Profile Of Education Sector In Pakistan Education Essay

The instruction system in Pakistan is regarded as one of the most backward, underprivileged and developing systems in Asia. Poor quality of instruction system is one of the main grounds why states are unable to boom and turn. In a underdeveloped state like Pakistan, the quality of instruction has remained far below the international criterions, despite assorted attempts by authorities to elate it.

The system of instruction in Pakistan is fundamentally divided into the undermentioned degrees: Pre-primary degree, Primary degree, in-between, secondary, higher secondary, degree colleges and universities. The overall state of affairs of instruction in these classs can be assessed by the indexs such as pupil registrations, figure of instructors hired, and the figure of establishments under each class.

The pre primary instruction, which is besides known as Prep category, forms the footing of the early childhood instruction and is for kids between the ages of 3-4 old ages. Harmonizing to the ( Pakistan Economic Survey study, 2011-2012 ) , registration in pre primary instruction has experienced an addition of 7.4 % in 2010 to 2011, with an expected addition of 4.8 % in 2011-2012. The primary instruction class falls for categories 1 to 4. In 2010-2011, around 155,495 primary schools were functional, accompanied by an addition of 18.7 million registrations. There has besides been an addition in the registration in in-between instruction that is category 5-8. 5.64 million Registrations increased in 2010-2011, while in the twelvemonth 2011-2012, it is expected that these registrations would increase by 1.3 % . Around 25,209 secondary schools ( category 9-10 ) were runing in 2010-2011, which was an addition of 2.58 million from past twelvemonth 2009-2010. In the same mode, the higher secondary ( category 11-12 ) , degree colleges and universities have experienced an addition in the registration rate. An overall appraisal of the instruction system has decidedly shown some little betterment, as seen by the tabular array below:

No. of establishments, registrations and instructors by class


















Teachers hired

( 1000s )




2011-12 ( E )



2011-12 ( E )



2011-12 ( E )

Pre primary








































Higher Secondary










Degree Colleges






























Beginning: Ministry of Professional & A ; Technical Training, AEPAM, Islamabad










Tocopherol: Estimated










Although there has been a considerable addition in the figure of instructors hired, but the quality of instructors ‘ instruction is still undergoing major jobs. These include ill-equipped preparation establishments, short period preparation classs, an over accent on quantitative expansion, drafting of a limited course of study, undue accent on the theory as compared to the practical cognition and the hapless quality of instructions. ( Government of Pakistan, 2009. Pg.42 ) blames training construction that is lacking in quality and an unequal preparation reign responsible for the hapless quality of instructors in the instruction system of Pakistan.

The public proviso of instruction sector as a % of GDP in the past few old ages can be summarized in the tabular array below:

This tabular array shows there has been a worsening tendency in public outgo on instruction as a % of GDP. Although there has been a entire rise in outgo in this sector, but the developmental outgo has remained more or less dead.

1.1.2 Analysis of Educational results in Pakisan

Despite the additions in figure of establishments and the instructors hired, the literacy rate and the registration rates are dawdling behind those of other states in the same part. The present rate for grownup literacy in Pakistan is about 54 % , male-66.25 % while female being 41.75 % . Since 1998, there has merely been an addition in literacy rate by 2 % per twelvemonth, which is manner excessively low than the international criterion. ( Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2004-2005 ) . Majorly, the nonreaders in Pakistan are concentrated in remote and rural countries, or in the slums of the urban lands. Illiterates can be categorized into those who are hapless, rural people ; disadvantaged in footings high chance cost of achieving instruction, or misss and adult females.

Therefore, the instruction system in Pakistan is characterized by low engagement rate, high illiteracy and bead out. ( Choudhry, 2005 ) states that this fecund illiteracy would non be merely overcome by increasing the consciousness of the significance of instruction, but would necessitate increased fiscal committedness, serious attending of NGOs and CBOs towards this sector every bit good as an incorporate attack to do the literacy in Pakistan more meaningful.

