter a assortment of logging and tracing of the user and the house. The devices inside or outside the house which connected to each other to a maestro waiter or accountant has its ain private device log. Logs are used to hive away the history of each belongings on peculiar device. It can be used to maintain a record of all received calls, dialed calls and unreciprocated calls, including the clip, the continuance of speaking and the company ID. Logs besides helpful in work outing the problems and observe the unusual behaviour of the belongingss that can be set up to measure it daily, hebdomadal, monthly, annually or user predefined agendas. Mentioning to the home page of Log-Inn ( “ Log-Inn: Smart Homes and Smart Meeting Rooms, ” ) , The logs can be divided into 3 types:

    • User Defined Logs: the user is able to specify their ain logs that can roll up the record of the altering in behaviour in belongings from different devices. This type allows to hold a chronological record that stored even there is many alterations in the system
    • Mistake Log: mistakes can be reported from any device stopper in, or from the hardware interface, or books. If there is error status occur, the mistake study will be sent automatically to the system mistake log, this type can supply a topographic point to supervise the jobs that happen in the system
    • System Log: this system log is used to roll up inside informations of any mistake messages and it is used for roll uping following informations

    2.2.2. Universal Remote Control and Multifunction Buttons

    A distant control is one of the constituents of electronic device that is used to run the electronic device wirelessly from a specified distance. IR or Infra Red signal is the most common media to be applied in distant control and a few via wireless signals. The distant control is used to publish bid from a specified distance to an electronic device such as telecastings, DVD Player, dimmers, et cetera which consists of some buttons for seting assorted scenes of the devices. Presents, in implementing the distant control with multifunction button in smart place, user tend to take the wall-mount remote control as the maestro control in the smart place. This sort of wireless remote control is placed on an bing wall to have and direct bid to the networking system on the full house. Specifically, the distant control is placed in a particular climb fixture and it ‘s provided to mesh with the bing switch home base so it is possible to take the distant control from the wall and can be taken to other locations within the house.

    The distant control to pull off the work of the system inside the house can be presented non merely in wall-mount remote control, but besides can be presented in a normal distant control like the distant control that is used for telecasting, fan, et cetera or in a Personal Digital Assistant ( PDA ) which can be carried around for the user to command the system inside the house even they are far from their house. Any type of the distant control will be constructed by several buttons. A button can be described as “A little portion or country of a machine that you press to do it make something” ( Longman, 2009 ) . A button placed on a circuit board ; it includes a map portion, a position exchanging portion, and a imperativeness able figure or image portion. When the user imperativeness the imperativeness able portion, the position exchanging portion will build up the circuit board to do electrical contact to trip the specific map. The multifunction button designed to hold some map that can make several undertakings to trip or deactivate the specified system.

    2.2.3. Agent

    Presents, the engineering has been extremely improved particularly in information engineering and computing machine scientific discipline. The use of an agent in a system or web site or an interface is non curious any longer, furthermore, there are a batch of company and organisation which require their package technology and website interior decorator to build a system or a plan or a web-based computer science that includes agent-based mold in it. “Agent-based mold ( ABM ) , a system is modeled as a aggregation of independent decision-making entities called agents. Each agent separately assesses its state of affairs and makes determinations on the footing of a set of rules” ( Bonabeau, 14 May 2002 ) . An agent can be said as anything that distinguished through detectors and act based on actuators.

    The agents can be concluded as package intelligent agent. The package intelligent agent construct includes the intelligent agents, independent agents, distributed agents, multi-agent systems and nomadic agents. Those agents have their ain features. The intelligent agent has some facet of the unreal intelligence capablenesss such as acquisition and logical thinking. Autonomous agent is capable in achieve their aims. The distributed agents are agent that can be executed on separated computing machine while the nomadic agents are agents that can be relocated to different processors to be executed. There is besides agent that is capable to pass on with the user in order to accomplish its aims ; the multi-agent systems. In planing an agent there is two factors that is required in order to do the system with agent can work ; an agent plan and architecture.

    Architecture in calculating footings here means of a computer science device that consists of physical detectors and actuators. To plan a system that requires agent, we have to find what sort of agent or what type of agent that we need to be construct the plan and so combined with the appropriate architecture. Despite the fact that the package intelligent agent is classified into some types, we still have to find what kind of agent that will make the necessary undertakings on the package and the system.

