Merapi Eruption And Its Economic Impact Environmental Sciences Essay

Recently, Indonesia is faced with many natural catastrophe such as tsunami, temblor, and volcanic eruption. These catastrophes are more likely to go on because of the geological location of Indonesia which is located at the border of the Pacific, Eurasian and Australian tectonic home bases.

Merely late, Indonesia has been made terror by Gunung Merapi, which is one of many more Indonesia ‘s active stratovolcano mountain. This Gunung Merapi is located between Central Java and Yogyakarta in Indonesia. Gunung Merapi is one of the most active vent in Indonesia. It has besides erupted on a regular basis since the twelvemonth 1548.

To discourse about the eruption consequence of Gunung Merapi freely, this paper will be started with the debut and the definition about what is eruption and Gunung Merapi.

The treatment of this paper will be so continued and name all the effects, victims, loss and harm to homo ‘s life. This paper lists the inside informations about the victims, environmental effects, the unsafe stuffs of this eruption, harm and loss to many sectors.

The paper will so discourse about what the authorities action to assist the victims and restores the site that got the disadvantages of this eruption. The decision portion of this paper will be the shutting of the treatment with the sum-up inside informations.


Within these past few old ages ago, there are many natural catastrophes that occured in Indonesia and the most often that happen is flood. The catastrophes that frequently happen in Indonesia are inundation, temblor, and volcanic eruption, tsunami which are more likely to go on because of Indonesia ‘s geological location which is located at the border of the Pacific, Eurasian and Australian tectonic home bases. Jakarta as the capital town of Indonesia is the topographic point that inundation will most likely to happen if there is a heavy rain with long adequate continuance to piece a inundation. The catastrophe than go on late is eruption so this article will be concentrating on volcanic eruption. 2010 eruptions of saddle horse merapi. ( 2010, December 8 ) .

An eruption can be a truly risky catastrophe for homo ‘s life due to its large detonation of the vent, autumn of the stones and the ashes that can annoy homo ‘s breath and eyes. Indonesia has many active volcanic mountain like Gunung Merapi, Gunung Krakatau, Gunung Kelud, Gunung Semeru, Gunung Guntur and many others. One of these active mountain which named Gunung Merapi, have done a great eruption late, which is started at 26 October 2010. This eruption evidently made many negative effects on homo ‘s life and environment around that mountain. The illustrations of the negative effects are decease and people acquiring damaged, many house broken, people must go forth their house and properties and travel to the safer topographic point. They all feel really suffering for their loss because of this volcanic eruption.

Merapi ‘s eruption besides affects many things like how things traveling in Keraton Jogja which is the town that this Merapi located. There are so many things that get affected merely because of this Merapi ‘s eruption. This article will speak deep about the inside informations for all the effects on its environment, the harm and loss in many sectors like societal and substructure, the impacts of economic system, growing, GDP and GNP and unemployment impacts because of this eruption.

1.2 The Definition of Volcanic eruption

Volcanic eruption is the phenomenon of the spliting out of magma to the surface of the Earth. Volcanic eruption can be divided into two, such as explosive eruption and non explosive eruption. The types of eruption is depend on many things ; for illustrations, the thickness of magma, the composing of gas inside the magma, the consequence of land H2O, and magma chamber. The thickness of magma and the composing of gas inside the magma are depending on the composing of chemical of magma.

Volcanic eruption has own mechanism. There are extra excreted gasses, when the magma come its manner to come up, and the gas force per unit area make the spread of volcanic stuff. The procedure of gas excreted is sometimes followed by a big sound of rumble that sometimes let us to hear the rumbling voice as the same clip the volcanic stuff eruption occurs. The procedure of gas force per unit area is non necessitate a long clip. The stopper holes in the crater by the gas force per unit area depends on the rate of gas production from the magma that make the increasing of the gas force per unit area, and strength to defy the force per unit area of gas crater stopper. The more powerful stoppers crater, the greater the per centum of the strong eruption.

