Untapped Mineral Resources And Their Potential Environmental Sciences Essay

Pakistan is blessed with immense mineral potency like coal Cu, gold, limestone etc.A However, we have non yet been able to advance growing and relieve poorness by working our mineral resources as is done by other developing states. Our attempts for mineral development has been limited to few industrial minerals such as limestone, stone salt, marble, gypsum and a really less sum of coal for internal power coevals.

2. Our mineral resources are tremendous and emerging as a promising state for geographic expedition of minerals. Pakistan ‘s more than 6, 00, 000 sq kilometer[ 1 ]of outcrop country demonstrates varied geological potency for metallic / non-metallic mineral sedimentations. Exploration work and geological studies have confirmed our great potency in the metallic every bit good as industrial minerals like Cu, gold, Ag, Pt, Fe, lead, Zn, granite and marble. All these minerals have got immense chances for exporting to the universe.

3. Presently about 52 minerals[ 2 ]are under development but on a little graduated table. The major part is of coal, stone salt, and other industrial and building minerals. Value add-on in the mineral sector is chiefly concentrated in five chief minerals i.e. limestone, coal, gypsum, sulfur, oil and gas. The current part of mineral sector to the GDP is approximately 0.5 % and is likely to increase well on the development of mineral undertakings like Reco Diq, Duddar Zinc lead and Thar coal. On the authorities degree there is a demand to set more serious attempts in the development of this promising chance.

Purpose

4. To carryout comprehensive survey of the mineral resource potency of Pakistan vis a vis hindrances towards their development and its branchings on the economic system with a position to urge feasible response options.

Scope

5. The discourse of the paper will follow the sequence as under: –

Part I – Mineral Resources of Pakistan

Part II – Untapped Minerals and their Potential

Part III – Economy and Mining of Mineral Resources

Part IV – Hindrances towards the development of Mineral Resources

Part v – Recommendations for Feasible Response Options

Decision

Part I

MINERAL RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN

6.[ 3 ]Mineral resources for a state are like a wealth and Pakistan by the grace of Allah Almighty is gifted with tremendous mineral resource potency. Soon 52 minerals are under development but the major production is of coal, stone salt and other industrial minerals. The value add-on in the mineral sector is chiefly concentrated in five chief minerals i.e. limestone, coal, gypsum, sulfur, oil and natural gas. Mining industry in Pakistan is dominated by the populace sector through Federal and Provincial development corporations. The public excavation corporations such as PUNJMIN is involved in the excavation of 8 minerals, Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation in 11 minerals, FATA Development Corporation in 10 minerals, Balochistan Development Authority in about 40 minerals, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Development Authority in 4 minerals and Azad Kashmir Mineral and Industrial Development Corporation in 12 minerals.

7. Foreign investors are chiefly from China due to their historic friendly relationship with Pakistan. Besides this, there has been little or investing in mineral geographic expedition. So far whatever development has occurred is restricted to simple engineerings and foreign investors without puting in the modern direction and technological Fieldss. Consequently mineral development contributes merely 0.5 % of GDP[ 4 ]. Recognizing the huge potency of the mineral sector, there is a great chance for the transnational companies to put in this sector and be good to our economic system every bit good as themselves.

8. Top Fifteen Minerals of Pakistan[ 5 ]

a. Aluminium

B. Iron Ore

c. Copper

d. Chromite Ore

e. Zinc / Lead

f. Coal

g. Gypsum / Anhydrite

h. Phosphates

I. Rock Salt

J. Solar Salt

k. Magnesite

l. Limestone for calcium hydroxide

m Kaolin ( China Clay )

n. Building rocks i.e. Granite, Marble and Onyx

o. Gems

9. Mineral Resources in Punjab[ 6 ]

a. Iron ore. Large press ore sedimentations are present in Punjab. Major sedimentations are in Kalabagh ( Mianwali territory ) .