    Harmonizing to Duygulu ( 2008 ) , there are four basic types of agent that can be chosen to be implemented in the procedure of design a system with agent:

    1. Simple physiological reaction agents
    2. The simple automatic agent is really simple, intelligent but limited. The agent work based on the current percept and disregarding the history. It is limited because the infinite cringles are frequently inevitable ; the possible solution to avoid the infinite cringles is by randomising. For illustration is the simple automatic vacuity cleaner agent

    3. Model based automatic agents
    4. This is the type of agent that works depends on the percept history and reflects at least some unseen facets of the current environment province and it ‘s updating the internal province information

    5. Goal-based agents
    6. The goal-based agent is a type of agent that knows about the current province of the environment but non ever plenty to do determination what to make because it needs end information about the conditions that are desirable. The agent plan can be combined with this agent in order to continue information about the consequences of the action to be chosen to accomplish that end

    7. Utility based agents
    8. In order to make high quality behaviour in about all environments, ends entirely is non plenty and this agent supply the binary distinctive feature between happy and unhappy fortunes, the public-service corporation map maps the status onto a existent figure that presents the allied grade of felicity.

    2.2.4. Integrated Webcam with Java Programming Language

    Java scheduling linguistic communication is one of the most popular scheduling linguistic communications that are used widely by assorted sorts of people. Java is an object oriented programming linguistic communication that is platform independent. An object oriented scheduling is “A type of scheduling in which coders define non merely the informations type of a information construction, but besides the types of operations ( maps ) that can be applied to the informations structure”

    ( “ Object-Oriented Scheduling, ” 2009 ) . It is being developed by Sun and has been used on web-based applications and any other systems since so. It follows after C++ and designed as an application that can run in limited memory which beginning codification is compiled into an intermediate linguistic communication or every bit good known as bytecode. The bytecode must be compiled into machine codification merely before the executing of the plan or a line at clip by utilizing Java Virtual Machine ( JVM ) runtime engine.

    The webcam that is desired to be integrated with the Java plan will be programmed utilizing several Java libraries. The chief library to be implemented in the cryptography procedure is the Java Media Framework API ( JMF ) which enables sound, picture and any other capturing media can be added to applications and applets that are built on Java engineering. “The Java Media Framework API ( JMF ) enables audio, picture and other time-based media to be added to applications and applets built on Java technology” ( Microsystems, 1994-2009 )

    Chapter 3

    Methodology

    In order to hold a systematic system with a scheduled work program, a method has been found to show the undertaking ‘s system development life rhythm method that adapted from System Analysis and Design talk notes

    3.1. System Life Cycle Development ( SDLC ) Traditional Waterfall Model

    The system development could be done in some assorted ways, there is structured scheduling, structured analysis, and structured design that incorporated to do up structured attack. The structured attack is the technique that we use in developing the undertaking. This chosen technique includes informations organisation and construction, relational database design, and user interfaces issues. The procedure of completing the undertaking will be effectual by making each and every measure begins after another completes, with a small backtracking and iteration.

    Through this thought, a System Development Life Cycle ( SDLC ) could be applied to be after, analyse, design, implement and keep the system. The SDLC waterfall theoretical account was chosen because the stairss included and how each stairss being done are suited with the manner that is desired to set up the system. The SDLC traditional theoretical account is includes these undermentioned stairss:

    3.1.1. Undertaking Initiation and Planning

    As the first measure, taking the rubric as the undertaking that will be done as the Final Year Project ( FYP ) , the meet the supervisor and discuss possible systems that could be applied to the undertaking. Several undertakings have been done like doing literature research and shop some information about the undertaking before doing the proposal to give clear position of what is the job, the issues, and to acquire the relevant information to construct the undertaking. The precedence is to develop a system which will give a clear possible solution for the issues given. The selected undertaking which is Study of Smart Home for Elderly gives some benefits such as the flexibleness and relaxation ways to obtain, analyze, and develop the general system demands. After do some brainstorming, identifying, and researching farther about the undertaking, a proposal was drafted to the supervisor, Mdm. Neo Han Foon.