A fast-moving flow of lava that flow down to river, so spread in the field at the hills sight of the vent country can do into the amendss on serious economic and environmental. 2010 eruptions of saddle horse merapi. ( 2010, December 8 ) .

Gunung Merapi 2010

The monolithic detonation of Merapi Mountain happened on the first day of the month in the month of November 2010. The first detonation occurs about 10.03 AM that started out with a little temblor and falling down of stuffs. Soon after that the cloud of heat came along from the top of Merapi with a tallness of 1.5km. Based on the surveillance from the Monitor room of Merapi Activity in BPPTK Office loated in Jalan Cendana, Jogjakarta, the cloud of heat headed for the south entryway, which is the Gendol River and Woro River with acceleration of 4km.

At 11.30AM, Merapi Mountain explode once more, making cloud of heat with tallness of about 3.5km. This is the 2nd greatest detonation for the Friday, November 5, 2010. This is surveyed from Balerante, the group of clouds and balls to a great extent polluted vertically rumbling to the sky with the approximated tallness of 3.500meters. Due to the air current blows from north and east header to the Cendawan Sea, and the cloud of heat is heading to the southeast way of the delta of Gendol River, there are no farther study from BNPTK about this detonation.

This information is straight conducted visually on Friday, November 5, 2010. Around 11.35AM half of the hillside and mountain is covered in thick and dark cloud. The Earthquake itself is extremely detected due to the seizmograph signal installed at assorted surveillance central office. Citizens in the sou’-west, sou’-east, South, and west are ordered to be cautious and prepared.

As broadcasted, the monolithic detonation of Merapi before besides happened on Friday this afternoon. Due to the detonation, 55 citizens are claimed dead up until this really afternoon. The unsafe zone are expanded from the first 15km up to 20km. Types of volcanic eruption. ( 2010, December 6 )

Victims of eruption Gunung Merapi 2010

This 2010 eruption is the worst since 1870. Thirty-two small towns has become the victims and 70000 psyche were being suggested to evacuate because they located in the danger district. Those small towns consist of 17 small towns in District of Magelang, 4 small towns in District of Klaten, 3 small towns in District of Boyolali, and 8 small towns in District of Sleman. This clip Merapi is in critical status, besides being marked with the the distance of heat cloud explosive eruption reaches 11.5 kilometre at Bebeng River and at different topographic point the distance of heat cloud eruption reaches 11 kilometer at White River, 10 kilometer at Boyong River and 9.5 kilometer at Gendol River. This clip the heat cloud that out from the extremum of Merapi has reached the tallness of more than 10 kilometer, the figure of victims is 73. Victims spread in 2 parts, which are 69 victims at the Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta and 4 victims at Center Java. The injured, burn and blister victims have reached 100 individuals. This status is based on November 5, 2010 note. In relation to Merapi ‘s status that still in unsafe, the authorities is seeking the save topographic point for the refugee. After the 2nd eruption, 55 individuals are recorded dead until now. The prone part is being expanded from 15 kilometers to 20 kilometer. Types of volcanic eruption. ( 2010, December 6 ) .

Environmental effects

As we know that Yogyakarta is a celebrated metropolis recognized by many foreign tourers, Merapi eruption that occurred has given a batch of impact on the growing of touristry in Yogyakarta. After the eruption of Merapi that occurred in Yogyakarta, the degree of trust decreased drastically and it has affected both foreign and domestic tourers, particularly in touristry sector. Although the eruption of merapi has decreased, the influence of the eruption was still bosom throbbing particularly for the resorts and nutrient corner. The hotel tenancy rate from both foreign and domestic tourers is about 30-40 per centum of it.

Furthermore, the good intelligence is that the per centum has increased somewhat after the start Adisucipto airdrome reopened. After Adisucipto airdrome was reopened, when the tenancy rate was merely about 10-20 per centum of it. The tenancy rate and the expected diminution of tourers non merely because of post-eruption of Merapi but is besides caused by the news-media coverage of security concerns the metropolis of Yogyakarta. In order to reconstruct the name of the metropolis of Yogyakarta as a safe touristry like earlier, the touristry parties in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and related bureaus will keep a assortment of series of events. ( 2010, December 28 ) .