B. Coal. In Punjab coal is present in Salt Range. Coal deposits in this part are 235 million dozenss with mean quality coal.

c. Gypsum. Punjab stands 2nd in gypsum militias. Major sedimentations in Dadukhel are about 53 million dozenss. Other major militias are in Khewra and D.G. Khan.

d. Salt. Salt sedimentations are chiefly found in the salt Range. Rock salt is mined at Khewra, Warcha, Kalabagh, Bhadurkhel, Jatta, karak, Chakwal and Khushab mines. Harmonizing to Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation, militias of stone salt are around 600 million dozenss.

e. Lime rock. Lime Stone is present in salt Range Potwar Plateau, Margalla Hills and Zinda Pir ( Attock ) in big sedimentations.

f. Aluminium. It is found in Khushab territory, but graded as low quality Aluminium.

g. Calestine. Celestite is used in flairs, tracer slugs, warning fuses and fire-works. It is found in Daud Khel.

h. Natural oil. All major oil Fieldss are located in potowar tableland. A brief description is given In following tabular array: –

I. Natural gas. Major gas resources are in Uch near Multan and Adhi in Rawalpindi territory, providing a gas of 18Mcf/dayA .

j. Marble. Main marble militias are in Dalbandin Hills in Attock District

10. Mineral Resources in Sindh[ 7 ]

a. Coal. Pakistan has entire coal militias of 185 billion dozenss, out of which 184 Billion dozenss are in Sindh. It is one of the biggest good quality brown coal sedimentations in the World.

B. Salt. Bright chances exist for the development of high pureness solar salt installation around the coastal countries of Karachi.

c. Limestone. It is found in Kot Diji, Ranipur, Ganjo Takkar, Murli Hills, Mango Pir and Cape Monze.

d. Aluminium. In Sindh Aluminium is found in Kirthar Nits.

e. Carbonate Soda. Present in big measure in Nawabshah, Umerkot, Nara Taluka ( Khaipur ) and Shah Bandar.

f. Calestine. The estimated militias are 300,000 dozenss. In Sindh, Calestine sedimentations are found in Thana Bula Khan.

g. China Clay. It is found in Nagar Parkar ( Tharparkar ) and used in cement, paper, rubber filter fabrication.

h. Natural Oil. There are three celebrated oil Fieldss in Sindh which are briefly described in tabular signifier below: –

i. NaturalA Gas. In Sindh Natural Gas is found in Khairpur, Kandkot, Mari, Golarchi and Khaskheli.

11. Mineral Resources in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa[ 8 ]

a. Chromite. Deposits in Dargai ( 0.7 Mt ) , Heroshah ( 0.1 Mt ) have been proven. Similarly in Pattan and Chilas countries chances appear to incorporate 0.2 Mt militias.

B. Coal. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa there is no big sedimentation of coal. Two little 1s are briefly described in tabular signifier: –

c. Bauxite.A A Bauxite ismainly found in Hazara District. Detailss are as under: –

d. Gypsum. The largest gypsum militias in Pakistan are in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which are chiefly found in D.I.Khan and Kohat territories.

e. Phosphates. Khyber PakhtunkhwaA contains Welsh sedimentary phosphates chiefly in Abbottabad.

f. Magnesite. In Abbottabad established militias around 11 million dozenss geological & A ; 3 million dozenss mineable incorporating acceptableA 46 % A -A 47 % A Mg oxide are present.A

g. Limestone. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Areas

the mean one-year production of limestone is 8697 Metric dozenss.

h. China Clay. Soon the major production comes from shah Dheri, Swat..

i. Marbles. Marbles of different categorizations occur in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Areas. 158 million dozenss out of 160.2 million dozenss of marble militias, are in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

j. Gem Stones. Pakistan ranks amongst taking gem-hosting states. Emerald, Ruby, Pink Topaz and Peridot are found in Hunza and AJ & A ; K.

k. Soap Stone. Its sedimentations are in Sherwan and Abbottabad territories. Soap rock is used in Ceramicss and soap industries.