    The undertaking planning was the procedure of specifying clear, distinct activities and the other work needed to be done to finish the system. On this phase, the entire information that the system needed are identified, analyzed, prioritized and arranged. The aim of this phase was to depict the undertaking aim, job statement and undertaking range in order to hold a clear position and to see the overall construction of the system. Initially, the surveies to entree the original premise and analyse the jobs that could interfere the success in the hereafter system development demand to be done. After placing the jobs that might happen, a program was established and processs to happening the suited solution of the job findings. A undertaking agenda needs to be produced after placing some major activities of the undertaking. Harmonizing to the SDLC that we use, we must make each measure consequently and consecutively, therefore a Gantt chart was developed utilizing the Smart Draw and working on the undertakings mentioned. Then the generic undertaking criterion, process and resources such as the scheduling tools, database tools and any other tools needed for the system development was discovered, therefore we put them in group of several undertakings that need to be done and what are the tools used in order to finish those undertakings.

    Item/

    Undertaking

    Undertaking

    planning

    Software demand

    definition

    Architectural

    design

    Programing

    Credence

    Trial

    Major activities

    · Identify the undertaking range, nonsubjective and job statement

    · Deter-mining the undertaking agenda

    · Construct diagrams ; Use instance and Flow Chart

    · Determine package demand

    · Concepts of physical theoretical account

    · Hardware and package acquisition

    · Scripting and coding

    · System proving

    Tools

    · Microsoft Word

    · Smart Draw

    · Smart Draw

    · JMF

    · Notepad

    · JADE

    · Logitech Webcam

    · JAVA

    · JAVA

    · Roll uping with bid prompt

    Metho-

    dology

    · SDLC attack

    Deliver-

    able

    Result

    · Gantt Chart

    · Project range

    · Project aim

    · Problem statement

    · Software demand papers

    · Use Case Diagram

    · Flow Chart

    · Report design

    · Interface design

    · Coding book

    · Completed and error free system

    3.1.2. Analysis

    The aim of making analysis phase is to find and understand the functional demands, the obstructions and mistakes that might happen, and constructs a logical theoretical account or the system. During this phase the system demands are studied and structured and the information assemblage and finding system demand must hold been done at this phase. The information assemblage is done by roll uping a big sum of information through cyberspace, articles, diaries and intelligence that are related to ache places and aged people. Through the literature reappraisal, it could be understood what a smart place is and the use of it and the demands of aged people in the houses along with the obstructions that might happen to their status. By finding the system demands, the proficient and functional demands in the system can be obtained. In proficient demands, the operational aims are related to the scope of package and hardware that were mentioned in the planning stage on SDLC.

    3.1.3. Design

    After complete the analysing stairss, the demands that are needed in order to accomplish the solution are settled ; so turn the findings into logical so physical system specifications. An thought was established to show the solution utilizing JAVA scheduling and design a Graphic User Interface ( GUI ) that will be presented as a working system that can be used by the renter. The design stage of the solution is divided into two parts:

    • Logical design – Originate the design in the logical footings is to find all of the functional characteristics that might be used in the system
    • Physical design – logical design is being transformed into the physical design with all the particular inside informations from the chosen scheduling linguistic communication and the system building can be accomplished in a signifier of GUI.

    3.1.4. Execution

    The execution phase is the 5th phase in the SDLC which now the system specification turned from the coding manner into a working system that already been compiled, tested, error free, and put into unrecorded application.

    3.1.5. Care

    Care was the concluding stage of SDLC in which the system is consistently repaired and improved. All of the failings of the system and the researches have been decreased. In this phase betterment of the system is carried out in order to hold an effectual and user friendly system. This phase supply the ability for us to maintain researching for the new versions or releases of package with related updates for the importance of certification, preparation and support

    Chapter 4

    Proposed Solution and Implementation Plan/Design

    The Proposed solution was achieved based on the findings that have been found during the research and designed to carry through the undertaking aims

    4.1. Proposed Solution

    By detecting the undertaking aims, which are to plan or to happen a solution in order to happen the manner out for holding a smart place system for the aged, set up a system that can supervise user interior and outside the house, research in order to happening the paradigms that will be used inside the house, and besides the system that can incorporate with the development and diverse engineerings into a on the job system and show the solutions in a user friendly interface that gives user the thought of what is a smart place and the use of it, a solution has been found to accomplish the aims by present it in a smart place remote control system with multifunction button in a Graphical User Interface ( GUI ) which is user friendly with some smart system or smart application that can be implemented virtually in the GUI to do the user acknowledge the simple or basic construct of the smart place.