2.12 Volcanic ash

Meanwhile, the celebrated Borobudur temple besides closed due to the black eruption, the country of 185 hectares were wholly paralyzed due to volcanic ash that covered the sky. After the great eruption 100s of trees were uprooted around the temple and the entree route taking to the temple was blocked. And even worse, the most powerful eruption makes the temple in critical status and improbable to be accessed. Thickness of volcanic ash reached 2-4 centimetres. The Jakarta station. ( 2010, December 28 ) .

2.13 Greenhouse effects in Yogyakarta

The temperature in Yogyakarta is truly high and hot. Average daytime air heat over 33 grades Celsius. This is caused by the ash which come from the eruption in which covers the environing countries. The volcanic ash covered the ambiance of Yogyakarta, and that is one ground why the air is really hot. Currently, some countries in Yogyakarta Special Region are exposed to a sort of nursery consequence caused by the volcanic ash atoms in the air. In theory, the Sun to the Earth should be reflected into infinite by the ambiance. However, because the soiled atmospheric conditions, sunshine reflected back to Earth so that the air in Yogyakarta acquiring hot and sultry. In add-on, the place of the Sun at this clip besides was tilting towards the South and is still above the Yogyakarta country. Sun will go on traveling south until December 22 2010 and once more tilting to the North and back across the top of the metropolis of Yogyakarta in February 2011. ( 2010, October 30 ) .

Damage and losingss

2.21 Housing sectors

The figure of sick persons of the eruption is keep increasing, and people who did n’t fly under the fright of the eruption have finally run to the outer portion of the eruption are to salvage their life. In the small town every dark extra evacuees continued to get, doing the sum increased to 2632 people from 2073 psyche after the eruption. Extra refugees came from small towns with a radius of up to 10 kilometres from the extremum of Merapi. The increasing Numberss of the refugees make the demands of installations and substructure to increase excessively. The worst affair is the Numberss of public lavatories in refugee cantonments are soiled and smelly. The supply of H2O for public lavatories is non everyday. With the figure of refugees who have started to increase quickly, H2O supply should non be broken. Antara intelligence. ( 2010, November 14 ) .

2.22 Health Sector

The Provincial Health Office Yogyakarta run held a clean and healthy life style to the refugees in each chosen Merapi evacuation.and they have conducted a run of clean and healthy life style to the communities, which is to keeping and making a clean and healthy life style non merely during catastrophes, but every clip the demand to keep clean and healthy life style. The intent of this clean and healthy life style run was held to keep and continue the environmental wellness of both the household and society.

The run is really of import and needs to be understood by society, in which people should keep and implement the environment clean and healthy life style, both when in the place environment and in environmental refugees. Ministry of wellness democracy of Indonesia ( 2010, November 14 ) .

2.3 Infrastructure

2.31 Transportation Sectors

As the eruption brings 100s and even 1000s people to decease, it besides caused damage the sectors such as transit sector excessively. The shuting down of the airdrome by the section of transit has caused 1000s of riders to diminish drastically compared with the usual operation. It is estimated that even if the airdrome has been re-opened, it will non demo much difference in the figure of flights because of the fright of the eruption. Land transit has besides decrease drastically because the figure of tourer visits dropped down drastically after the catastrophe happened. Car leases and bike leases which are normally crowded suffered heavy blows. And many people had lost their occupations and in demand to acquire another occupation in order to last. Terradaily ( 2010, November 7 ) .

2.32 Energy Resources

Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources will besides carry on a plan which is subsidising the fuel in the energy sector. These plans include the building of electricity substructure, the natural gas supply substructure, and betterment of energy substructure in eastern Indonesia. With this plan, fuel limitations could salvage up to Rp 3.8 trillion. The figure is achieved if there is a lessening in fuel ingestion of premium every bit much as 1 million kilolitres with the sum of Rp 1.7 trillion, and the decrease of Diesel ingestion by 1 million kilolitres magnitude Rp 2.17 trillion.The authorities itself allocates the budget for fuel subsidies, biofuel and LPG amounted to Rp 95.9 trillion for the twelvemonth 2011. Furthermore the execution of limitations on fuel will be done in phases so that the societal and economic impacts, particularly rising prices are expected comparatively little. ( 2010, November 15 ) .