12. Mineral Resources in Balochistan[ 9 ]. Out of 50 minerals being mined 40 are being exploited in Balochistan: –

a. Aluminium. Large sedimentations are in Kalat, Ziarat and Loralai territories. Khakhan-China spring mine in Loralai territory produces 2000 dozenss yearly.

B. Iron Ore. More than 903.4 million dozenss of Fe ores are found in Pakistan and possible ore sedimentations in Balochistan are the undermentioned:

Copper. The significance of Cu resources of Pakistan is widely known.Copper militias are present in Saindak and Reko-diq in Balochistan.

d. Chromite Ore. Major sedimentations are found in Muslim Bagh, Noshki, Ras-koh, Dilbadin and Khuzdar territories.

e. Zinc. The Jurassic stones of the Lasbela – Khuzdar Belt have the possible to host several World category ‘ zinc – lead ore sedimentations. Zinc deposits in Duddar GungaA are estimated over 160 million dozenss.

f. Coal. In Balochistan about 217 million dozenss of coal is estimated. These Resources are distributed in Hamai, , Duki, Mach-AbegumA Pir Ismail ZiaratA Bar khan – Chamalang.

g. Natural Gas. Entire Natural gas militias in Pakistan are estimated at about 31 trillion three-dimensional pess. In the Province of Balochistan, the militias are in Pirkok, Sui, Mazarani, Golarchi.

h. Manganese. Manganese is found in Lasbela and Khuzdar and estimated militias are 0.477 million dozenss.

i. Limestone. In Balochistan mean one-year production of limestone is 8697 Metric dozenss.

j. Magnesite. In Balochistan it is found in Muslim bagh and Bela.

k. Gypsum. Harmonizing to geological study of Pakistan, about 2000 million ton gypsum resources are present in different countries of Balochistan.

l. Antimony. Antimony sedimentations have been periodically mined near Qila Abdullah in territory Pishin of Balochistan.

m. Marble. Large sedimentations of marble are present in Balochistan, approximately 2 million ton high quality Marble is present in Chagai territory.

n. Gems. Discoveries in Chagai, Panjgur, Kalat and Killa Abdullah.

o. Aragonite. It is found in Khuzdar and Loralai.

PART – Two

UNTAPPED MINERAL RESOURCES AND THEIR POTENTIAL

13. Despite the fact that Pakistan is bestowed with immense mineral potency the overall part of this sector in GDP is simply 0.5 % , which warrants extended attempts to tackle this undiscovered wealth. The untapped mineral resources are discussed in subsequent paragraphs[ 10 ]: –

a. Platinum. The Chilas stone organic structure with indicants of Platinum and Platinum-group elements occurrences belongs to the largest basic invasions in the universe which are continuously exposed. Similarly country between Jijal and Patan, Allai in Kohistan and Malakand Agency, West of Dargai bears Platinum and Platinum-group elements.

b. Antimony. Antimony is an of import metal which is used for doing and antimony salt is used in the production of safety lucifers, in percussion caps of cartridge and in tracer slugs. Antimony militias have been late discovered by GSP in Kharan territory. Present estimations of available ore are 26,000 dozenss and the Sb content of the ore varies from 7 to 12 % ( Hussain, 1974 ) .

c. Copper. Copper is used in electrical industry, cars, aeroplanes, music directors and circuit surfs due to its high electrical and thermic conduction and strength. Geological Survey of Pakistan has discovered Cu at Saindak, Dasht-e-Kain, Missi and Ziarat Pir Sultan.Massive sulfide type Cu sedimentations have been reported from Chagai, Lasbela and Khuzdar territories. Mineral sedimentations at Saindak are in table-1 and estimated recoverable measures of different metals are reflected in table-2.