    The GUI will be consists of some buttons and screen which appear to be a distant accountant to be used inside the smart place to command the system inside the house. The scheduling linguistic communication that will be used is Java programming linguistic communication and incorporate a webcam application inside the GUI which can observe if there is a motion of person in forepart of the camera which so leads to the visual aspect of an agent that will recognize the user with “Good Morning” or “Good day” or “Good evening” harmonizing to the clip of the twenty-four hours when the system is being turned on.

    The user subsequently can take whether he/ she want to turn on the chief system inside the house which are the H2O system, electricity system or security system. The GUI will advise the user if the chosen system already being turned on or non. After utilizing the functionality of the buttons, the user can turn off the system while the webcam screen and agent will vanish before it exits from the plan.

    4.2. Execution Plan/Design

    Phase 4 in the System Life Cycle Development ( SDLC ) is about implementing the design that have discovered in phase 3 by realizing the logical and physical design. The logical design can be presented in the Flow Chart diagram and Use Case diagram. The logical design constructed into an easy to utilize GUI as the physical design. The GUI will dwell of several buttons, a screen and an agent. An corporal colloquial agent was chosen as the agent to steer the user in running the system. What is an corporal conversational agent? It is “An interface in which the system is represented as a individual, in which information is conveyed to human users via multiple modes such as voice and manus gestures, and in which the internal representation is modality-independent, and both propositional and non-propositional.” ( Cassell, 2001 ) . The usage of this type of agent is to assist or steer the user to utilize the distant control, it will recognize the user harmonizing to the clip of the twenty-four hours the user bend on the system, and supply aid if necessary. A camera will besides be used in the system to admit the system if there is a gesture in forepart of camera to trip the agent to demo up. The buttons that are press able are being used to turn on or off the system and some chief device inside or outside the house harmonizing to the user ‘s penchants. A Java scheduling linguistic communication will be used to build the whole system.

    4.2.1. Flow Chart Diagram

    4.2.2. Use Case Diagram

    4.2.3. Graphic User Interface Screen Shots

    Chapter 5

    Decisions

    This undertaking is subjected to assist the aged have easier manner of life by set up a system that can supervise user interior and outside the house, research in order to happening the paradigms that will be used inside the house, and besides the system that can incorporate with the development and diverse engineerings into a on the job system and show the solutions in a user friendly interface that gives user the thought of what is a smart place and the use of it. Nowadays, a big per centum of aged that are populating entirely with diseases and disablements keep increasing. Due to the ripening, there are some basic activities that the aged discovery it. In a smart place, electrical devices could be controlled and automated to work through a control unit or by a distant accountant or automatically in a manner which determined by the user or coder, in this manner, the aged should happen how the smart place provide the comfort and easiness manner of life.

    5.1 Aged

    “The footings aged are normally applied to grownups older than 60 old ages, when certain physiologic features become apparent” ( Rossi, 2003 ) . The aging advancement can decelerate one ‘s motion, manner of thought, and limit their activities. The aged seems to be holding more jobs due to diminishing of some basic abilities in running the basic activities in their day-to-day life. The thought of holding a smart place might work out their jobs. The basic criterion of a smart place should be plenty to convey relaxation to their day-to-day activities inside and environing the house, it must be good adjusted to run into the aged demands and can covered the aged failings.

    5.2. Smart Home

    “In a conventional manner, a smart place can be described by a house which is equipped with smart objects, a place web make it possible to transport information between objects and a residential gateway to link the smart place to the outside Internet universe. Smart objects make it possible to interact with dwellers or to detect them.” ( D. M. Vincent Ricquebourg, David Durand, Bruno Marhic, Laurent Delahoche, Christophe Loge, 2006 ) . There are assorted sorts of contraptions that are connected to each other to the chief web that can be controlled and automatically work in a manner a user determined. The mechanization characteristics provided by smart place system should do it easy for the renters or everyone in the house, particularly the aged who have lost some of their ability in making some basic activities inside and environing house.

