The Tata Group History Of A Leader

The rise of the industrial “ Titan ” can be followed from the twelvemonth 1868, when Jamsetji Nusseranji Tata established merchandising company which dealt in Opium trade in Mumbai, followed by Empress Mills in Nagpur in the twelvemonth 1877. The Hotel Taj Mahal, Mumbai was inaugurated in early 1900. Sir Dorab Tata, the eldest boy of Jamsetji was made the president of the group. The group ventured into the steel industry in 1905 and hydroelectric power coevals in the twelvemonth 1910.When Dorab Tata passed off in 1934, Nowroji Saklatwala headed the group till 1938.The kingdom so went to JRD Tata. The Tata ‘s diversified in assorted industries significantly since so, the company established Tata Chemicals in 1939, Tata Motors and Tata Industries both in 1945, Voltas in 1954, Tata Tea 1962, Tata Consultancy Services in 1968 and Titan Industries 1984. ( Goplan and Mitra, 2008 )

Tata companies operate in seven concern major portfolio ‘s: communications and information engineering, technology, direction of stuffs, service industry, energy, consumer merchandises and chemical industry. The company is fundamentally based in India and have important international operations. If the grosss of the Tata group of companies is analyzed together, it would come up to $ 70.8 billion ( around Rs325, 334 crore ) in the twelvemonth 2008-09, with 64.7 per cent of this entire sum originating from concern that are located outside the Indian boundaries, The company has a employee strength of around 357,000 people across the Globe. ( Arvind 2008 )

Tata enterprises has its complete operations as a individual organic structure unit, non merely as a strategic concern theoretical account spouse unit but as a separate entity taking attention of all spheres wholly in a individual strand. Tata Steel one of the pudding stones of the Tata company has became the 6th largest steel fabricating unit in the universe after it took a monolithic determination to get Corus. ( Tombart, 2008 ) . The group besides extends societal public assistance activities to communities around all there industrial units and divisions. The combined development-related or CSR portfolio outgo of the trusts and the companies sums to around 4 per cent of the net net incomes of all the Tata companies taken together. ( Tata, 2000 )



If the planetary steel industry is observed carefully, it is in its best place in comparing to last many decennaries. The monetary values have been lifting continuously. The demand outlooks for steel merchandises are rapidly mounting from the past old ages. The portions companies in steel production is besides in on high growing impulse. The industry is basking its 6th back-to-back old ages of growing in supply and demand. And there is many more amalgamation and acquisitions which overall buoyed the industry and showed some good consequences. The subprime crisis has lead to the recession in economic system of different states, which may take to hold a negative consequence on whole steel industry in the past two old ages, nevertheless steel production and ingestion will be supported by uninterrupted economic growing. ( Shrivatava,2009 )

The states like China, Japan, India and South Korea are in the top of the above in steel production in Asiatic states. China histories for one tierce of entire production i.e. 419m ton, Japan accounts for 9 % i.e. 118m ton, India accounts for 53m ton and South Korea is accounted for 49m ton, which all wholly becomes more than 50 % of planetary production. Apart from this USA, BRAZIL, UK accounts for the major ball of the whole growing

Equally far as the the universe steel industry mentality is concerned, the same is assuring with production seen lifting to 1.5 billion tones in 2009, up from 1.4 billion tones, in 2008. The future mentality for the world-wide steel industry is really good. Demand is besides seen turning with evident steel usage expected to number 1.282 billion metric tons this twelvemonth, up 6.7 per centum from 2007, harmonizing to informations from the International Iron and Steel Institute ( IISI ) . Brazil, Russia, India and China ( BRIC ) were taking growing with an expected addition of 11.1 per cent for 2008 and 10.3 per centum for 2009. China ‘s evident steel usage is expected to turn by over 10 per centum in 2008 and by 10 per centum in 2009. China accounted for 35 per centum of the universe sum this twelvemonth. In the European Union a sum of 210 million metric tons of steel were produced in 2007, up 1.6 per centum from the old twelvemonth. World steel production capacity is seen increasing by about 19 per centum between 2007 and 2010. The steel industry has undergone a few structural alterations in the past 3-4 old ages. ( Daft,2010 )