2.33 Communicationss sector

After the eruptions, the telecommunication encounters the high telecommunication traffic. Telecommunications service remains smooth despite the high telecommunications traffic addition both incoming and surpassing around the inclines of Mount Merapi, peculiarly in Sleman, Magelang and Klaten. Get downing from October 26, 2010 4 telecommunications operator established a station in Sleman and Magelang, PT XL Axiata, PT Telkom, PT Telkomsel and PT Indosat. The map of station is non merely to supervise the quality of service around the inclines of Mount Merapi, but besides serve free telephone installations and supply certain societal aid. In add-on, besides for the uplink and down nexus for a figure of journalists who will direct the latest intelligence related to the status of Mount Merapi from these stations, as provided by PT Telkom in STO Pakem, Sleman. ( 2010, October 29 ) .

2.34 Water Supplies and Sanitation amendss

Villagers Bawukan and Gemampir have returned from refugee cantonments. When they get to their places, they found that they had contaminated the H2O reservoir of volcanic ash. When displaced, they forgot to shut or travel the trough. As a consequence, the volcanic ash mixed into their H2O supplies. This is polluting the H2O and the H2O itself can non be consumed or used for bathing because it causes rubing. in add-on, catastrophe response squads in Klaten are mobilising H2O vacuity to run out the soiled H2O. Furthermore, the authorities besides supplies two H2O armored combat vehicles ( 10 thousand litres ) to each proprietor ‘s H2O reservoir. For Gemampir small town, it takes 464 H2O armored combat vehicles, at a cost of Rp. 50 thousand / armored combat vehicle. Sum needed financess of Rp.23, 200,000. Merapi Volcano Situation Report Part 8. ( 2010, November 28 ) .

Productive Sectors

2.41 Agriculture Sector

Merapi eruption destroy agribusiness sector in Magelang regency, Central Java. Losses estimated at Rp 247.3 billion. Damaged harvests consist of rice, fruits, and veggies.

Head of Food Crops, Plantation, Magelang regency Wijaya and Forestry said the harm occurred in most harvests in 12 territories because of volcanic ash covered. The biggest losingss occurred on the bark of workss, USD 84.01 billion. In entire, the eruption causes 65 % of harvest harm and harvest failure in the terrible affected countries. Even worse, harm besides occurred on 201 hour angle of wood, 309 hour angle of province wood and 357 hour angle of plantation country. The estimation of losingss on plantation sector reached 1.5 to 2 times more than the old record.

As a consequence of the eruption of Merapi in the signifier of hot clouds made a figure of countries hit by the rain of ash. Ash rain made for agricultural diminution. Thousands hectares of plantations, veggies and paddy rice are damaged. And that ‘s why non a few occupants who harvest rice more rapidly even though it is non clip. They are afraid of the rice goes bad when Merapi erupted again.This status can surely hold a negative impact on occupants. Food deficits feared to hit the people populating on the inclines of Merapi. Number of land damaged by the eruption of Merapi, required no little sum of recovery financess. Longer recovery clip was besides given to day of the month volcanic ash still flushed a figure of countries on the inclines of Merapi. ( 2010, November 28 ) .

2.42 Fisheries sector

The production of fish, particularly catfish in Yogyakarta, particularly Boyolali reached more than 15 dozenss per twenty-four hours. But, As a consequence of this catastrophe, this production has decreased more than 50 per centum. To normalise the degree of piscary production, in the close hereafter, exactly after the Merapi eruption stopped, the authorities will make the rehabilitation of pools and aquaculture pools. In add-on to the pool country of rehabilitation of 114 hour angle of land, to reconstruct the economic system in the fish agriculture sector, the husbandmans require at least 11 million fish Fry and more than 1050 dozenss of fish provender. More than 100 hectares of cropland damaged by Merapi covered with volcanic ash that resulted in 1000000s of fish in the pool died and the estimated value of losingss has reached the scope of USD 3.4 billion. The loss of that which include harm to installations and substructure and the decease of 1000000s of husbandmans cultivated fish in pools and fish pools due to volcanic dust. The harm that resulted in a lessening of piscaries production is more than 50 per centum. The worst country that was affected by the eruption was located in Sleman, an country of 117 hectares. Fisheries rehabilitation processes that will be done by the authorities necessitate financess of around Rp 80 billion. Minister of piscaries. ( 2010, December 28 ) .