1.2 Dualistic instruction in Pakistan by nature and type

Even in this epoch of globalisation, despite all the long term programs for educational development, many yet dispossess entree to the basic formal instruction and just instruction attainment chances. The differences are found as a consequence of Pakistan being a Manichaean economic system, where there are clear divisions on both, economic and societal lines. ( Lewis, 1965 ) described one sector being recognized as the ‘capitalist ‘ or modern while other being the ‘traditional ‘ one.

There is deficiency of uniformity in the instruction system, intending that people in Pakistan have to confront double criterions in instruction system. For illustration, on one side, there is the public sector, offering matriculation while on the other manus there is our private sector offering O/A degrees. The authorities established schools, colleges and universities are leaving educational service in about all surveies of life ; nevertheless, pupils in these establishments have to so confront limited chances in practical life as compared to those who study from private sector. Parents who can afford to educate their kids would decidedly prefer registration of their kid in private establishments, irrespective of the fact that non all public establishments lack quality.

Dualism is besides characterized by urban and rural derived function in educational service. There is immense inequality of resource distribution across the parts and genders, restraining equal chances of instruction attainment for all. The public schools in rural countries are featured by nonexistent or highly low support, hapless substructure, low teacher-student ratio, high absenteeism and dropout rate, deficiency of comprehensive course of study and qualified instructors, ( Iqbal, 2012 ) . He explains that it is non impossible to hold a good school in rural countries, but really hard. While on the contrary, the state of affairs is merely the antonym in urban schools. That is why the literacy rates in urban and rural schools contrast so aggressively, as shown by the tabular array below.

Harmonizing to the tabular array, literacy has remained much higher in urban countries as compared to rural countries, and much more for work forces than adult females. Province wise, literacy rate is highest for Punjab, followed by Sindh and so KPK. It remained lowest for Baluchistan. Thus, sectoral ( that is, private or public ) , gender and regional disparities in instruction attainment are major factors that define dualism in Pakistan ‘s instruction system.

1.3 Rural- Urban prejudices in entree to instruction

1.3.1 The lifting issue for gender inequality in instruction attainment

Gender disparities in instruction attainment in Pakistan has ever risen and appeared to hold widened over the clip. Engagement rate for male childs have remained much higher than for misss. ( Lloyd and Sathar, 1994 ) quote the figures for addition in misss ‘ engagement rate as by merely 7 % as compared to an addition of 12 % in male childs ‘ engagement rate. This divergency is even more pronounced between the urban and rural countries. The attending of kids aged between 7-14 year in 1990-1991 has remained significantly higher in urban countries than in rural. For misss, 73 % have been enrolled in urban countries as compared to 40 % in rural countries. And 83 % of male childs have been to urban schools than 74 % in schools located in rural countries. All these figures suggest being of gender disparity on a well high degree in Pakistan.

Many grounds are accountable for low female engagement rate in rural countries. First is the deficiency of consciousness of importance of instruction for adult females. They are encouraged to remain at place for family jobs. Since barely is at that place any secondary school for misss in rural countries, they are left with no option but to acquire married and take attention of the family. Education for adult females is the bottom most precedence, due to illiterate parents. They believe supplying instruction to misss would do them non obedient, and give them a say, which may motivate them against their traditional household set up. Besides among the household determiners of entree to instruction comes the cost of entree to instruction. It includes both pecuniary every bit good chance cost. An urban adult female has lower of both the costs attached to her instruction attainment. It is due to the literate background and a higher economic position enjoyed by the household.

1.3.2 The issue of public educational support

The urban instruction in Pakistan has ever been able to bask greater resource input and higher attending by the cardinal authorities. Due to inadequate authorities support of instruction in rural countries, kids are unwillingly forced to drop out of school at primary degrees or the secondary degrees. As a consequence, they are unable to prosecute higher instruction. Therefore being the disadvantaged one from an early age.

Although the authorities outgo on instruction as a whole has risen by 2.2 % in recent old ages, but the developmental disbursement has remained low. The lopsidedness of public fund allotment is more towards the higher secondary instruction in urban countries. That is why great diverseness of educational inputs can be seen between the institutes of the two parts, significantly impacting the registration rates. Quality of instruction can be measured by inputs such as handiness of good qualified instructors and adequate installations, scholarship proviso, a good drawn course of study every bit good as by strong proviso of substructure in that part. Dependence of all these factors lies on the authorities budget. In order to supply all with just entree to the quality instruction, federal authorities is to pay serious attending towards its fiscal committedness to the instruction sector, particularly towards the rural countries.