Table – 1: Saindak Copper Militias[ 11 ]

Deposit

Militias

( million tones )

( % of Cu )

South Ore Body

111

0.430

East Ore Body

273

0.340

North Ore Body

28

0.440

Table – 2: Estimated Measures of Metallic elements and their Valuess[ 12 ]

Metallic elements

Current Monetary value

( In USS )

Value

( in million USS )

Copper 1.69 million tones

2000 / tones

3,380.00

Gold 2.24 million ounces

387 / oz

867.00

Silver 2.49 million ounces

5.0 / oz

12.45

d. Gold. In the present twenty-four hours universe along with its major ingestion in Jewelry, gold is being used as an of import industrial metal besides. In the Chagai country, Geological Survey of Pakistan has identified at least 12 porphyry type sedimentations which may incorporate appreciable measures of gold along with Cu and silver.Similarly bunchs of gold and Ag have besides been discovered in Drosh territory Chitral, Sargodha, Mansehra and Muzaffarabad.

e. Iron. Iron is used for doing steel and a figure of other metals. Many little and big sedimentations of Fe ore have been found in Dilband, Chilghazi, Chigendil and Pachin Koh territories of Balochistan. The Fe ore sedimentations late discovered by the GSP at Uthal appear to be of economic value. Estimated Fe militias and quality are given in Table-3.

Table – 3: Iron Militias and Quality of Iron Ores in Balochistan[ 13 ]

Ser

Area / Locality

Militias

( million dozenss )

Quality

Chemical

Mineralogical

1.

Dilband, Kalat District

250

40-60 %

Sedimentry ore with prevailing heamatite

2.

Chagai District ( Chigendil, Pachin Koh, Chilghzi )

85

20-55 %

Magnetite.

3.

Uthal Lasbela District, Balochistan

Not estimated

Up to 45 %

Metamorphie ore with prevailing magnetive.

Sum: –

335

f. Lead – Zinc. Lead and Zinc metals form of import metals holding varied utilizations in industry and ammos. The geological Survey of Pakistan has discovered several sedimentations of lead and Zinc ore in Lasbela – Khuzdar part of Balochistan. Deposits at Gunga, Surmai and Duddar have been investigated in some inside informations by GSP and are expected to be around 10 million dozenss each.

g. Chromite. Chromite is chiefly used in the industry of unstained steel and as stubborn stuff. Chromite is found in Zhob, Killah Saifullah, Chagai, Kharam, Khuzdar and Lasbela territories as podiform type. A entire production of 25,735 dozenss was achieved during the twelvemonth 2002-2003.

h. Manganese. Manganese ores are found in Lasbela, Khuzdar, Chagai and Zhob territories. The manganese happenings in Chagai territory are found as coating and movie in the vitreous silica veins cutting limestone beds. A sum of 580,500 dozenss of manganese ore has been estimated in assorted sedimentations. The mean scope of manganese content is 8.2 % to 50.56 % .

i. Fluorite. It is chiefly used as flux in steel devising and is the lone beginning of F which is required for hydrofluoric acid and other fluorine compounds. Fluorite is found in Maran, Dilband and Pad Maran countries. The militias are estimated over 0.1 million dozenss.

J. Gypsum and Anhydrite. Balochistan has really big militias of gypsum/ anhydrite found at spintangi and Chamalang. Estimated gypsum militias are given in tabular array. 4.

Table: 4 Major Gypsum Deposits of Balochistan[ 14 ].

Deposits/

Vicinities

Reserve of million of dozenss

Insoluble %

R2O3 %

CaO %

MgO %

SO3

H2O %

Calcium

O421

12O %

CaSO4 %

Spintangi

Scope Analysis

0.5

0.30

0.50

32.30

0.68

47.30

18.20

High Gypsum

0.60

0.40

32.67

0.32

47.44

19.10

k. Baryte. The baryte sedimentations are located in the country between Uthal and Khuzdar. Deposits at Gunga near Khazdar and Daddar in Lasbela dirtrict are estimated over 12 million dozenss. The production from autochthonal sedimentations meets the entire demand of baryte for oil well boring and Ba based chemical workss of the state.

l. Dimension and Decorative Stones. The 1s most normally used are onyx marble and granite. Marble is used in edifice facings, bathrooms and floor tiles / handcraft points. Onyx marble of high quality is found in Chagai District / Gilgit Baltistan. Granite occurs in Chagai, Zhob, Kila Saifullah and Lasbela.

m. Gemstones. Northern countries are marked by GSP as ruby-bearing marble zone. Similarly in Swat territory few sedimentations are expected of gemstones.

n. Limestone. Pakistan has huge resources of limestone widening from the coastal part near Karachi to as far north as the Chagai and Zhob. These stones by and large contain over 80 % Ca carbonate, less than 5 % silicon oxide and less than 1 % Fe oxide doing them suited natural stuff for the cement fabrication.