3.1 Impact on Economy Performance

Severe eruptions by Mount Merapi that happened on October 26th and November 5th were expected to diminish economic about entire worth of Rp3.4 trillion in Sleman territory, Yogyakarta Province. Based on information and harmonizing to the Head of Sleman territory, the losingss were caused by ruins of concern sectors such as touristry, culinary, commercial adjustment, agribusiness, plantation, and farm animal. So, In order to reconstruct the economic system, the authorities built impermanent houses ( shelters ) for the victims. The houses built by the authorities were merely impermanent houses for the Mount Merapi eruption refugees so that it could hike the people ‘s economic system to forestall the lessening in growing that would probably much in set uping the GDP. ( 2010, November 5 ) .

The national province point provinces that the loss in economic activity in the affected country is likely to hold a minor consequence. The chief impact on the national economic system is coming from the cost of the Reconstruction attempt which affected the national Government fundss. Because the President of Indonesia did n’t denote the GDP rate due to the impact of the eruption, so its GDP rate is still yet unknown. Furthermore, we can connote that the GDP will diminish due to the Merapi ‘s eruption, since all the victims lose their places, money, and belongings, their ability to purchase goods will decidedly diminish, and yet the GDP decreases excessively. And that ‘s why authorities built impermanent shelters ; supply nutrients and ingestion for the evacuees to hike up the GDP rates.

Furthermore, the sectors that giving impact to the state ‘s growing caused by merapi will be the agribusiness sector, electricity, gas, and H2O sector, and the sector with the highest growing rate which was transit and communicating sector with entire of 20,3 % of the impact of merapi eruption. Contempts of the black Merapi eruption, the good intelligence coming from the BPS ( Badan Pusat Statistik ) , is that Indonesia ‘s GDP is increasing by 5,8 % in the 3rd one-fourth of 2010. In which on 2009, there ‘s merely 3.5 addition on Indonesia ‘s GDP. ( 2010, November 5 ) . See appendix 1.

3.2 Impact on Inflation

Because of the terrible eruption, the rising prices of Yogyakarta is increasing, and it is reported that on November 2010, Yogyakarta encounter an addition of 0, 62 of its rising prices. The rising prices was caused by the addition of monetary value that indicates from the CPI. There were 6 classs of disbursals who encounter the addition of the CPI which is nutrient substance addition by 2, 48 % , class of delicatessen ( drinks, coffin nails, baccy ) addition by 0,18 % , class of lodging demands ( H2O, electricity, gasses, fuel ) addition by 0,18 % , class of vesture addition by 0,76 % , class of wellness addition by 0,24 % and on the other manus the class of instruction, diversion, and athleticss deflate about 0,07 % .

3.3 Impact on Consumer monetary value index ( CPI )

The eruption of merapi which occurred at Yogyakarta and cardinal Java on October and November 2010 brings impact on its economical status. The impact covers the agribusiness production and even the economic market, particularly in Yogyakarta. This indicant reflected from the information monitored by the Badan Pusat Statistik ( BPS ) that on November 2010, Yogyakarta encounter 0,62 % rising prices with index sum of 124,35 which is higher if it is compared to the old index on November 2010. And this which makes the rising prices addition by 6,61 % . The advisory group of Indonesia. ( 2010, June 14 ) .

3.4 Impacts on the Unemployment

So in order for the authorities to increase the GDP, they kept happening ways in doing plans for the evacuees and the refugee to acquire both occupations and income. Their aims are non merely the refugee and evacuees, but besides the people who affected by the merapi ‘s eruption.

