To bring forward two theories

Motivation essay

The intent of this essay is to convey frontward two theories of motive, and comparison and contrast them. In this essay, I am traveling to discourse Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory, and Adams equity theory. A motivated work force, is what every director strives to accomplish, and therefore a survey of the theories of motive is a must. I will be comparing and contrasting the two theories, and explicating how directors can utilize them to actuate their staff.

Abraham H. Maslow, a behavioural scientist and president of the section of psychological science at the Brandies University, published the hierarchy of demands theory in 1954. Harmonizing to Maslow, a individual ‘s demands are the chief incentive that drives a human. He categorized the demand in the undermentioned five degrees: : physiological demands, safety demands, societal demands, esteem demands, and self-actualization demands. ( Cost Engineering Vol. 47/No. 3 MARCH 2005 ) .

Equity theory is a cognitive theory of motive developed by J. Stacey Adams, which claims that employees will be motivated if they accept that they are treated reasonably in the workplace. ( Dictionary of Human Resource Management ; 2001 ) It is different from Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory, as equity theory is a procedure theory.

“ What all procedure theories have in common is an accent on the function of an person ‘s cognitive procedure in finding his or her degree of motive. ” ( Finchman and Rhodes ) . This means that procedure theories like equity theory, take into consideration single differences, and that different people would respond to the theory otherwise. This is different from content theories, such as Maslow ‘s theory of demands, where it is assumed that all persons would be affected likewise by the theories.

The basic premiss of Maslow ‘s theory is built around a pyramid, or hierarchy, of demands. The demands at the underside of the pyramid must be met, before the higher degree demands can be met. ( Lewis et al. , 2001 ) . Directors can use this theory, by placing the degree on the hierarchy that each employee is on, and understanding that people will be motivated by the factors that exist at this degree. The degree of demands begin with physiological, followed by security demands, societal demands, self-importance demands, and eventually self-actualization demand. ( Weinbach, 1998 ) .

Equity theory takes into history the premise that, people will look around and detect what attempt others are seting into their work, and how are they being rewarded for it, and will so compare this ratio with their ain. Peoples can besides compare this effort-reward ratio to their past experiences. The basic premise that equity theoreticians make is that these societal comparing procedures are driven by our cardinal concern with equity or equity. ( Finchman and Rhodes ) .

Maslow ‘s hierarchy theory revolves around the five degrees in the pyramid. Each degree of demand has to be fulfilled, get downing from physiological demands, in order to actuate an employee.

The first degree of demands in the hierarchy is the physiological demands. These are the basic demands of the being such as feeding, imbibing, sleeping, sex, suited temperature, and so on. If one of these demands is non fulfilled, this will instantly acquire the highest precedence, as these are necessary for endurance. All these demands have to be fulfilled invariably. ( Philippe J.S. De Brouwer ) . The rewards paid should be adequate to cover the cost of these basic necessities.

The 2nd degree in the hierarchy of demands is the safety and security demands. This is the demand for safety and freedom from fright. This includes safe working conditions, and occupation security. ( Finchman and Rhodes ) .

The following degree on the hierarchy of demands is the societal demands. “ Social needs refer to the demand for satisfactory and supportive relationships with others at work. ” ( Finchman and Rhodes ) . “ Affiliation and credence are of import incentives at the societal demands degree. ” ( Weinbach, 1998 ) . As worlds are societal animate beings, given that the old degrees of demands have been fulfilled, an employee is likely to be motivated if there is a friendly on the job environment.

Ego and esteem demand is the 4th degree in Maslow ‘s pyramid. These demands are the desire for accomplishment and acknowledgment. Being publicly rewarded and given position symbol are incentives on this degree.

The concluding degree on Maslow ‘s hierarchy is self-actualization. This is the demand to develop one ‘s full potency. For Maslow, it was ‘to become more and more of one is, to go everything what one is capable of. ‘ He believed that what a adult male can be, he must be. ( Maslow, 1943:382 ) . On this degree, an employee will be motivated by chances to utilize their endowments, be originative, and achieve their fullest potency ( Weinbach, 1998 ) . Harmonizing to Maslow, although everyone had the possible to make to this degree, merely really few people really achieved it.

Harmonizing to the equity theory, people measure their effort-reward ratio, and compare it to other employees, or to their ain old ratio.

When people believe that the inputs ( this may include attempt, skill etc. ) to results ( wage, periphery benefits etc. ) , of others is similar to theirs, they experience equality. When people believe that the input-outcome ratio of others is more favourable, ( that is underpayment ) or that the ratio of others is less favourable than theirs, ( this is overpayment ) they experience inequality. Inequality can be really demotivating for an employee, and can do choler or guilt amongst employees. ( Finchman and Rhodes )

“ So we perceive attempt, wages, and finally fairness non in absolute but in comparative footings. ” ( Adams 1965 ) . With wages for illustration, it is the perceptual experience of acquiring paid more, instead than the sum itself, that motivates employees, and determines their behaviour. ( Shaw and Gupta 2001 ) .

The inputs that people can take into history are their instruction degrees, intelligence, accomplishments, senior status, and the sum of attempt that they have put into the work. The results in work, would include wage, but could besides include periphery benefits, publicity, working conditions, and position symbols such as big office. ( Finchman and Rhodes ) .

One of the biggest differences between the two theories is that while Maslow ne’er truly tested his theory, Adams and his co-workers arrived at a decision after proving the equity theory. Harmonizing to Finchman and Rhodes, “ The operational definitions of demands concepts and other variables such as predominance were non ever clear from his authorship. ”

In contrast, Adams and his co-workers had carried out an experiment, in order to happen out whether equality truly leads to better productiveness. The consequence was that those who felt they were being overpaid or underpaid were less productive than the 1s who perceived their ratio to be just.

Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory is a content theory, and therefore based on the premise that we can impute a similar set of demands to all persons. However, while Maslow held the theory for bulk of the population, he did admit some single differences. For case, a political captive might accomplish self-actualization without accomplishing the earlier demands. However, Maslow felt that for the bulk of the population, the hierarchy worked. On the other manus, Equity theory being a procedure theory does take single difference into history. Huseman et al. suggest that there are three types of people based on personality, and they will respond in different ways to the equity theory. The Benevolents are people who prefer to give instead than take, and have greater tolerance towards underpayment. They are stressed by equity or overpayment. The 2nd type of people are the equity sensitives. These are people who behave precisely in conformity with equity, and therefore experience hurt under conditions of inequality ( underpayment or overpayment ) . The 3rd type of people are the Entitleds. These are people who believe their input-reward ratio should transcend that of their referents. They express distress under conditions of equality or underpayment. ( Finchman and Rhodes )

Hence, the Equity theory assumes that there are three different types of people, and hence they will respond otherwise. This can besides be seen as a similarity between the two theories, as both the theories account for single differences.

There are some other similarities as good. Good working conditions can be seen as an result, for the ratio. Good on the job conditions is besides required to carry through the 2nd degree of demands in Maslow ‘s hierarchy. Similarly, position symbols such as big offices can besides be used as results to mensurate the ratio for Equity theory, while it will besides be used to carry through the Ego and Esteem needs in Maslow ‘s hierarchy.

Both the theories have besides faced unfavorable judgment. Maslow ‘s theory has been criticized because of deficiency of hypothesis proving to back up the theory. It has besides been criticized for non being really practical, and the demands non being defined operationally. This is peculiarly true with self-actualization. Maslow ‘s compulsion with this demand lead to him depicting it more philosophically, and less in practical sense. Another ground for unfavorable judgment is that the order of the demands may non needfully be the same for all people. On the other manus, the appeal of equity theory has been reduced by the debut of single differences. Besides research suggests that Equity theory is largely effectual merely in the instance of underpayment, and non overpayment. It is seen that the consequence of overpayment lasts merely for a twosome of hebdomads before people start to apologize their wages degree. ( Finchman and Rhodes )

A motivated work force is what most directors aspire to make. They can actuate their staff in assorted ways, and by utilizing several different theories. I am traveling to discourse, how directors can actuate their staff utilizing Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory and Adams Equity theory.

The degrees of demands are the basiss of actuating employees.

Directors must understand that employees will be motivated by unmet demands and that one time a demand is satisfied, it is no longer a incentive. For case, if a societal worker feels that she is good paid and secure in her occupation place, the first two degrees of demands ( physiological and security ) will non function as effectual incentives. The director will necessitate to actuate based on higher degree demands, such as those at the societal degree ( Weinbach, 1998 ) .

Hence, directors need to place the degree of demands that each employee is presently on, and carry through each demand bed by bed. Get downing with the physiological demands, directors need to guarantee that the rewards paid are sufficient to cover the basic costs. Once this is done, directors should supply workers with safe working conditions and some occupation security. This would assist an employee fulfill the 2nd degree in the hierarchy. Following, the director should seek and promote a friendly on the job environment, and promote group working. This would assist employees accomplish their societal demands. The director could so give employees higher position symbols such as company autos and larger offices, and more acknowledgment for work, by honoring employees. This would carry through the esteem demands of the employees. Last, directors could put disputing undertakings for employees and give them more duties, which genuinely stretch them. This would assist workers make self-actualization. This is how directors could utilize Maslow ‘s theory to actuate staff.

Directors can besides utilize Adams Equity theory, to actuate employees. Directors should seek to guarantee that all workers perceive their ratio as being just. If they feel they are being treated and rewarded reasonably, they will be motivated. By the same item, perceptual experiences of unjust intervention will take to demotivation. The theory is founded on the penetration that perceptual experiences and feelings of equity are based on the rule of comparing. In other words, employees evaluate their intervention in relation to a ‘reference group ‘ . Two sorts of comparing may be of import for worker motive. First, employees may compare their net incomes with their degree of attempt and public presentation and increase their attempt if they believe their wagess are inordinate or cut down their attempt if they regard them as niggardly. Second, employees will compare their ain ratio of attempt to honor with that of colleagues and act to raise or cut down attempt if they believe their ain intervention by direction is out of line ( Dictionary of Human Resource Management ; 2001 ) .

Directors should seek and guarantee that workers try to increase their attempts, and non diminish them. Directors should take great attention while puting the rewards, and guarantee that the wages that workers are acquiring, is in line with the attempt that they have put in. Particular attention should be taken, to guarantee that workers do non experience that they are being underpaid, compared to others. This could be really demotivating and could take to serious jobs. If there are any unfairness jobs within the work force, directors should seek and repair them instantly, by measuring the input-reward ratio. This is how troughs could utilize Equity theory to actuate their staff.

Both the theories of motive are extremely popular and often used by directors. While both of them are different in many ways, there are besides some similarities between them, as was shown in the essay. The two theories are highly of import theories, used to actuate staff.