O. Coal. Harmonizing to estimations prepared by GSP, Pakistan has entire coal militias of 185 billion dozenss, out of which 184 billion dozenss are in Sindh. One of the biggest good quality lignite sedimentation is in Thar, Thar coal is of comparatively good quality and is likely to be operational by Dec 2013[ 15 ].There are six coal countries in Balochistan where coal excavation activities are in advancement i.e. Harnai, Duki, Daghari, Pir Imail Ziarat, Mach and most late in Chamalang country but it has been abandoned due to a tribal struggle. The coal resources of Balochistan are described below: –

Table No. 5 Summary of Coal Resources of Balochistan ( Million dozenss )[ 16 ]

S.No

Coalfield

Proved

Indicated

Inferred

Hypot-hetical

Entire

Mineable

( 1 )

Khost Shahrig Harnai

13

63

76

8

( 2 )

Sor Range Daghari

15

19

16

50

9

( 3 )

Duki

14

11

25

50

8

( 4 )

Mach Abegum

9

14

23

5

( 5 )

Pir Ismail Ziarat

2

2

8

12

12

( 6 )

Chamalang

1

5

6

0.6

Sum: –

54

13

134

16

217

32

p. Gas[ 17 ]. Zin block is surrounded by major natural gas bring forthing Fieldss of Pirkoh, Loti, Sui and Uch. 22 trillion three-dimensional pess of projected gas militias are expected in Kohlu territory, hence OGDCL has applied for security screen for four licences i.e. Kohlu, Jandran, Jandran West and Kalchas. OGDCL is the largest upstream company in the state, as of December 2010 it holds 48 per centum of the state ‘s recoverable oil militias and 37 per centum of the state ‘s recoverable gas militias.

PART – Three

ECONOMY AND MINING OF MINERAL RESOURCES

14. Turning demand for mineral resources such as aluminum, Ni, Cu and Zn by developing markets in Asia has contributed to a rush in mineral monetary values. Driven by the chance of higher grosss, developing states are progressively turning to their minerals wealth as a beginning of growing and new economic development chances[ 18 ].

15. The extractive industry sector is really diverse. Categorization may mention to scale of operation, nature of activity ( belowground, off-shore, open-cast, etc. ) , stuff extracted ( industrial minerals, gemstones, cherished metals, oil and gas etc ) , public-service corporation ( energy, metallic and non-metallic ) or grade of capitalisation. However, the alone characteristic of all extractive operations is that the resource being extracted is non-renewable. Therefore end of non-renewable resource development, should be the transition of natural capital into other signifiers of capital. In footings of graduated table, there are three general degrees of extractive operation as under[ 19 ]: –

a. Large Scale. Capital-intensive and transnational companies use extraction and processing engineerings that require high degrees of investing and accomplishments. Significant grosss, economic systems of graduated table and efficiencies result from these operations.

B. Medium Scale. Includes province tally endeavor such as national oil and gas manufacturers and legion “ expansionary juniors ” ( with less than USD 100 million assets ) in the difficult stone excavation sector.

c. Artisanal and Small Scale Mining ( ASM ) . Old excavation methods i.e fundamental engineering, minimum capital investing, high labor strength and low degrees of engineering for extraction and processing. It is estimated that ASM produces up to 31 % of the planetary production of minerals including 20 % to 30 % of gold, 20 % of coal, 10 % of diamonds and 75 % of non-diamond gemstones.