The tabular array below shows a pronounced difference in the publically provided installations between the two parts.

Clearly, the urban educational institutes experience greater public attending. This accounts for one major ground why pupils in urban countries are more likely to avail the instruction attainment chances as compared to those in rural countries.

1.4 Rural Urban prejudices in returns to education

1.4.1 Public- private cleavage in the labour market of Pakistan

Due to pronounced differences in criterions of instruction of public and private establishments in Pakistan, a big cuneus has appeared in the returns to instruction for both the sectors. Therefore, labour market in Pakistan is besides Manichaean in nature. It offers higher rate of return to private sector pupils as compared to the populace sector 1s. ( Chen 2009 ) describes the major factors behind the creative activity of this cuneus as the household background, abilities and accomplishments of the pupils. Family background includes the household income and the instruction of parents. Definitely households in urban countries of Pakistan tend to bask higher incomes as compared to those in rural households ; therefore they tend to inscribe their kids in private establishments.

Student ‘s accomplishments include the productiveness of acquisition, which is assumed to be positively correlated with the household background. Greater the instruction of parents and higher the income enjoyed by household, larger are the fringy returns from investing in kid ‘s instructions. Wealthier parents can afford to supply their kids with higher quality educational inputs, therefore the end product that is a pupil skills & A ; accomplishments tend to be higher. As a consequence, private sector pupils are paid higher ( Behram & A ; Knowles, 1999 ) .

Besides, in this epoch of rapid technological alteration, demand for extremely skilled workers has risen by far. Students larning from hapless public or rural establishments of Pakistan are less likely to develop qualitative and advanced accomplishments, due to high dropout ratio. As a consequence, they are categorized more into the bracket of unskilled labourers, being paid lower hapless rewards ( Khan & A ; Jamal, 2005 ) .

1.4.2 Variation in wagess between work forces and adult females schooling

Male female income derived function has ever been a serious job in labour markets of Pakistan but the nature and extent of this disparity varies across different parts. This depends upon the economic construction and distribution of resources in that part. In general there is a higher wages for work forces ‘s schooling as compared to adult females ‘s. As a consequence, it prompts parents to put mostly on male childs, therefore widening the gender income spread ( Aslam, 2005 ) .

In recent old ages, the gender income spread has narrowed down in urban countries of the state, while has remained more or less the same for the rural countries. This is because females in developed urban countries are more likely to finish their basic formal instruction. Therefore they have started to go every bit productive as work forces in all walks of life.

( Aftab & A ; Sabir ) explains that there is regional fluctuation in gender wage spread found based on the intervention of adult females. In rural countries, an addition in the unequal intervention of work forces and adult females has proved to be a major lever for enlargement of gender wage spread in labour markets. Besides the construction of feudal system has remained really strong in such countries, characterized by powerful male laterality. Men see adult females to be their subsidiary, therefore curtailing their entree to instruction and labour market. This as a consequence has increased the gender income spread on a significant degree ( Taga, 2012 ) .

1.5 Educational Dualism and the ensuing socio- economic instabilities

Today ‘s Pakistan has been divided into two parts ; one for the under privileged 1s, and the other for the elite and privileged. And by no agency is education an exclusion to this phenomenon. The dichotomy of instruction system in Pakistan has divided the population into one section that is basking good nutrition, strong place in the labour market and therefore a better criterion of life. While the other more than half into a section wholly deprived of all kinds of premiums of life. They are those who non merely are born hapless, but due to deficiency of entree to good quality instruction, and accordingly, want from all societal and economic domains, are forced to remain hapless. ( Malik, 2007 ) contends that it is really unfortunate with Pakistan that dualism has been defended since what long. No other facet is every bit much a cause of criticalness in state of affairs of instruction system as the fact that this dichotomy has been deliberately or accidentally promoted.