The Indonesia ‘s curate thought to manage the victims are to contrive a hard currency forward, which is giving occupations to the refugee so that they got something to make with. So the point is if the authorities is now supplying assorted sorts of occupations to the evacuees so that they can work, acquire income so that the unemployment rate would non fall harshly. Furthermore, a batch of the evacuees who encounter psychological injury caused by the eruptions which cause them unable to work and acquire income. Besides nutrient and shelters, their psychological are besides important, and what they need now is hard currency in order to populate. And one of the occupations the authorities is offering will be the cleansing of volcanic ash for the refugee as one of their current occupations. The advisory group of Indonesia.

3.5 Impacts on the Supports

Trauma degree are truly high in the affected eruption country, and many evacuees are stress out and meet a batch of jobs such as febrilities, sick, deficiency of nutrient, feeling scared and injuries caused by the terrible eruptions that strikes all in sudden. Besides the emphasis and injury factor, people are frightened in repairing their houses or travel to work, because they ‘re terrified of the volcanic ash that risk their life. And that ‘s why the authorities are get downing to retracing the affected country, so that people can travel back to their normal life and do their usual activities. Although the impact to the affected countries is really terrible, some people seeking to populate and remain near their place and afraid that their assets and material will be stolen by people while they ‘re in the refugee ‘s cantonment. And even worse the H2O supply is worsening, and the H2O quality is truly bad in which it leads to miss of sanitation. Furthermore, people are trusting that the authorities can retrace the affected countries shortly, so that they can bask their normal life. The advisory group of Indonesia. ( 2010, June 14 ) .


Obviously, by all of the listed impacts above, the GDP and the economic income of Indonesia will be decrease because of this Gunung Merapi eruption. The lessening of the economic income and the GDP will do a great suffer to the local peoples around that site. To forestall this to go on, the authorities and the peoples around the Merapi ‘s location should make a collaborate action like to clean the site from volcanic ashes, aid others to construct the house and topographic point.

The authorities have to see precisely how the status and the harm of the eruption site. By see the harm straight, authorities can set the money and know all the demand and demands of the refugees. Government besides can cognize precisely how much do the refugees need the aid and nutrient or H2O, non merely direct the money and subsidise the nutrient and shelter by hearing what other peoples said. Government besides need to stock up some financess in order to forestall something that out of the blue happens like if the nutrient are expired or there were some more accidents go on to the refugees. All of the exigency state of affairss that were out of the blue happen can be prevent by this money so that the refugees may non endure more injury and depression.

To do the Indonesia ‘s income and GDP addition once more, authorities can concentrate to other states such as Samarinda to assist Indonesia ‘s income to lift once more. In Samarinda, there are so many companies and mills that can assist Indonesia derive much more income with merely a small aid from the authorities.


With all of those effects of this Gunung Merapi eruption that occured in 2010 which have been listed above, it is evidently that eruption caused many disadvantages to human ‘s life and the environment around that eruption site.

Most of these disadvantages of eruption are truly unsafe including the hot magma that can killed people and animate being, the volcanic ashes that are unsafe to human ‘s breath and eyes, the hot gas that are coming out are besides unsafe because its temperature is truly low. Besides these physical danger, eruption besides makes many disadvantages in many sectors such as wellness sector, productive sector, the economic system public presentation, transit sector, and besides the loss of belongingss.

Peoples get much more emphasis and the eruption besides did a injury for certain people. They loss all their belongingss and house, they have to evacuate to other safe countries and left their house and heavy belongingss like tabular array, telecasting and bed. The refugees feel really frustated because of their status and loss, some of them besides get injuries because they truly scared of this eruption to go on once more. They besides lose their occupation because of the devastation that this eruption made. The eruption destroys many things like their transit vehicle, their belongingss and house, and besides their topographic point to make their day-to-day work. All of these effects are truly be a large loss and this eruption did many bad impacts on homo ‘s life and environment.


Beginning: ; Badan pusat statistik Indonesia