16. The Economics of Mining[ 20 ]. Minerals represent merely a little portion of universe production and planetary FDI flows, nevertheless their supply is indispensable to modern economic systems. Major parts of excavation in economic system are: –

a. The part of Mining to Growth, Exports and Fiscal Revenues. Accurate statistics of the economic benefits derived from excavation are hard to obtain, particularly when the full graduated table scope of the sector is considered. For illustration, the informal and often illegal nature of ASM activities consequences in important losingss of possible authorities grosss. Where figures are available metal exports constitute a big portion of entire exports for several states like in Tanzania, mining represents 40 % of national exports, 75 % of foreign direct investings and is estimated to hold contributed about 6 % of the entire one-year GDP growing rate of 4.8 % between 1996 and 2003 ( ICMM / World Bank, UNCTAD, 2006a ) . Many authoritiess derive a big portion of financial grosss from the excavation sector. In Botswana more than half of financial grosss are derived from excavation ( USGS, 2005 ) whereas excavation histories for 43 % of authorities grosss in Peru ( gold, Cu, Zn, etc ) .

B. The part of Mining to Employment and subsistence. The ILO has estimated that the excavation sector employs 22 to 25 million people worldwide, about 1 % of the entire planetary work force ( ILO, 2007 ) . Large-scale excavation is capital-intensive activity necessitating progressively higher accomplishments degrees. The artisanal sector is coupled with the fact that excavation may be pursued during periods of agricultural inaction or underemployment. The sector frequently operates in hapless / distant locations so as to supply pro-poor benefits which private sector or authorities are unable to supply.

17. Potential of Mining to Raise the Poor Out of Poverty[ 21 ]. The path record of states with the chance to change over resource copiousness into broader development ends is frequently dissatisfactory. Resource copiousness frequently does non interpret into economic prosperity. Mineral wealth and its proper development would organize the footing for economic growing, poorness decrease and sustained development. However some of the most resource rich states had the highest degrees of poorness, corruptness and struggle.

18. The development of “ excavation codifications ” has been described as holding three stages. The first has been characterized by major backdown of province intercession. The 2nd topographic points greater accent on the duties of companies for socio-economic development. In Mali, for illustration companies are required to pay a revenue enhancement straight to regional authoritiess for re-allocation to local communities. The 3rd topographic points greater accent on the engagement of affected people and enhanced authorities duty for environmental and societal precautions. The Democratic Republic of Congo ( DRC ) , for illustration, has made proviso to guarantee gross distribution to those straight impacted by mining companies ( 60 % of royalties remain with the cardinal authorities, 25 % go to the states and 15 % to the community where the excavation occurs ( CASM, 2007 ) .

PART – Four

IMPEDIMENTS TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN PAKISTAN

19. The elaborate overview merely helps to determine that the mineral sedimentations of Pakistan are immense but there seems a host of factors which are impeding the development of minerals. Taking a 360 grade position, there are internal every bit good as external hindrances and besides issues like environmental jeopardies and deficiency of engineering. Each of these are discussed in wining paragraphs.

20. Internal Hindrances. Some of the hindrances faced by Pakistan internally are as under: –

a. Understaffing of Mineral Department. Minerals section is critically short-handed. There is merely one mine inspector for the whole territory and merely one Assistant Director of License to look after the licences issues in the whole part. Hence the functionaries are unable to see the mine sites and supervise the advancement.

B. Lack of Technology. There is seeable deficiency of engineering available for the mineworkers, since most of the mine proprietors are average to little graduated table. The excavation carried in the state is still based upon the century old techniques.

c. Lack of Proper Database. Incompatibility is common in the informations provided by the Provincial Offices and District Offices on licences, rentals, budget, grosss, etc. Regional offices are non really dependable and make non assist towards intelligent policy enterprises.