Tata Steel, was once known as TISCO and Tata Iron and Steel Company limited, is the universe ‘s 6th largest steel company, with an one-year petroleum steel capacity of 30 Million Tonnes Per Annum ( MTPA ) . The company is the 2nd largest private sector steel company in India in footings of domestic production. The company based in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. It is portion of Tata Group of companies in private sector with amalgamate grosss of Rs.1,32,110 crore and the net net income of over Rs.12,350 crore, during the twelvemonth ended March 31st, 2008. Its chief works is located in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, with its recent acquisition ; ( Tata Steel.2008 ) the company has become a transnational with operations in assorted states. The registered office of Tata Steel is in Mumbai. The company was besides recognized as the universe ‘s best steel manufacturer by the World Steel Dynamicss in 2005. The company is listed on Bombay Stock Exchange ( BSE ) and National Stock Exchange ( NSE ) , and employs approximately 36000 ( During the twelvemonth 2008 ) . Tata Steel`s Jamshedpur ( India ) has a petroleum steel production capacity of 6.8 MTPA which is slated to increase to 10 MTPA by 2010. The Company besides has proposed three Greenfield steel undertakings in the provinces of Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh in India with extra capacity of 23 MTPA and a Greenfield undertaking in Vietnam. ( Tombart, 2008 )

Through investings in Corus, Millennium Steel ( renamed Tata Steel Thailand ) and NatSteel Holdings, Singapore, Tata Steel has created a fabrication and selling web in Europe, South East Asia and the pacific-rim states. Corus, which manufactured over 20 MTPA of steel in 2008, has operations in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Norway and Belgium. Tata Steel Thailand is the largest manufacturer of long steel merchandises in Thailand, with a fabrication capacity of 1.7 MTPA. Tata Steel has proposed a 0.5 MTPA mini blast furnace undertaking in Thailand. NatSteel Holdings produces about 2 MTPA of steel merchandises across its regional operations in seven states. ( Tata Steel.2008 )

Tata Steel has lined up a series of Greenfield undertakings in India and outside which includes:

1. 6 million metric ton works in Orissa ( India ) .

2. 12 million metric ton works in Jharkhand ( India ) .

3. 5 million metric ton works in Chhattisgarh ( India ) .

4. 3 million metric ton works in Iran.

5. 5 million metric ton capacity enlargement at Jamshedpur ( India ) .

6. 4.5 million Plant in Vietnam ( feasibleness analyze underway ) . ( Tewari, 2009 )

TATA STEEL ‘s Scheme

The basic schemes of the company has been

( I ) Invention,

( two ) Quality

( three ) Cost-A­effectiveness

( four ) Customer-A­responsiveness

In line with any fabrication industry, steel has its ain value concatenation. Let us split it into two – primary steel-making and coating. Tata Steel ‘s scheme is chiefly on interrupting up this value concatenation and seting each portion where it is the most cost-efficient. So primary steel will be produced in India, where there are big sedimentations of Fe ore. But the other Asiatic markets like Thailand, Vietnam, Shanghai, etc. , are the cardinal focal point for Tata Steel and will be better addressed by taking the semi-finished steel to these states for coating and so selling at that place. Not all states have iron ore and coal. Merely five or six states have these resources. Not all states have natural gas. Not all states demonstrate the same extent of growing potency. ( Tewari,2009 )

The complete demand in states like the US, Japan and South Korea has compressed and growing will take topographic point merely at 1.5 per cent to 2 per cent – for replacing of ingestion. Certain other states like China and India will demo robust growing. So the clients are traveling to be in the underdeveloped universe. Tata Steel believes globalisation is a method by which you put the right portion of the value concatenation in its right topographic point in the universe and nexus it up decently – coating installations in topographic points where clients exist, and primary fabrication installations in topographic points where fabrication is competitory. ( SAIL,2010 )

TATA STEEL – Overall Analysis


1. Tata Steel ‘s Indian operations are autonomous in the instance of its major natural stuff Fe ore through its confined mines.

2. Very advanced Research and Development arm which is transporting out researches and experiments in the countries of natural stuffs, blast furnace productiveness, steel devising, merchandise development, procedure betterment etc.

3. Tata had a strong retail and distribution web in India and South East Asia. Tata is a major provider to the Indian car industry and the demand for value added steel merchandises was turning in this market.

4. Tata Steel is on its manner to make a petroleum steel capacity of 10 million metric tons per annum by the Financial Year 2011. The first stage of making the petroleum steel capacity of 6.8 million metric tons per annum, Brown field undertakings, is approaching the stage of completion.

5. Tata Steel has in topographic point equal internal control systems and processs commensurate with the size and nature of its concern. The effectivity of the internal controls is continuously monitored by the Corporate Audit Division of the Company.

6. Tata Steel has been on a way of accelerated growing with raid into several geographicss and markets through aggressive amalgamations and acquisitions.

7. Tata Steel now is in the procedure of implementing a structured attack in hazard direction called Enterprise Risk Management ( ERM ) . The cardinal aims of the Company through ERM are:

i‚· To enshrine the procedure of ERM as a usual Business Process and incorporate into all determination devising and planning procedures.

i‚· To guarantee that all degrees of Management identify and proctor hazards through a decently defined model.

i‚· To supply periodic information and updates to the Board and the Stockholders on the important hazards and the ways of extenuating the same.

8. Tata Steel addresses the hazard of cyclicality of the Steel industry by keeping rich merchandise mix and higher value added merchandises whose volatility is lower.

9. The acquisition of Corus brings Tata Steel 19 million metric ton of capacity at one time and at a cost, which is approximately little more than half the cost of the Greenfield site.

10. It provides the steel major entree to really full-blown and developed markets in Europe where it can travel downriver much more than in a underdeveloped state like India and even to some extent China. ( Anoya,2009 )


1. The biggest chance before Indian steel sector is that there is tremendous range for increasing ingestion of steel in about all sectors in India.

2. Undiscovered Rural Market The Indian rural sector remains reasonably unexposed to their multi-faceted usage of steel. The rural market was identified as a possible country of important steel ingestion manner back in the twelvemonth 1976 itself.

3. Excellent possible exist for heightening steel ingestion in other sectors such as cars, packaging, technology industries, irrigation and H2O supply in India. New steel merchandises developed to better public presentation simplify manufacturing/installation and dependability is needed to heighten steel ingestion in these sectors.

4. It is estimated that universe steel ingestion will duplicate in following 25 old ages. Quality betterment of Indian steel combined with its low cost advantages will decidedly assist in significant addition in export market.

5. The Tata Steel Group is leveraging the Group ‘s corporate Research and Development experience in the Group ‘s assorted geographicss to farther heighten the Group ‘s public presentation and besides the integrating procedure.

6. Corus acquisition brings in a enormous technological advantage by entree to outdo patterns in planetary steel industry.



Growth of the Chinese steel industry appears to be reeling. However, when one considers that China has a population of over 1.3 billion, the per capita steel ingestion is around or below that of the developed states. Indeed, while China has been increasingly raising steel production for many old ages, it has besides been importing significant measures of steel. It is merely now that China has become a net exporter of steel. This indirectly means that China has besides reached a degree of production impregnation and its steel industry is more likely to witness more of consolidation and reorganization in coming old ages instead than any major enlargement of its assets. Amongst the other freshly steel-producing states, South Korea has stabilised at around 46-48 million metric tons, and Brazil at around 30 plus million metric tons. This brings the focal point of the industry to India. ( Madison,2009 )

Sing a steel ingestion of 300 kilograms per adult male per twelvemonth to be a just degree of economic development, India will hold to come up to somewhere around 300 million metric tons, if it is to carry through its aspirations of being a developed state. That of class is a long journey from the present production degree of around 50 million metric tons but one must see its yesteryear before coming to a decision about its possible. India was bring forthing merely around a million metric tons of steel at the clip of its independency in 1947. By 1991, ( Chowdhury, Shamsud, 2002 )

When the economic system was opened up steel production grew to around 14 million metric tons. Thereafter, it doubled in the following 10 old ages, and so it is duplicating once more, possibly over a somewhat longer span. Steel Production in India is expected to make 124 million dozenss by 2012 and 275 million dozenss by 2020 ( Khanna, Tarun and Krishna Palepu,2000 ) which could do it the 2nd largest steel shaper. In the developed states, the tendency is on consolidation of industry. Crossborder amalgamations have been taking topographic point for several old ages. The focal point is on technological betterments and new merchandises. Globally, the steel industry became a billion metric ton industry in 2004. How much more it will turn will depend chiefly on how much more steel is consumed in the development states. ( Chaffey, 2003 )


One of the most high strategian Michel Porter have provided five forces of analysis that act as determinates that intrinsic long term net income alternativeness of a section of the market. The theoretical account that is given my porter provides penetrations about the possible entrants in the market the competition in the industry, the replacements, the purchasers and the purchasers and the providers

Figure: Porter ‘s Five Forces Model

Figure Self Generated

Rivalry Amongst Competitors ( Porter,1998 )

There are four major participants in the Indian steel industry as it sits today ( smaller organisations limited by size and production non counted for simpleness intents ) . There are, in order by sum of petroleum steel produced, the Steel Authority of India ( SAIL ) , Tata Steel, ESSAR Steel and JSW Steel. Competition has become slightly ferocious as due to foreign participants in the industry turning and uniting forces to go greater menaces. In recent old ages at that place have been immense sums of amalgamations and acquisitions that are agitating the industry continually. With new consumers demanding more steel than we have planetary production capacity, it has become a cutthroat industry in which more is demanded on the portion of the corporations to maintain a sustainable advantage. ( Proctor,2000 )

Menace of Potential Entry

There are legion barriers to entry in this industry, although with such high demand globally there are ways to perforate and happen a niche within the monolithic market. As in other industry, the greatest barrier to entry is the immense cost that that would be incurred upon get down up ; the cost of capital in steel production is astronomical. In add-on to it being highly expensive to buy the equipment and get down up a new works, there are other political barriers such as geting licenses from the authorities to mine the ore and procedure it into Fe and so steel and other steel metals. In add-on to this, corporations must hold really patient investors ; because the wacc is so high, it can take many old ages for investors to see a return on their money, doing it really hard to happen them. In add-on, there are political barriers in that you have to hold licence to bring forth and export merchandise from India. ( Draft,2010 )

Dickering Power of Suppliers

There is an interesting backward integrating of the steel industry in India ; it takes many merchandises and supplies to do their concluding merchandise. There is besides a transit job in India, although they have invested much into the substructure, they still lack many paths and pay a premium for transportation and rail transit. On top of this, the greatest bargaining power is simple demand for the natural stuffs. Because there is a deficiency of natural stuffs for them to use, companies must pay a premium for the merchandises that they do acquire. ( Anoya,2009 )

Dickering Power of Buyers

There is an increasing demand for steel worldwide ; developed states are devouring it in building new and modern edifices and developing states are utilizing it to build their industry and basic substructure. With China coming online, they are devouring as much steel as they can import and hold a greater demand for more every twenty-four hours. With such a high demand, there is non a great trade of dickering power on the portion of the consumer, nevertheless they do hold many providers to take from all over the universe. ( ( Draft,2010 )

Menace of Substitutes

Substitutes in the steel industry are following to none ; steel is a merchandise that the modern universe relies on for countless things. It is used in everything from health care merchandises and bathing tubs to skyscrapers. Recently there have been new engineerings used by Boeing made of complexs and plastics, these are slightly limited nevertheless and can merely be used in topographic points that extreme heat or force per unit area do non be. Aluminum is besides a replacement but is limited by its weight bearing capacity and can non defy the same temperatures that steel can. The biggest menace to the steel industry would be new engineering ; with such high demand for strong, weight bearing stuff, and with expensive and limited supplies of needed stuffs to bring forth it, applied scientists are invariably seeking to come up with new stuffs to supplement or replace it. ( Draft,2010 )


There are many merchandises presently produced that could be considered complimentary to or vise versa steel merchandises. These merchandises are highly expensive and have different belongingss. Natural stuffs, metals and alloys all have different belongingss suited for different utilizations. If you take a Boeing broad organic structure jet, for illustration, you will happen titanium wingtips, taking borders and turbo- fan blades, every bit good as engine supports. There will be aluminium or composite home bases to cover the organic structure, with aluminium framing. Steel is used in assorted topographic points to attach the different systems and constituents together, nevertheless it is used meagerly because of its weight. ( Madison,2009 )


Put rather merely, our demand for steel is linked straight to the growing of the economic systems in which it is used. Right now China is devouring every bit much steel as it can buy, merely as the United States did when we went through our industrial revolution. Prognosiss are presently foretelling that ingestion of steel will go on to increase as more industry and corporations grow in China and environing countries. In add-on, autos are going more low-cost, which use steel in many of their constituents. On top of this, steel frame constructing is replacing wood or “ Stick built ” places, particularly in metropolitan countries where the demand for multi-story edifices and “ skyscrapers ” is increasing. ( Williams,2009 ) .

Plague Analysis


The political sphere is non unlike ours in the United States, or that of the British Parliament system. Where it does differ, nevertheless, is in the concern traffics of its private sector.

There was a British presence in India dating back to the early sixteenth century. It was this presence that set up the current authorities and political system that they operate by now. In the 1920s the nationalist motion appeared, with Mahatma Gandhi taking 1000s of his peoples toward freedom. It was during this clip that the British partitioned India and separated the Muslim bulk province Pakistan from the chief organic structure of India. In 1947 India gained its freedom and elected its first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. He ruled until his decease in 1967 and of all time since he took over as Prime Minister India has been a “ booming democracy ” interested in the improvement of its peoples. ( Hitt, 2007 ) ..


The economic environment in India is a topographic point of unbelievable growing and apparently limitless potency. The engineering sector has taken great paces to go competitory in the planetary market topographic point and has successfully, nightlong, go a serious opposition to any major house in the universe. The economic system is a mix of traditional agriculture and agribusiness and modern industries with many support services every bit good. There has been increasing economic growing from the 80s until the present. Although there is unbelievable growing twelvemonth after twelvemonth, about 40 % of the population remains excessively hapless to buy good for an equal diet. There are presently over 19 billion dollars ( US currency ) of fiscal militias in the state. ( Lal, Manas, 2007 )

The Gross National Product ( GPD ) of India sat around 1.25 trillion dollars several old ages ago. Since so they have shown a National Product Real Growth Rate of over 5 % and an rising prices rate of 10 % . In the national budget they post grosss of over 30 billion US dollars and outgos of 48 billion, 38 billion of which was on capital betterment on substructure and other progresss around the state. Imports and exports have remained about steady in recent old ages, the authorities posting 25.5 billion in imports and 24.4 billion in exports. Major trade spouses are the US, Japan, Germany and Hong Kong. The entire national debt of India is about 90 billion dollars. ( Lal, Manas, 2007 )

India, which is the basic market for the Tata Steel has a really immense geographic potencies in Economic since m. If considered the Economic system in India is one of the largest in the universe. There is a highly brawny demand and supply construction in India.


India is still developing much as a society and coming out of a Caste system. The original dramatis personae system included five degrees of citizenship. The first and highest degree consisted of Gods and Goddesses, the second of priests and bookmans, the tierce of the Rajas and the Lords, the 4th of merchandisers, husbandmans, land proprietors and craftsmen, and the fifth of retainers, workers pay earners. Most of society traditionally fell into the 4th and 5th caste. This system is less so marked in modern twenty-four hours India but still influences the manner that kids are brought up and hence act throughout their lives. Social degrees are besides shown at place, where the male parent is the caput of the house and everybody else is below him. The female kids were by and large unwanted and the males treated with butter and he best of their nutrients. It was common for male parents to pray to hold male kids.

Current twenty-four hours India is much different than it used to be. The caste system is much less marked, Parliament is concentrating more so on equity than it of all time has, and is pumping money into instruction and development of the following coevals. Over 6 % of the budget was dedicated to instruction last twelvemonth. ( EI,2007 )

Socially, India is really responsible for adoptive kids, those who need day cares and aged attention. There are over 450 province sponsored twenty-four hours attention plans that parents can take from and about 360 drug maltreatment guidance plans for female parents who need aid. There is a national consciousness of AIDS and the Government of India is assisting with the job utilizing instruction and assisting its citizens seek medical aid and guidance. Healthcare in India is non something that they lack in, there are over 40 nursing plans and 30 medical colleges.


In the past several old ages, India has made itself known around the universe in the same manner that Japan has with high quality merchandises: they are going one of the biggest tech-savvy populations on the Earth today. Many things are being outsourced to India, much of which we do non notice. Thankss to communicating engineering, McDonalds is now able to outsource the “ thrust through window individual ” on the headset to India, where an English speech production individual can take orders from a desk and come in them into a computing machine, which so communicates them back to the McDonalds so they can make full the order. In a similar manner, infirmaries and physicians in the US and around the universe are progressively trusting upon India for their expertness in medical specialty. Lab technicians are able to digitise radiology charts and exposures for a physician in India to analyze and give a diagnosing. ( CIL,2007 )

Progresss in engineering are assisting India go a service-based economic system. There are more, extremely educated ; individuals in India working in high- tech places than many other states and it is turning improbably fast. Although the ONGC is an industry and non a service-based organisation, they can use this every bit good. Using enhanced oil reaping engineering, the ONGC will be able to reap more oil from between Wellss, more expeditiously, therefore bring forthing more and blowing less for the same cost of capital. Lowering the leaden mean cost of capital of the company keeps it competitory with others around the Earth. India is the first prima state in biotechnology. In 1986 a board was created to oversea the development of and utilize of new agricultural engineerings. They are now demoing higher outputs of harvests and healthier workss on a regular basis, assisting the agricultural sector greatly. The advocate of scientific and industrial research was founded in 1942 and has since overseen the development of many great merchandises. There are over 40 research labs and 100 extensions labs in the state overseen by this board. India is presently one of the top five states in the universe developing new missile and defence engineering. ( MSN India,2007 )


Survival Strategy- Upon anterior consideration of the factor of its competition from international challengers such as Mittal Steel who were seeking to hold a fastness in the state every bit good as it was losing its portion in the international market. As such its coaction with Corus made it the 5th largest steel doing company. The company needs to transport on with the scheme of coaction

( Sloman, Sutcliffe,2008 )

Cost Reduction- The Reduction in operating costs. Reduction in working capital costs. Decrease in merchandise stock list ( unsold stock ) . Bettering techno-economic parametric quantities. Substitution of natural stuff. Differentiated sourcing. Effective supply concatenation direction, and specially Social substructure costs. ( Porter, 1998 )

Gross Maximization- The confederations within the major steel manufacturers would give the companies entree to larger markets. Wider markets offer big beginnings of increasing the gross. Aggressive selling and big beginning provide big entree to gross.

Focused Marketing- The aim of focussed selling is to hold a differentiated selling scheme for merchandises and services. Though the construct may be new to the steel industry, it may be emphasized that focused selling with the aid of distinction scheme is the lone manner by which Tata Steel can outpace competition in today ‘s concern environment.

Market Expansion-Enhancing steel ingestion might set up to be a powerful medium-term scheme for the Indian steel fabricating units. New avenues should be explored and market expanded for steel companies to turnaround. As is apparent today, most of the ingestion of steel is concentrated in the urban institutional section and a smaller ball goes to the urban trade. There is a demand today to spread out the market beyond to the rural market.

Growth Strategy- While survival scheme must guarantee that the company should last and prolong itself, it becomes necessary that effectual long-run schemes should besides be formulated that could travel beyond the immediate nowadays and guarantee the company ‘s future chances.

Technological Strategy-Technology scheme should affect appraisal and benchmarking of the strengths and failings of the technological scenario of the whole industry and attendant designation of technological menaces and chances.

Market Sustenance-In order to be in front of the competition, it is necessary for the Tata steel to sharply manage the market and follow either the differentiated scheme, scheme of cost leading or the scheme of focal point. ( Williams,2009 )


The steel manufacturers across the Earth have witnessed strong growing in gross revenues volumes and nest eggs in input costs. Steel is extremely capital intensifier, with higher fixed costs, so the rise in capacity use leads to disproportionately higher growing in borders. Therefore, despite autumn in mean realisations, the sector reported exceptionally good growing in net incomes on better volumes, lower costs, and besides the lower base. Tata Steel being a market leader in the Forth coming scenario, it has to play a function of a company with major laterality in all the major spectrum of concern verticals across the Earth, specially the advantage of being a cost effectual company to prolong the place of a market leader.