This dualism has dichotomized our society into a hierarchy, where each degree represents different sets of cognition supporting that peculiar category construction. Therefore, the Pakistani instruction system non merely supplements category unfairnesss but is besides bring forthing perverted heads that are enslaved and lack ethical motives. On one side, there is instruction for common adult male, what we say the public instruction while on the other side we have those establishments that are copying western instruction. Although they are making this in a chase of leaving best quality and international criterion instruction, but they are burying that it is non that which suits our social demands, neither this strategy is relevant to our economic system ‘s complex jobs. Undoubtedly, effectivity and efficiency of these establishments is far better than that of those leaving normal standard instruction, but it is spliting that one societal group into different categories and formation of elite. Pakistan ‘s instruction system would merely function the demands of its society when it would non bring forth alone thought at single degree. This is because under the current system, there is a crisp contrast between an person and the society. We are stoping up holding dual criterions, where one is for us, while the other is for the staying society.

1.6 Review of the educational policies and reforms for cut downing rural urban prejudices in entree to instruction

1.6.1 Overview of National Education Policies

In the last few old ages, the primary end of authorities has been to guarantee and heighten the quality of instruction throughout Pakistan. Assorted attempts have been made for the enlargement of primary instruction and minimisation of rural and urban educational disparities. Literacy rate and primary registrations have doubtless demonstrated an betterment, but these values still lag behind that of the other states in the same part. The series of policy reforms have been discussed below.

Back so in 1993-1994, the Government of Pakistan in coaction with foreign givers had launched SAP, Social Action Programme, which was later included in the 8th Five twelvemonth program. The basic accent of the program was on the primary instruction, Centre of focal point being the misss ‘ instruction. It aimed at increasing the entree, quality and proficiency of instruction. Furthermore, co-education was introduced in all states of Pakistan in order to heighten misss ‘ instruction. In Baluchistan and Sindh, separate schools for misss were besides established, and as a consequence, misss ‘ engagement rose up by 15 % . Assorted findings reveal that SAP had a positive impact on misss ‘ instruction in rural countries. Therefore, the chief donees of an improved instruction system were the rural misss and adult females. Under this Action Plan, 4000 schools were opened, where 1000 were for the misss entirely, therefore, significantly impacting the grownup literacy rate.

Adult literacy has been an nescient facet in the instruction system of Pakistan in past 5 decennaries. It was during Zia ‘s epoch, when Nai Roshni schools were set up under Literacy and Mass instruction Commission ( LMEC ) , in order to aim grownup literacy. A wages of Rs.1000 was granted for change overing an grownup nonreader into literate. It became compulsory for every pupil who passed Intermediate Examination to turn one uneducated into educated citizen, so that those kids who were unable to go to authorities or private school at appropriate age could be targeted. Sadly, the policy came to an terminal at the beginning of Bhutto ‘s first government. After that no peculiar grownup literacy policy has been in consequence ( Mahmood & A ; Khan, 1997 ) .

( Ministry of Education, Islamabad 2003 ) , briefs about other developments in instruction policy reforms including the induction of ESR ( Education Sector Reforms ) , Action Plan for 2000-2003. It aimed at heightening the quality and measure of instruction at all sub sectors of the instruction system. Following are the 6 major countries of precedences under this Plan:

Raising literacy through EFA ( Education for All ) , Quality rescue, Increasing handiness for higher instruction chances, beef uping the public-private partnership and the nexus between station secondary instruction and employment. This Action Plan was supposed to be non any other ordinary policy reform, but a program aimed at heightening educational public presentation in all respects of entree and quality of instruction at each degree

National Education Policy of 2009 was considered a albatross, as it proposed to increase the literacy rate by up to 86 % by 2015. Basic purposes of this proposal were to aim big literacy rate, to universalise the primary instruction and to pull an premise of nothing dropout rates at primary degree. Introducing the construct of free instruction was something new. It had besides has focused on keeping gender and regional equality at assorted instruction degrees, most significantly at the simple degree. As a consequence, significant addition in registration of rural kids between the ages of 6-16 was found. Besides, the private school registration was set on rise, where highest was seen in Gilgit Baltishtan, followed by FATA and Punjab. Decent betterment in arithmetic proficiency was besides one result ( Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2011-12 ) .

1.6.2 Issues and concerns with these policies

In malice of the fact that authorities has initiated assorted policy reforms to better the instruction system of Pakistan, the state of affairs remains the same. Our instruction system still is one of the most delicate and weakest amongst other developing states. Neither the attempts of authorities, nor of the private sector are giving any singular alteration. Lack of productive reforms will merely bring forth young person that is non an plus, but a load on the shoulders of the economic system. So there is a desperate demand of looking into the loopholes of these policy reforms and of get the better ofing them with a serious concern.

First, the importance of instruction itself has been unknown to all the policy shapers in Pakistan. They still have n’t realized that investing in human capital is the most of import and the most productive investing. Harmonizing to ( Khan & A ; Mahmood, 1997 ) true it is that most of our Curates appointed in instruction sector are illiterate, or non extremely educated. Had been this realisation at that place, the largest ball of budget allotments would hold been allotted to instruction, but unluckily, this is n’t the instance as yet. The allotments are still far below the existent demand.

Then, most of the reforms target primary degree instruction, disregarding the importance of secondary or higher instruction. It is really apparent from the fact that all station alumnuss turn their faces towards abroad for good quality higher instruction. This is a serious concern since our young person, with developed expertness and accomplishments do n’t function the Pakistan ‘s economic system. Alternatively of supplying big graduated table and long term benefits to this economic system, they help boom foreign economic system.

Besides the political instability and high degree of corruptness is one other major ground why assorted reforms still are n’t assisting us. Incidence of graft, established at all authorities degrees is exceptionally high in instance of Pakistan. Every twelvemonth, a immense ball of budget is lost in footings of graft and unluckily, there is no history of that. Plus, the safarashi thing continues to increase. Therefore, the deficiency of answerability plays a important function in publicity of corruptness and the ensuing inefficiencies in the instruction system.

Although there has been a proviso of free primary instruction on those fancy reform documents but practically, this construct has non been implemented on a noticeable graduated table. Many still are unable to entree instruction in underprivileged countries, and even in urban hapless countries due to miss of fiscal resources. ( Aly, 2007 ) emphasizes on the cardinal direction issues in our instruction sector, stating that instruction system is whole large machine to look after. By merely implementing reforms, the govt. can non alter the result. Rather, it is the effectual direction of this machinery that will really bring forth productive results.

1.6.3 Areas of possible betterments

There is a whole batch of possible in Pakistan ‘s Education sector to function in most efficient and effectual mode, therefore giving extremely productive results. For this to go on, authorities demands to pay serious attending to assorted sub sectors of the instruction system. Expansion and betterment of Early Childhood instruction demands to be looked upon foremost, since it is considered extremely of import input towards the beginning of kid ‘s primary instruction. Attempts are required to make impulse for the integrating of Early Childhood Education into the system, so that rural and urban pre-school instruction can be expanded and strengthened.

An action program must be devised to excite demand for instruction, particularly in the rural countries of Pakistan, while doing certain that supply of necessary educational services is provided. Awareness making runs must be organized so that nonreader or non to educated parents can recognize the pressing demand of puting in their kid ‘s instruction. Provision of free instruction and scholarship plans on a wider graduated table can move as major inducements. Increased budget appraisal and fiscal agreements are required, since the allotments for instruction sector have been far less than the existent demand.

Improved administration of schemes and monitoring of educational policies is required under the current educational system. Lack of answerability has merely led to formation of schemes and non the effectual execution. So when there will be answerability on cardinal, probationary and territory degree of govt. , it will non merely guarantee that policies are being implemented in a coveted mode, but besides that they are revised and hitting right on their marks in pattern. On portion of educational institutes, increased monitoring of pupils ‘ public presentation is besides that needs to be looked upon. Minimal criterions for pupil accomplishment must be defined, which are to be shared with parents, instructors and all other stakeholders.

It is now the clip to beef up public private partnership in instruction system. The spread between unmet educational demand and the shriveling fiscal allocations for carry throughing this demand is increasing. Govt. entirely can non defy the increased load of funding. Thus it is high clip to pull private investors towards elating of this sector. They have immense potency for spread outing just entree to schooling and of heightening the educational results ( Robertson & A ; Verger 2012 ) .