d. Lack of involvement of the foreign investors. Although the FDI influx in excavation and quarrying sector in Pakistan has increased yet deteriorating jurisprudence and order state of affairs and poicies are turn outing to be major barriers against the influx of FDI specially in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

e. Security of Tenure. Another of import issue faced by the mineworkers is the deficiency of security of term of office. The authorities can take away the rental any clip mentioning grounds of low extraction, slow work advancement etcetera and this ground entirely is adequate to discourage investing. The mineral development Act of 1948 is still in topographic point which besides needs to be addressed.

f. Weak Coordination and Non Transparency. Mineral section is non merely weak in coordination due to nonentity of proper policy but is besides non transparent at times i.e. disregarding the compulsory demand for grant of licences and rentals under political influence. Employees Old Age Benefit Institute ( EOBI )[ 22 ]is a instance in point. The contractors besides accuse that some functionaries of regional board of directors beltway the regulations and ordinances and disregard the virtue due to their vested involvements.

g. Tribal Rivalries. In mineral rich countries folks are largely working against each other so as to derive control over the mineral resources in that peculiar part. Resultantly the geographic expedition work is stalled, since no foreign company would wish to work in a hostile environment.

h. Deteriorating Law and Order Situation. Owing to GWOT the jurisprudence and order state of affairs of the state is non really encouraging for local every bit good as foreign investors. Most of the mineral rich countries are either under conditions of unrest or located in the close locality, thereby preventing any opportunity of geographic expedition work.

I. Role of Government[ 23 ]. The duty of the mineral development remainders with dichotomy of control between provincial and federal authoritiess. Constitutionally, authorities of Pakistan has defined its function for atomic minerals, oil and gas while solid minerals whether they are in the Federal district are the topic of provincial authorities. The concern of authorities of Pakistan for agribusiness which relates to the curst of the Earth is non similarly in the minerals.

J. Public Sector Corporations. The public sector corporations which were created to set about R & A ; D and disseminate/ transportation such cognition and experience to the private sector have focused their attending on maximising the gross coevals even at the cost of ignoring the safety steps.

Liter

k. Beneficiation – R & A ; D[ 24 ]. The technology universities every bit good as geological sections which have the high degree of endowment and work force are non being utilized for R & A ; D in the mineral sector due to which most of the endowment is being wasted.

21. External Hindrances. Some of the hindrances faced by Pakistan internally are as under: –

a. Role of Donor Agencies. In instance of 3rd universe states the international giver bureaus like IMF, World Bank ADB etcetera prosecute their ain docket and coerce the developing state to follow their footings and conditions.

b. Vested Interests of Foreign Countries. Every state in this universe follows its docket for accomplishing prosperity. Pakistan despite being rich in minerals has non been able to profit from this wealth wholly owing to vested involvements / political relations of foreign states, and puting merely in those undertakings which can outdo function their involvements.

22. Environmental Barriers[ 25 ]. In comparing with agribusiness or commercial forestry, excavation is non by and large an extended signifier of land usage. However, where it occurs, it can hold important and irreversible impacts. The activities related to quarrying and mining adversely affect the environment either straight through lay waste toing the ecology and natural resources or indirectly by perturbing the wellness and support of workers and the communities. Similarly environmental impact of excavation and quarrying activities can ne’er be determined simply by the harm it causes to the ecology.

PART – Volt

Recommendation

23. Pakistan a land of gifted people endowed with natural resources including minerals has non been able to work its resources to the full. In this respect following recommendations are proffered: –

a. Role of Government[ 26 ]

( 1 ) If authorities is all set to exhibit its earnestness so it has to attach precedence no 2 after defence to mineral geographic expedition. The universe Bank has realistically estimated that solid minerals can bring 2 billion dollars foreign exchange for Pakistan which will ease out to a greater extent a drain on Forex caused by import of oil.

( 2 ) The following measure would be to appropriately amend/frame the grant regulations to do them investing friendly. This can be assured in two ways, foremost by simplifying the process for the grant of licences and secondly by conveying a alteration in the attitude of the individuals responsible to run the jurisprudence.

( 3 ) Keeping in position the stray location of mineral geographic expedition sites, these may be declared as mineral export treating zone MEPZ like Saindak. These MEPZ be provided with full installations as are extended to EPZ.

