The Natural Gas Option In Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay

Natural gas is one of the taking energy beginnings for distributed coevals. Because of the big proved militias and the environmental benefits of utilizing natural gas, it should be made one of the prima picks for power coevals and beginning of energy in Nigeria. Natural gas is a mixture of gases ( The chief ingredient in natural gas is methane ) that formed from the dodo remains of antediluvian workss and animate beings buried deep in the Earth. Methane is a molecule made up of one C atom and four H atoms. Its chemical expression is CH4. ( API, 2009 )

Proven militias statistics show Nigeria to be the 8th Largest in the universe and the largest in Africa with 185.4 trillion three-dimensional pess ( BP Statistical reappraisal of universe energy 2010 ) . Nigeria proved militias of Natural gas is more than one tierce of the whole militias in Africa but unluckily a ample sum of it is flared due to the unavailability/inadequate substructure for its processing and use. The gas militias are distributed 50-50 % for both associated gas ( AG ) and non-associated gas ( NAG ) ( Sonibare and Akeredolu, 2006 )

Combustion of natural gas which is a really clean fuel and the lowest in C intensive dodo fuels ( W.L. Lom and A.F. Williams, 1976 ) gives undistinguished pollution and therefore in pollution potency is lower when compared with others, but this can be of environmental concern besides if the pattern were uninterrupted and in immense proportions. This is the instance in flame uping activities in Nigerian upstream crude oil operations. The chief merchandises released when natural gas is burned are carbon dioxide and H2O vapor. Coal and oil are more chemically complex than natural gas, so when burned they release a assortment of potentially harmful chemicals such as sulfur oxides, partly oxidized hydrocarbons, C monoxide, carbon black other solid compounds and inorganic fly ash into the air. Nigeria being a high ranking state with proved militias, there is no adequate substructure for the use if Natural gas in Nigeria and a majority of its energy ingestion still come from single coevals and this can take many signifiers and most of this signifiers use fossil fuels which are a major beginning of pollution which in bend cause environmental clime alteration and more frequently ( local ) combustibles which does non merely give up nursery gases ( methane and CO2 ) but besides particulate which is one of the primary beginnings of respiratory wellness issues which is prevailing in the rural parts of the state.

The call for a sustainable development has been of a great concern and with the current power state of affairs in Nigeria, the state of affairs in the state soon name for concern as majorly all of the signifiers of power coevals are those which are of a great environmental debasement. Due to the current province of irregular electricity supply in the state, people ever end up holding to come up with their ain sort of power and energy coevals merely to augment supply from the national grid which is normally fickle. The single power coevals types chiefly used are outlined as follows:

Use of gasolene generators for electricity production ( domestic and industrial )

Use of fossil fuels to run mechanical machines ( industrial )

Burning of biomass, combustibles and wastes for cookery ( chiefly rural )

Kerosene ranges for cookery ( A really little fraction of the whole population usage Gas cookers, usage of electric cooker is non effectual with the epileptic electricity supply )

From all these, it should be noted that all of this processes give out emanations and this procedures could hold been avoided if the natural gas militias of the state are good utilized in the countries of power coevals which can now be used as a beginning of energy for most of the other procedures. Natural gas production in the state is presently standing at 3.5 billion three-dimensional pess per twenty-four hours ( 37 % being Non-associated gas and 63 % Associated gas ) , A little fraction of this is used domestically with the available engineering and substructure and the remainder is exported. Out Of the entire gas day-to-day production, about 17 % is re-injected, 33 % used commercially and the staying 50 % is flared ( Table 1 ) . Since the gas produced is of both associated and non-associated, the 50 % flared translated to about 75 % of entire AG produced. At this rate operation in the gas commercialisation and flame uping the state is losing appreciable amounts of money running into 1000000s of dollars and besides non burying the clime alteration hazard being posed by the uninterrupted gas flaring activities ; this flaring activity has earned the state a 2nd place among the highest gas flaring states.

Gas flame uping gives emanation of assorted nursery gases and besides particulates ; these are parts of the major concerns for the current clime alteration and planetary heating. Useful energy which could hold been used in the country of power coevals is being wasted and other C intensive procedures used and this represents given up to the environment emanations ( from two major beginnings ) which could hold been handily being from one beginning and this being by the usage of natural gas as the major power coevals fuel and so an efficient distribution procedure to all power users.

Natural gas production and ingestion in Nigeria

Appellation

Quantity ( million M3 )

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Net production ( one-year )

Associated gas

20,002

19,341

21,961

24,053

23,429

Non-associated gas

11,747

11,359

12,898

14,127

13,760

Disposition ( one-year )

Re-injection

4200

4000

4000

4000

4253

Domestic market

5900

1000

6510

6780

6220

Exported ( LNG )

5950

5950

8900

8900

Shrinking

750

900

1200

1700

2000

Flaring

20,900

18,850

17,200

16,800

15,607

Beginning: NLNG ( 2003 ) , OPEC ( 2002 ) , and NEPA ( 2003 )

Ethically talking the high flammability and hazard factors of the Natural gas may do it an unacceptable path in its use as a major signifier of energy supply in places and other public-service corporations but if good managed and with proper precautional steps in topographic point, Natural gas will be a really convenient and good start in the journey towards a sustainable hereafter for the state.

Another issue of major concern is the sabotage of the procedure and blowing-up of installings, just and just distribution of the power resources and gross and a sensible inducements traveling back to the communities and vicinities of the development and geographic expedition of the fuel.

CURRENT ENNERGY AND POWER SITUATION

Both environmental and economic grounds should be the chief thrust behind the discontinuity of natural gas modus operandi flairs in Nigeria, which are yet to be to the full implemented or operational. Besides the uneffective Torahs forbiding the uninterrupted flair of natural gas has been seen as one of the grounds why the companies involved in the oil production in the state to continuously transport on with the flaring of natural gas which they are merely needed to pay a certain sum of money to go on flaring of natural gas, this the companies have found an easier and economic manner to travel by merely paying the levy which was every bit low as N 10.00 ( 0.46 US $ equality ) per 28 M3 in January 1998 ( Odubela and Omoniyi 1996 in sonibare )

A really few subdivision of industries in the eastern and western parts of the state is supplied by the present gas distribution webs and this have been in topographic point as far back as the state ‘s independency merchandising gas to industries in Port Harcourt in the southern portion of the state. Majority of this distribution webs is owned by NGC, Escravos to Lagos Pipeline system ( ELPS ) is about 514km in length supplies industries in the western parts of Ikeja-Lagos and a few more in the Agbara-Ota axis was connected in 2003. This is still an undistinguished sum sing the figure of industries which could hold been connected to the web if it was equally distributed all around the state. As a consequence of the limited domestic market for gas and the high cost associated with gas development ( coupled with the low levies ) , the oil companies runing in the state have refused to ship on a serious gas development plan which would be of a great benefit to the state and a beginning of major cut in the emanation capacity of the state which is the right manner to travel for a sustainable development to be achieved.

The nature of natural gas around which current use undertakings are centred is besides of a great concern ; though in most instances NAG supply is required as modesty for feedstock back up whenever juncture demands, some bing undertakings place small trust on AG. Hence, bing undertakings hold small range for absorbing flared gas, but with merely a small intervention, AG will merely be every bit utile as NAG and with the universe environmental concern for emanation such a small intervention if overlooked and gas flared the degree of the GHG in the ambiance additions.

The Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas ( NLNG ) Ltd is the largest natural gas use undertaking in Nigeria it is located in Bonny Island in the oil-rich south-south portion of the state. It is jointly owned by Agip ( 10.4 % ) , Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation ( NNPC ) ( 49 % ) , Shell ( 25.6 % ) , and TotaFinaElf ( 15 % ) . There are a sum of 5 trains with trains 1 and 2 get downing operations in September 1999, majorly providing the Europe and US markets and by the terminal of 2005, 3 more trains came on board which shoot up production to 28million three-dimensional metres per twenty-four hours, and of this entire sum merely 30 % of AG is used besides obvious is the fact that the company was non set up to function the domestic market.

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The state ‘s major electricity manufacturer ( National Electric Power Authority, NEPA ) is another major consumer of natural gas in thermic Stationss devouring a sum of about 36million three-dimensional metres per twenty-four hours for bring forthing 3410MW of electricity at the Stationss ‘ best public presentation, but these Stationss are ever in a hapless province which makes this unachievable. In most instances, these Stationss are ever down and non bring forthing. A few independent power manufacturer have been approved to bring forth electricity which will utilize appreciable feedstock of natural gas and when all these Stationss are to the full operational they will bring forth 5682MW ( Table 2 ) but with the current insufficiencies of these Stationss and some of the sanctioned IPP yet to get down production the entire power coevals of the state staggers between 2000MW and 2500MW and with the state power projection of day-to-day demand of 1000MW by 2007, there is demand for a thrust for greater investing into the usage of AG and NAG likewise in the power coevals and besides other engineerings to affect the usage of Natural gas as beginning of power, this will cut down emanation in footings of flaring and lesser emanation when burnt in power coevals unlike other fossil fuels.

Electricity coevals Stationss in Nigeria ( May, 2003 )

Station

Year of commissioning

Class

Capacity ( MW )

Installed

Current

% of installed capacity

Ijora

1956

Thermal

60

0

0

Kainji

1968

Hydro

760

230

30.3

Afam I-IV

1963

Thermal

710

2681

37.8

Delta I-IV

1991

Thermal

600

463

77.2

Jebba

1985

Hydro

540.4

199

36.8

Egbin

1987

Thermal

1320

959

72.7

Shiroro

1990

Hydro

600

179

3.0

Sapele

1978

Thermal

1020

75.0

7.4

Entire

5610

2213

39.5

Beginning: NEPA ( 2003 )

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Aside power coevals, another major job in the energy sector of the state is the refined crude oil merchandises ( downstream fuel ) supply, at optimal operation the 4 refineries in the state have a entire capacity of 445,000 bpd of rough oil to bring forth, 14million liters of PMS and 24million liters of other refined merchandises ( including AGO and DPK ) and this cater for merely about 38 % of the day-to-day demand of these merchandises. Using the flared natural gas to make full this energy supply spreads as identified both in this state of affairs and power coevals would be of a greater benefit towards a sustainable environment and sing the distribution of natural gas would be through grapevines ( onshore and offshore ) makes it less prone to recreation as it is in the instance of liquid fuels which ever consequences in unreal scarceness ; this of class due to the deficit of supplies and this would be eliminated with utilizing the natural gas as a complement to the energy supplies locally. Government finding to increase the local usage of natural gas should be directed towards promoting more private investors into natural gas use undertakings will be a good starting point in accomplishing this purpose.

Investing in the development of natural gas-fired thermic Stationss to bring forth electricity should be encouraged. This coupled with other utilizations of such as usage for domestic cookery and industrial utilizations ( which will be discussed subsequently ) will be a good manner to increase the domestic market development of natural gas, this will in bend cut down flame uping and subsequent obliteration as advancement is being made in engineering and increased demand in local supply.

Nigeria ‘s refinery production capacity

Refinery

Year of commissioning

Capacity ( bpd )

Installed

Average production

Port Harcourt 1

1964

60,000

30,660

Warri

1978

125,000

76,100

Kaduna

1988

110,000

40,100

Port Harcourt 2

1991

150,000

94,500

Entire

445,000

241,360

Beginning NNPC 2002

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