    Mentions

    • Bonabeau, E. ( 14 May 2002 ) . Agent-based Mold: Methods and Techniques for Simulating Human Systems. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pnas.org/content/99/suppl.3/7280.full.pdf+html
    • Cassell, J. ( 2001 ) . Embodied Colloquial Agents: Representation and Intelligence in User Interface. AI Magazine, 22
    • Christophe Loge . ( 2006 ) . The Smart Home Concept: Our Immediate Future, Adobe PDF Reader.
    • Dewsbury, G. ( 2 May 2008, 2 May 2008 ) . A Guide to “ SMART ” Home Footings. Retrieved 20 October, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.smartthinking.ukideas.com/Asmarthomeguide.html # devices
    • Duygulu, P. ( Producer ) . ( 2008, 12 November 2009 ) Intelligent Agents. retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/~duygulu/Courses/CS461/Notes/Agents.pdf
    • Domotics. ( 2009 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Domotics/
    • George A. Miller, C. F. , Randee Tengi, Pamela Wakefield, Helen Langone. WordNet Search – 3.0. Retrieved 25 October 2009, from Princeton University: hypertext transfer protocol: //wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn? s=microprocessor
    • King, N. ( September 2003 ) . Smart Home – A definition. Unpublished research.
    • Laprie, J.-C. ( 1995 ) . Dependability of Computer Systems: from Concepts to Limits. 2.
    • Lee, J. ( 2007, October 5 ) . Needs Of The Elderly. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //ezinearticles.com/ ? Needs-­Of-­The-­Elderly & A ; id=766232
    • Lisa Jean Moya, A. T. ( 2007 ) . Towards a taxonomy of agents and multi-agent systems. In T. a. t. o. a. a. m.-a. systems ( Ed. ) . Norfolk, Virginia Society for Computer Simulation International
    • Log-Inn: Smart Homes and Smart Meeting Rooms. ( 12 August 2007 ) . Retrieved 29 October, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.en.loginn.co.il/sh_features.htm
    • Longman. ( Ed. ) ( 2009 ) Longman: Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman.
    • Mitri, M. ( 2000 ) . Modern System Analysis and Design. Unpublished Power Point, Multimedia University. Cassell, J. ( 2001 ) .
    • Object-Oriented Programming. ( 2009 ) . WebMediaBrands Inc.
    • Microsystems, S. ( 1994-2009 ) . Java SE Desktop Technologies. Retrieved 13 November 2009, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //java.sun.com/javase/technologies/desktop/media/jmf/
    • Provosional Guidelines on Standard International Age Classifications. ( 1982 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/SeriesM/SeriesM_74e.pdf.
    • Quinstreet, Inc. ( 2009 ) . Is Your Aging Parent ‘s Home Safe? . Retrieved October 20, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aging-parents-and-elder-are.com/Pages/Checklists/Home_Safety_Chklst.html
    • Redriksson, V. ( 17 August 2005 ) . What is A Smart Home or Building? Retrieved 20 October, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0, ,sid183_gci540859,00.html
    • Richard. ( 2008 ) . What is A smart Home? , hypertext transfer protocol: //www.touch-media.co.uk/ ( pp. 2-3 ) .
    • Rossi, P. ( 2003 ) . Case Management in Health Care Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.com.my/books? id=TDToxM2h-UC & A ; printsec=frontcover & A ; source=gbs_v2_summary_r & A ; cad=0 # v=onepage & A ; q= & A ; f=false
    • Smarter Smart Homes: Technologies, Challenges and Opportunities. ( 2009 ) . Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics & A ; Applications. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cs.ieeemalaysia.org/RENTAS2006/papers/Smart-Home-Technologies.pdf
    • Vincent Ricquebourg, D. M. , David Durand, Bruno Marhic, Laurent Delahoche, What is Home Automotion? ( 13 June 2008 ) . SMARTHOME™ .