( 4 ) Ministry of Petroleum & A ; Natural Resources should manage all affairs refering minerals their geographic expedition, development, development, selling and export etcetera so that investor does non hold to run for seeking clearance/clarification.

B. Promotion of Investment in Mineral Sector[ 27 ]. The investing in mineral sector should be encouraged at national degree as it will take to development of substructure, generate employment and poorness relief. To cite an illustration an investing of about 10 million Sri lanka rupees in industrial sector may bring forth employment for 30 – 50 individuals while an equal investing in mineral sector is likely to bring forth employment for 350 – 400 individuals.

c. Constitutional overlap – Dichotomy of Control[ 28 ]. Constitutionally oil, gas and atomic minerals are the sphere of Federal Government whereas all solid minerals including coal are the duty of the Provincial Governments. Therefore there is a demand for constitutional convergence between the Federal and Provincial Governments.

d. Implementation of Mineral Policy. There is a demand of implementing a unified/ standardised mineral policy so as to better coordination facets every bit good as altering the construction associating to transparence. Likewise working rights followed by autonomy to work to be ensured.

e. Adoption of New Technologies. The authorities or the public sector corporations entirely or in coaction with foreign investors should convey place the latest engineerings. As excavation is a capital every bit good as engineering intensive industry, hence immense capital backed with latest engineering is imperative.

f. Completion of Staff. The ministry of Petroleum & A ; Natural Resources may be adequately staffed in order to provide for an effectual control and supervising over the new emerging undertakings like Saindak, Thar coal etcetera.

g. Public Sector Corporations. It is the demand of the clip that these public sector corporations play their active function in mineral development and invest in countries, where private sector is shy on investing so that Pakistan can do healthy advancement.

h. Beneficiation – R & A ; D[ 29 ]. A mechanism be developed for effectual coordination between the universities and the private sector for consequence oriented quality services. Even the services of mining section can be utilized on preset footings and conditions which may maintain the academic and field together.

I. Bettering the Contractual Framework. Contracts determine the legal rights and footings under which companies exploit mineral wealth and the benefits host states and their citizens get in return. Well managed mineral establishments and a good geological database can heighten the authorities ‘s opportunities of come ining into just trades. The dialogues over the footings of these contracts are hence critical in accomplishing pro-poor results from mining ventures.

J. Increasing Gross Transparency[ 30 ]. A transparent and enforceable set of excavation contracts, transparence over gross payments and grosss will enable a state ‘s civil society to keep its authorities to account. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative is an illustration.

k. Bettering the Law and Order. Government must do sound policies to undertake this threat and convey normality to the state so that investors can come and lend in the advancement of the state.

l. Environmental Protection[ 31 ]. Negative environmental impacts can be managed through better planning, usage of environmental impact appraisals and environmental direction systems. These should be progressively negotiated into start-up contracts and include payments into bequest financess during operation. Environmental consciousness can be achieved by agencies of preparation and information sharing with stakeholders at all degrees. To better the state of affairs, NGOs and local authorities could give sustainable solutions to most of the jobs related to quarrying and excavation by using their traditionalknowledge.

24. Decision. Pakistan has been bestowed with encouraging geological groundss, nature provided figure of geological militias of industrial and some of metallic minerals. This leads to a large inquiry as to why it has non been listed amongst the major mineral bring forthing state so far. Under the present scenario of energy crisis, electricity coevals through bing and un-tapped mineral resources must be fast exploited and shall be on the top precedence of the authorities. Give the challenges and chances, the optimal scheme for the state is to seek FDI, engineering transportation and travel for the autochthonal production ab initio at a comparatively little graduated table. The key to success is to get down with little graduated table / simple design and bit by bit scale them up in footings of size and quality ; in geographic expedition sector. It is the demand of the clip to pay sincere and maximal attending towards un-tapping the bing resources in order to carry through the hereafter demands.

Annex A

MINERAL RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN