Self-service technology

Determining Consumer Satisfaction and Commitment through Self-Service Technology and Personal Service Usage

Abstraction

Self-service engineering ( SST ) is really popular in any Hong Kong industry today. Automatic Teller Machine ( ATM ) is one of SST which provides bank service. However, there is still a certain unknown about SST and personal service use on its consumer satisfaction and consumer committedness.

The intent of this study was to plan a study through bank service ( i.e. ATM and personal service use ) in order to find the consumer satisfaction and multidimensional step of consumer committedness including: Affectional Commitment, Continuance Commitment and Calculative Commitment. First of all, literature reappraisal will be set up in this study so as to specify the SST, personal service use, consumer satisfaction and committedness in bank service. Then the hypothesis theoretical account and conceptual model will be predicted. The research methodological analysis will so followed to bespeak the information aggregation, sample design and information analysis. Furthermore, a study questionnaire will be designed for ATM user to obtain answering informations. Then the study consequences in sample size of 110 and informations will be analyzed in SPSS. The information will so execute in descriptive statistic, dependability analysis, factor analysis and t-test. Discussion will be provided to analyze and explicate the informations that how to make the purpose of the study. Last, decision will be involved with farther possible research.

Keywords:

Self-service engineering, personal service, consumer satisfaction, consumer committedness, affectional committedness, continuation committedness and calculating committedness

List of Abbreviations

SST = Self-Service Technology

PSU = Personal Service Usage

ATM = Automatic Teller Machine

SPSS = Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

PCA = Principal Component Analysis

Chapter 1

Introduction

In this chapter, background of the survey will be introduced. The survey purpose and research aims will be discussed following. Follow with a study lineation and range of survey will be presented. The restriction of research will be shown in the last portion.

1.1 Background of the survey

Servicess are really of import between a company and consumers. Personal service use is the most common and traditional manner between front-line staff and consumers. Personal service use is a simple but practical service where the company can supply direct aid from front-line staff to client. However, the market is being revolutionized by technological inventions in every Hong Kong industry. Nowadays, this traditional service was replaced by a modern type of service: Self-service engineering ( SST ) . Many organisations are increasing the usage of engineering to supply competitory services in order to pull more clients and remain in front in their market, particularly in bank service. Self-service engineering ( SST ) defines as a engineering interface that enables client to bring forth and devour services without direct aid from house employees ( Meuter et al. 2000 ) . SST can surely cut down labour cost to the service supplier where personal service can supply direct service to client. This tendency raises some of import point about the impact of engineering on service quality and client satisfaction degrees. For illustration: can the company maintain or better the degrees of client satisfaction in taking employee/customer interface from its forepart line? There are limited empirical research surveies on ego service engineerings impact on client ‘s perceived value on service bringing and its impact on their satisfaction degree ( Dabholkar 1994 ) . Therefore, farther survey is required to hold better penetrations on clients ‘ satisfaction and committedness on self-service engineering, particularly on the history of additions in technological developments, and changeless thrust to utilize newer engineerings to derive competitory advantage in the market topographic point.

1.2 Study Aim and Research aims

The major purpose of this study is to find the consumer satisfaction and committedness through Self-service engineering ( SST ) and personal service use. A study will be performed in this study and develop a trial theoretical account of the affect of SST on consumers ‘ satisfaction of the service and their committedness to the service supplier. This study will besides concentrate on the literature reappraisal which relevant to the survey and the development of the hypotheses which drive the survey. On the other manus, the conceptual model will so depict and the findings are presented by a deep probe. After analyze by SPSS, a treatment of the consequences will so follows in this research. Finally, farther research will reason the study. This study will lend the apprehension of the consumer satisfaction and committedness of the SST and personal service use.

1.3 Report Outline

In this Chapter, principle and background of the survey will be stated. Furthermore, purposes and aims will be mentioned. The concluding portion will be the lineation of the survey.

Chapter 2 provinces a reappraisal of relevant literature on SST, personal service use, consumer satisfaction and committedness. A hypothesis theoretical account and the conceptual model will so be set up.

Chapter 3 will concentrate on the Methodology of this research undertaking. Research scene will be discussed in the first portion. Then data aggregation will so follow to specify how to garner informations information for the study method. Besides, a brief debut of the questionnaire will besides demo in this chapter including pre-test and the construction of questionnaire. Last, informations analysis will be presented how to analyse the obtained informations.

Chapter 4 is the of import portion of the study that will show the consequence and treatment from the SPSS. Further treatment on the consequence of some accomplishment: profile of interviewees, Descriptive Statistic, Reliability Analysis, Factor Analysis, Correlations Matrix, Factor Loadings and T-Test.

Chapter 5 will demo the decision of the study and future surveies will besides propose for farther research worker.

1.4 Scope of Study

This survey aims to find the consumer satisfaction and committedness through Self-service engineering ( SST ) and personal service use. Focus is placed on the bank service field which ATM will be an illustration of Self-service engineering ( SST ) and Teller will be an illustration of personal service use.

1.5 Limitation of Research

As atmosphere is a soundless linguistic communication, there is no definite reply on which 1 is better and which one is more attractive. The replies change among different people as different sort of people have different perceptual experiences, like some people love pink colour while some do non. Therefore, the figure and information is for mention merely.

This survey is traveling to be conducted by study questionnaire, which may do some disadvantages as interviewees may be excessively subjective, the research worker may neglect to acknowledge the profusion of the informations collected and reap the penetrations on offer due to the deficiency of experience.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

This chapter will concentrate on the literature reappraisal which relevant to the survey and the development of the hypotheses which drive the survey. On the other manus, the conceptual model will so depict.

2.1 Self-service Technology

In order to react the rapid alteration of the external environment, service supplier of most industries has increase the usage of engineering so as to better their productiveness and fight. Kelley ( 1989 ) discuss that the function of engineering in service organisations is to cut down costs and extinguish uncertainnesss seemingly. In the service sector, engineering has been used to standardise services by cut downing the interaction between employee and client ( Quinn, 1996 ) . Some anterior surveies suggest that the traditional market place interaction is being replaced by a market infinite dealing ( Rayport and Sviokla 1994, 1995 ) . That means engineering service weed out personal service through competition. Besides, there are Numberss of clients will to interact with engineering to make service results alternatively of interacting with a service house employee.

SST is an illustration of market infinite minutess in which no interpersonal contact is required between purchaser and marketer ( Matthew L. Meuter, Amy L. Ostrom, Robert I. Roundtree, & A ; Mary Jo Bitner,2000 ) . Previous surveies have demonstrated that consumer benefits of utilizing SST include convenience ( Meuter et al. , 2000 ; Reichheld and schefter, 2000 ; szymanski and hise, 2000 ) , save clip and money ( Meuter et al 2000 ) , avoiding interpersonal interaction ( Dabholkar, 1996 ; Meuter et al. , 2000 ) and being in control ( Dabholkar, 1996 ; Zeithaml et al. , 2000 ) .

SST is a technological interface that enables clients to bring forth a service independent of direct service employee engagement. There are many sorts of illustrations about SST which are increasing across a scope of service, from traditional high contact service to low contact service, they are: booking tickets to watch a movie through cyberspace instead than traveling into the ticket counter ; look intoing out of a hotel via the automated installation on the Television set in your hotel room instead than traveling down to the response desk and line up a long clip to interact with hotel staff ; fuelling the auto in the station by VISA card instead than inquiring staff to shoot fuel.

Although there are many illustrations of SST listed above, the most authoritative illustration of SST is Automatic Teller Machine ( ATM ) . ATM is an electronic computerized telecommunications device which allows bank ‘s clients to do hard currency backdowns and look into their history balances at any clip without the demand for a human Teller. It provides the clients of a fiscal establishment with entree to fiscal minutess in a public infinite without the demand for a teller, human clerk or bank Teller. The thought of this sort self-service in retail banking developed through independent and coincident attempts in Japan, Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom. Many ATMs besides allow people to lodge hard currency or checks, reassign money between their bank histories or even purchase postage casts. The general characteristics and farther information of Automatic Teller Machine will be posted in the Appendix.

2.2 Personal Service Usage ( e.g. Teller )

In recent old ages, people rely on bit by bit matured SST. Our day-to-day life has become more and more convenient. But back to basic, SST was converted from the original and traditional sort of service: personal service use. Personal service use is a sort of service that has direct interaction between the front-staff of organisation service supplier and the consumer. Consumer can have direct service from the staff without any engineering. Furthermore, consumer can raise any inquiry at that minute and can hold prompt respond/answer from the organisation. There are many illustration of personal service use: ticketing counter, people can make the fining counter to purchase the appropriate ticket and ticker movie by inquiring the front-desk staff ; response desk, people can travel to the response desk to use check-out service in a hotel ; nevertheless, bank Teller is the most appropriate illustration of personal service use in this study.

A bank Teller is an employee of a bank who deals straight with most clients. These employees are known as a teller in some topographic points. Edward tellers are considered as a “ front line ” in the banking concern. This is because they are the first people that clients reach at the bank and are besides the people most likely to observe and halt darnel minutess in order to forestall losingss at a bank ( imitative currency and cheques, individuality larceny, assurance fast ones, etc. ) . The place besides requires Tellers to be friendly and interact with the clients, supplying them with information about clients ‘ histories and bank services.

2.3 Consumer Satisfaction

Consumer satisfaction can be defined as high quality. As Fournier and Mick ( 1999 ) province, consumer satisfaction is a cardinal selling construct. High consumer satisfaction evaluations are widely believed to be the best index of a company ‘s future net incomes ( Kotler 1991 ) . Consumer satisfaction can besides defined as an rating based on the consumer ‘s experiences with a service supplier over the period of clip ( Garbarino and Johnson1999 ) . Consumer satisfaction normally use as a standard for interpret merchandise or service public presentation and it has been linked to overall steadfast public presentation. It is good established that consumer satisfaction can impact client keeping and profitableness ( Anderson and Fornell 1994 ; Mano and Oliver 1993 ; Oliver 1993, 1997 ; Price, Arnould, and Tierney 1995 ; Reichheld and Sasser 1990 ) . Consumer satisfaction is a chief construct in modem selling idea and pattern. It is ever as a primary aim to the directors. It besides serves as a really of import feedback mechanism for each organisation. Furthermore, consumer satisfaction may be affected by the interaction with engineering or with the companies ‘ staff. The selling construct emphasizes presenting satisfaction ( non merely merchandises ) to consumers and obtaining net incomes in return. As a consequence, overall quality of life is expected to be better.

In this study, consumer satisfaction is conceptualized as overall satisfaction and is defined as an affectional province or overall emotional reaction to a service experience ( Amanda 2006 ) . Appraisals of overall satisfaction will be updated after interaction between consumer and the staff from the organisation. It is of import to place the cardinal drivers of this satisfaction appraisal as they enable the directors to happen out the comparative importance of different constituents of the service ( Garbarino and Johnson 1999 ) . Therefore, the organisation can concentrate on those which are the most importance to consumers by placing these constituents with the aim to better overall satisfaction.

2.4 Consumer Commitment

Consumer committedness plays a cardinal function in relationships. As Scanzoni ( 1979 ) stated “commitment is the most advanced stage of spouses ‘ interdependence” . Consumer committedness can be defined as an indispensable ingredient for successful long-run relationships which is similar to swear. Committedness is besides recognized as “an euduring desire to keep a valued relationship” ( Moorman, Zaltman, and Deshpande 1992 ) . In old survey, it is agreed that common committedness among spouses in concern relationships produces fatal benefits for companies. Organization can better merchandise developments, addition borders and market portions, and addition net income. Distributors gain deeper market incursion and higher client satisfaction. Commitment is a cardinal construct in the relationship selling paradigm ( Dwyer et al. , 1987 ) . The conceptualisation of committedness stems from industrial/organizational psychological science and has been viewed as an purpose to go on a class of action or activity ( Fehr, 1988 ) . Committedness in the buyer-seller relationship literature is defined as “an implicit or expressed pledge of relational continuity between exchange partners” ( Dwyer et al. , 1987 ) . It can besides specify as psychological fond regard to an organisation ( Gruen et al. 2000 ) . Committedness is seen as a sentiment that is critically of import in the development of long-run channel relationships or as a favourable affectional reaction ( Kumar et al. , 1995 ) . Therefore, committedness is a psychological sentiment of the head through which an attitude refering continuance of a relationship with a concern spouse is formed ( Martin Wetzels 1998 ) . Commitment is merely like a force that binds an person to a class of action of relevancy to one or more marks ( Meyer and Herscovitch 2001 ) . And this force refers to different psychological province that reflect the nature of the person ‘s relationship with the mark of involvement and that have deductions for the determination to go on that relationship ( Meyer and Allen 1997 ) . This psychological province can be classified as three constituents: Affectional committedness, Continuance committedness and Calculative committedness.

2.41 Affectional Committedness

Harmonizing to Martin Wetzels ( 1998 ) , committedness is an affectional province of head an single or spouse has toward a relationship with another person or spouse. This sort of committedness is called affectional committedness. Affectional committedness is brought approximately by a individual sharing, placing with, or internalising the values of the organisation ( Morgan and Hunt, 1994 ) . Affectional committedness is based on a sense of wishing and emotional fond regard to the partnership. ( i.e. employees stay with the organisation merely because they want to ) . Affectional committedness is a desire-based fond regard to the organisation. Furthermore, it is the most effectual for developing and keeping reciprocally good relationships between spouses ( Kumar et al. , 1994 ) . Affectional committedness has strong positive influences on: public presentation ; desire to remain in a relationship ; purpose to remain in a relationship ; and willingness to put in a relationship. Besides that, it was found that it has strong negative influences on: timeserving behaviour ; and development of options for a relationship. It merely like a psychological force that is affectional and adhering the consumer to the service supplier out of desire in nature.

2.42 Continuance Committedness

Continuance committedness defines as a constraint-based force adhering the consumer to the organisation out of demand. It means that consumer stay with a service supplier because they feel they have to. It reflects a sense of being “locked in” to the service supplier ( Meyer and Herscovitch 2001 ) . Continuance committedness is besides similar to “constraint-based” relationship in which consumer believe they can non stop a relationship because of economic sciences, societal or psychological costs. On the other manus, continuation committedness is a cost-based fond regard where an employee feels he or she has to remain with the organisation ( i.e. employees remain with the organisation because they need to ) . It merely like a psychological force that is normative and adhering the consumer to the service supplier out of sensed duty in nature. Continuance committedness is associated with the percipient cost associated with stoping a class of action ( Meyer and Herscovitch 2001 ) . It is besides associated with the perceptual experience that there is a deficiency of options available ( Meyer and Allen 1997 ) . For illustration, if the cost of exchanging are high or if the consumer perceives that there are few alternate suppliers available, so this continuation force ( constraint-based ) occurs and adhering the consumer to the service supplier out of demand. As the exchanging cost like” clip, attempt or money addition, consumers are more likely to comprehend that they are “locker in” to their service suppliers, which in bend consequences in them being less likely to exchange service suppliers. Alternately, to the extent that other service suppliers are perceived to be attractive, consumers are less likely to experience “locker in” with their bing service supplier, which increase the possibility of exchanging.

2.43 Calculating committedness

Calculating committedness was negatively influenced by trust ( Geyskens and Steenkamp, 1995 ) . Calculating Committedness is conceptualized as the sum of attempt put in the procedure of ciphering costs and benefits of a relationship. It seems that if spouses in a relationship trust each other more they are more emotionally involved and less consciously weighing the benefits against the costs of that relationship. The other position sees committedness as being more behavioural than affectional. This signifier is referred to as calculating committedness and stems from a cognitive rating of the instrumental worth of a continued relationship with the organisation. All additions and losingss, assets and subtractions or wagess and penalties are added up ( Morgan and Hunt, 1994 ) . Geyskens et Al. ( 1996, p. 304 ) define committedness as the sensed demand to “maintain a relationship given the important awaited expiration or shift costs associated with leaving” . Calculating committedness is an obligation-based fond regard to the organisation ( i.e. employees stay with the organisation merely because they ought to – the “right” thing to make ) . It merely likes a psychological force that is continuation and adhering the consumer to the service supplier out of demand in nature.

2.5 Conceptual Model

It is necessary to develop a conceptual model in order to analyze relational committedness and its relationship with assorted ancestors and effects. Consumer satisfaction is a cardinal selling construct ( Fournier and Mick 1999 ) . As mentioned in old chapter, Consumer satisfaction is conceptualized in this survey as overall satisfaction. Equally good as measuring consumer satisfaction, it is indispensable to place the cardinal drivers of this satisfaction appraisal as they enable directors to determine the comparative importance of different constituents of the service ( Garbarino and Johnson 1999 ) . These constituents are being identified and directors are able to concentrate on those primary importances to consumers, so as to better consumer satisfaction. Furthermore, some specific service jobs could be able to nail by concentrating on those specific constituents. In an illustration, consumer may fulfill with three or four properties but dissatisfied with the public presentation of one or two properties. An appraisal of consumer satisfaction can non observe in this state of affairs. It has of import consequence as a diagnostic tool for the organisation.

The necessity of service attributed has been point out in old survey by a Numberss of writers. Furthermore, the relationship of these properties between consumer satisfactions has been found in old surveies ( Voss, G. , Parasuraman, A. and Grewal, D. 1998 ) . The service organisation ( service supplier ) could understand more on the affectional and cognitive appraisal of the service brush by look intoing the consumer satisfaction and service properties.

“Trust may be perceived as the most of import property for a mechanic” or “empathy may be a cardinal property for a physician to exhibit” by Amanda Beatson 2006. Different industries may hold different properties which are more of import to that industry. In this survey, properties may besides differ between two service-delivery manner ( SST and personal service use ) . That can explicate different elements go more of import when presented with different service-delivery manners. The result of self-service engineering may be more of import ( e.g. the velocity or convenience of the SST ) whereas the mode in which a service is delivered from the staff may be more of import when utilizing personal service ( e.g. the friendliness of staff ) . As a consequence, the service-delivery manners are described as separate concepts in this conceptual model. In current study, both properties for SST and personal service use are really of import. There are many illustrations of these properties: properties for SST include self-service save clip, self-service convenience, self-service fast respond, etc ; properties for personal service include: professional service, prompt service, dependable service, etc.

2.6 Hypothesiss

Lapp to old survey by ( Meuter 2000 ) , this study is hypothesized that direct relationships exist from the properties of the two service-delivery manners ( self-service engineering and personal service use ) to the overall consumer satisfaction. It can be assumed those consumers are more likely to be satisfied overall with the complete service experience if they rate the public presentation of the assorted constituents of the service positively. Therefore, it shows that an overall appraising judgement is made based on the single elements that contribute toward this overall judgement. For illustration: based on the of import constituents of the SST which the consumer feel, if the consumer is satisfied with the public presentation of the SST, they are supposable to be satisfied with the overall service every bit good. Hence, when public presentation on SST properties have high rates, consumers are more likely to be satisfied with the entire service. As a consequence, the first hypothesis is suggested to be:

H1: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on consumer satisfaction

Similarly, based on the of import constituents of the personal service which the consumer feel, if the consumer is satisfied with the public presentation of the personal service, they are supposable to be satisfied with the overall service every bit good. Hence, when public presentation on personal service properties have high rates, consumers are more likely to be satisfied with the entire service. Therefore, the 2nd hypothesis is suggested to be:

H2: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on consumer satisfaction

As Garbarino and Johnson ( 1999 ) mentioned that consumer satisfaction can be linked with consumer committedness. In the old chapter of literature reappraisal, it is proposed that consumer committedness in this survey is conceptualized as a multidimensional concept with three dimensions ; affectional committedness, continuation committedness and calculating committedness. Affectional committedness is conceptualized as a consumer desire to go on the relationship with an organisation because of a positive attitude toward the organisation. Continuance committedness can be defined as the length of service of consumer ‘s committedness to the organisation, or outlooks of continuity ( Garbarino and Johnson 1999 ) . Calculating committedness is that the consumer stays with or go forth the organisation depends on the being of perceived costs which can be economic or psychological in nature ( Morgan and Hunt 1994 ) .

It is sensible to presume that there are of import relationship in between satisfaction and all three dimensions of committedness. For illustration, if consumers satisfy with the overall service, it is perceived that they are likely to experience a positive attitude toward the organisation and want to go on to return to the organisation because they like to. This suggests that consumer satisfaction leads to affective committedness.

H3: Consumer satisfaction will hold positive impact on Affectional Committedness

Similarly, if consumers satisfy with the overall service, it is perceived that they will desire to travel back to that same service supplier when they want the service once more. This suggests that consumer satisfaction leads to continuance committedness.

H4: Consumer satisfaction will hold positive impact on Continuance Commitment

Similarly, if consumers satisfy with the overall service, it is perceived that they will non go forth that service supplier as the costs to fall in new organisation or elsewhere possibly excessively high and need to pass clip and attempt to happen another 1. This suggests that consumer satisfaction leads to calculative committedness.

H5: Consumer satisfaction will hold positive impact on Calculating Committedness

As explored in this survey, it is hypothesized that a direct relationship exists between service properties and those three committedness ( affectional, continuation and calculative ) . In the same manner that SST property and personal service property were proved to associate to consumer satisfaction, and so it can besides be assumed that they will associate to the committedness dimensions. For illustration, if consumers have a positive feedback with the SST attributes or the personal service properties that are of import to them, consumers will hold more positive feedback toward the organisation and wish to return. Thus SST attributes and personal service properties are suggested and contributed to affectional committedness. Likewise, if consumers have a positive feedback with the self-service engineering attributes or the personal service properties that are of import to them, consumers are likely to return to the service supplier in future. This shows that self-service engineering properties and personal service properties are suggested and contributed to continuance committedness. Equally, if consumers have a positive feedback with the SST attributes or the personal service properties that are of import to them, consumers may non wish to go forth the relationship with the organisation as the cost is excessively high and they may experience they have invested in that relationship. Therefore, it shows that SST attributes and personal service properties are suggested and contributed to calculative committedness. Finally, it is hypothesized that:

H6: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on Affectional Committedness

H7: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on Continuance Commitment

H8: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on Calculating Committedness

H9: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on Affectional Committedness

H10: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on Continuance Commitment

H11: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on Calculating Committedness

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

In this chapter, it will concentrate on the Methodology of this research undertaking. Research scene will be discussed in the first portion. Then data aggregation will so follow to specify how to garner informations information for the study method. Besides, a brief debut of the questionnaire will besides demo in this chapter including pre-test and the construction of questionnaire. Last, informations analysis will be presented how to analyse the obtained informations.

3.1 Introduction

The research method of this paper will be introduced in this chapter. The background of the research method and advantages will be discussed. The analysing method will besides be explained in the last portion of this chapter.

Lapp to the rubric of this study, the mark of this survey is to find consumer satisfaction and committedness through SST and personal service use. In order to carry through the mark of this survey, ATM has been selected as the topic of this instance survey.

In this study, the first measure that is to find the research method and study has been chosen in this survey. On the other manus, SPSS is chosen to assist analysis the study consequence and take further survey on the information. Second, it is indispensable to put up the Conceptual Framework and Hypotheses which related to the literature reappraisal in the old chapter. Third, research scene and informations aggregation will be survey and so follow up by develop the questionnaire with the response graduated table and information analysis.

3.2 Research Puting

With the literature in the old chapter, the purpose of this study is to find consumer satisfaction and committedness through SST and personal service use. There is a tendency particularly in bank service that, front-line staff of traditional Teller is being replaced by SST i.e. ATM. However, some service in some organisation have found that is hard to present SST to their service because of deficiency of human interaction, while still maintaining personal service to keep service quality.

The research puting for this study was all people in Hong Kong. This study is looking for a broad scope of respondents in the study such as bankers, pupils, workers, etc… Furthermore, this study will concentrate on the consumer satisfaction and committedness of ATM and Teller. There are many grounds that ATM and Teller was selected in this study. First, ATM is the most authoritative illustration of SST as mentioned in old chapter. While ATM is the authoritative illustration of SST, and it is belong to the bank service, so Teller is the appropriate illustration of personal service in this study. Second, ATM was traditionally classified as a high contact services with a high grade of personalization. Beside that, teller is peculiarly of import in bank service for finding consumer satisfaction and consumer committedness.

Examples of SST used in bank service include: automatic hard currency backdown, automatic transportation, automatic recognition card refund, automatic measure payment, automatic near history, automatic sedimentation etc. With the above grounds, ATM and Teller are an appropriate scene for this study survey. It must be acknowledged. However, the focal point in this study is SST used in bank service stay versus personal service in traditional service with front-line staff.

3.3 Data Collection

As mentioned, the research puting for this study was all people in Hong Kong. This study is looking for a broad scope of respondents in the study such as bankers, pupils, workers, etc…It is because SST is still in a beginning phase that is non accepted by all people, so a simple random sample of the population would probably ensue in this study. Questionnaire is widely accepted as a method utilizing in a study study. A questionnaire will be set up and administer to friends, category pupil and over the cyberspace by utilizing “my3q” which is an on-line study system. Furthermore, it will besides be distributed in some bank with Express Banking Center which contain ATM and Teller counter. Surely, a higher population of the study would be better for analysing this study. However this study will merely anticipate around one hundred in population sample size due to the limited clip and resources. Although the sample may non be representative of the best consequence, it is adequate to demo the demands of this survey. In this research, electronic mails and on-line message were executed to the mark in order to accomplish the statistical informations.

3.4 Questionnaire

A questionnaire is a research instrument dwelling of a series of inquiries and other prompts for the intent of garnering information from respondents. Although they are frequently designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is non ever the instance. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton ( From Wikipedia ) .

Cheap is one of the advantages of questionnaires over some other types of studies. It does non necessitate as much attempt from the inquirer as verbal or telephone studies, and frequently have standardized replies that make it simple to roll up informations. However, such standardised replies may thwart a user which is the disadvantage of questionnaire. Questionnaires are besides aggressively limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the inquiries and respond to them. Therefore, for some demographic groups carry oning a study by questionnaire may non be practical.

A study utilizing a questionnaire is widely accepted as a method for a research survey. To verify the hypothesis theoretical account, a field survey technique was applied in the questionnaires. The questionnaire contains the inquiry sing the trust and subjective norm, which were refer to prior surveies and relevant theories. Respondents were asked to give their penchant on a five points graduated table which is similar to Likert graduated table. This graduated table type has ever been used in questionnaires and study researches, since it can be used to mensurate the positive or negative response to the statement. The graduated table is runing from strongly differ ( 1 ) ; disagree ( 2 ) ; impersonal ( 3 ) ; hold ( 4 ) ; strongly agree ( 5 ) in order to measure the topic ‘s understanding with each point. The questionnaire was distributed to users and possible users of the SST-enabled equipments in convenience shops.

3.41 Pre-Test

In order to heighten the fight of the questionnaire, pre-test had been done. The pre-test was conducted on several schoolmates to acquire the feedback about the lucidity of points. The concluding questionnaire contained 35 points and it was decided to give the inquiries in English every bit good as the local linguistic communication Chinese. It is recommended that to divide up to four income scope ( & lt ; $ 10000, $ 10001- $ 20000, $ 20001- $ 50000, $ 50000+ ) in inquiry 34. Last, some minor errors like spellings and dictions had besides been amended after the pre-tests.

3.42 Structure of the questionnaire

The construction of the questionnaire is based on some anterior surveies and research.

After sing each point in item, and necessary alterations were made by simplifying, taking and replacing some of them, there are 35 points has been set up in the questionnaire. These inquiries were reworded and rephrased to accommodate local working patterns and civilization. The questionnaire have separate into 5 major subdivisions: SST ( ATM ) , Customer Service ( Teller ) , Consumer Commitment, Consumer Satisfaction and Statistical Information.

Section A – Self-service Technology ( ATM )

In the first subdivision, it is designed to take research on the degree of public presentation in utilizing SST ( here ATMs ) of a bank including 7 inquiry as below. ( Assume respondent bing bank )

– In utilizing bank service by ATM, I found it is easy to utilize.

– In utilizing bank service by ATM, I found it is easy to command.

– In utilizing bank service by ATM, I found the pilotage is clear

– In utilizing bank service by ATM, I found the interface apprehensible.

– In utilizing bank service by ATM, it provides a prompt respond.

– In utilizing bank service by ATM, it provides a prompt dealing.

– I can happen out ATM easy as it ever located nearby

Section B – Customer Service ( Teller )

In the 2nd subdivision, it is designed to take research on the degree of public presentation in Customer Service ( Teller ) of a bank including 7 inquiries as below. ( Assume respondent bing bank )

– In utilizing bank service by Teller, it provides professional service.

– In utilizing bank service by Teller, it provides effectual service.

– In utilizing bank service by Teller, I can acquire accurate dealing without any errors.

– In utilizing bank service by Teller, I feel save and confident to utilize.

– In utilizing bank service by Teller, I can acquire antiphonal interaction.

– In utilizing bank service by Teller, it does non necessitate a batch of my mental attempt.

– In utilizing bank service by Teller, I feel warm.

Section C – Consumer Committedness

In the 3rd subdivision, it is designed to analyze in why client use the bank service of the bing bank by several consumer committedness ‘Affective Commitment ‘ , ‘Continuance Commitment ‘ , and ‘Calculative Commitment ‘ including 11 inquiries as below. ( Assume respondent bing bank )

– I feel this bank is dependable.

– I feel a strong sense of “belonging” to this bank.

– I feel this bank is trusty.

– I feel helpful when you have doubt or troubles inside or outside a bank.

– The bank employees are polite and with positive attitude to the client.

– I have the purpose to utilize the service of this bank in general once more in future.

– I have the purpose to maintain a long-run relationship with this bank.

– I feel that would be really difficult for me to go forth this bank right now, even if I wanted T

– I feel that is excessively inconvenience if I decide to go forth this bank.

– I feel that it ‘s non deserving in attempt if I change the bank because of many concernments.

– I feel that I have excessively few options to see go forthing this bank.

Section D – Consumer Satisfaction

In the 4th subdivision, it is designed to take research on the degree of overall consumer satisfaction of the bank service including 6 inquiries. ( Assume respondent bing bank )

– I am satisfied with this bank service.

– I am pleased with this bank service.

– I am contented with this bank service.

– I am delighted with this bank service.

– I am happy in utilizing this bank service.

– I feel comfy in utilizing this bank service.

Section E – Statistical Information

In the last subdivision, it is designed to obtain answering demographic information for statistical analysis.

– Age

– Gender

– Income scope

– Education degree

3.5 Data Analysis

After roll uping all the consequences from the questionnaire, SPSS ( originally, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ) will be employed to analysis the information. SPSS was foremost released in 1968 by Norman H. Nie and C. Hadlai Hullis. It is the most widely used plans for statistical analysis in societal scientific discipline in the universe and is used by market research workers, wellness research workers, study companies, authorities, instruction research workers, selling organisations and others.

After testing the information, merely 110 informations were sorted out as valid informations. In order to look into the hypothesis in chapter 2, Mean, Standard Deviation, Pie Chart, Bar Chart, Reliablity Analysis and Factor Analysis were being used. The consequence and the treatment will be shown in the following Chapter.

Chapter 4

Result and Discussion

This chapter is the of import portion of the study that will show the consequence and treatment from the SPSS. Further treatment on the consequence of some accomplishment: profile of interviewees, Descriptive Statistic, Reliability Analysis, Factor Analysis, Correlations Matrix, Factor Loadings and T-Test.

4.1 Profile of interviewees

The demographic inquiries had been asked in the last portion of the questionnaire. It aims to give out some background information about the respondents to the readers. There are 110 respondents in the research questionnaire. First of wholly, over 51 % of the respondents are female and over 48 % are male. Detailss are shown in Fig X. Secondly, more than 74 % of the interviewees are aged within 18-30 which is the largest graduated table. 18.31 % of them are in the age group of 31-50 and there are merely few per centums of the interviewees are in the age group of & lt ; 18 and 51-65, Detailss are shown in Fig X. Besides, about 50 % of them are in undergraduate degree in the educational background. Follow by about 40 % of them are in the group of Diploma/Higher Diploma. Less than 10 % of them are master or above and secondary degree. Merely one of the interviewee are belong to below secondary degree. Detailss are shown in Fig X. On the other manus, approximately 60 % of them are gaining $ 10001- $ 20000 per month while over 20 % are gaining below $ 10000. Less than 20 % of them are gaining $ 20001- $ 50000 income. Last, merely 1 % of them earn over $ 50000 per month. Detailss are shown in Fig X.

4.2 Descriptive Statistic

Table 1: Descriptive Statistic for the research

Descriptive statistics are used to depict the chief characteristics of a aggregation of informations in quantitative footings where it aims to quantitatively sum up a information set. The mean is the amount of the observations divided by the figure of observations. It is frequently quoted along with the standard divergence: the mean describes the cardinal location of the information, and the standard divergence describes the spread. The sample size of the information is 111 which including 6 variable of SST Attribute, Personal Service usage Attribute, Affective Commitment, Continuance Commitment, Calculative Commitment and Consumer Satisfaction.

Based on the Table X, The mean and standard divergence for SST Attribute is 26.38 and 4.34 severally. Since there are 7 points in SST Attribute, the estimation mean of each point is around 3.76. Comparison with the five-point graduated table of the questionnaire, it shows that respondent are feel about “Agree” with the inquiries in SST Attribute. Furthermore, the standard divergence is rather in a low criterion that indicates the information points tend to be really near to the mean.

For Personal Service usage Attribute, the mean and standard divergence is 24.89 and 4.34 severally. Since there are 7 points in Personal Service usage Attribute, the estimation mean of each point is around 3.55. Comparison with the five-point graduated table of the questionnaire, it shows that the respondent are feel between “Neutral” and “Agree” with the inquiries in Personal Service usage Attribute. Furthermore, the standard divergence is rather in a low criterion that indicates the information points tend to be really near to the mean.

Sing to Affective Commitment, the mean and standard divergence is 21.91 and 3.94 severally. Since there are 5 points in Affective Commitment, the estimation mean of each point is around 4.382. Comparison with the five-point graduated table of the questionnaire, it shows that the respondent are feel about “Strongly Agree” with the inquiries in Affectional Commitment. Furthermore, the standard divergence is rather in a low criterion that indicates the information points tend to be really near to the mean.

Over Continuance Commitment, the mean and standard divergence is 7.75 and 1.24 severally. Since there are merely 2 points in Continuance Commitment, the estimation mean of each point is around 3.875. Comparison with the five-point graduated table of the questionnaire, it shows that the respondent are feel about “Agree” with the inquiries in Continuance Commitment. Furthermore, the standard divergence is a really low criterion that indicates the information points tend to be really near to the mean.

Refering Calculating Commitment, the mean and standard divergence is 13.14 and 3.10 severally. Since there are 4 points in Calculative Commitment, the estimation mean of each point is around 3.285. Comparison with the five-point graduated table of the questionnaire, it shows that the respondent are feel more than “Neutral” with the inquiries in Calculating Commitment. Furthermore, the standard divergence is rather in a low criterion that indicates the information points tend to be really near to the mean.

For Consumer Satisfaction, the mean and standard divergence is 21.77 and 3.27 severally. Since there are 6 points in Consumer Satisfaction, the estimation mean of each point is around 3.62. Comparison with the five-point graduated table of the questionnaire, it shows that the respondent are feel about “Agree” with the inquiries in Consumer Satisfaction. Furthermore, the standard divergence is rather in a low criterion that indicates the information points tend to be really near to the mean.

4.3 Reliability Analysis

A questionnaire must non merely be valid, but besides dependable. Dependability is fundamentally the ability of the questionnaire to bring forth the same consequences under the same conditions. To be dependable the questionnaire must foremost be valid.

Dependability of an instrument is the extent to which it yields the same consequence on repeated tests. Out of assorted methods used for mensurating dependability, the internal consistence method is considered to be the most effectual method, particularly in field surveies. The internal-scale dependability ( Cronbach Alpha ) of the graduated table was estimated as 0.95 which is above the acceptable bound of 0.6 ( Hair et al. , 1995 ) .

One of the of import things for questionnaire dependability is: “Scale if point deleted” . This option provides a value of Cronback ‘s alpha for each point on the graduated table. It indicate what value of alpha would be if that point were deleted. If the questionnaire is dependable so it is non anticipate any point to greatly impact the overall dependability. In other words, no point should do a significant lessening in alpha. If it does so it has serious cause for concern and that point should see to drop from the questionnaire. As per old research, 0.6 is a good value of alpha, hence, all value of alpha “if point deleted” should be around 0.6 or higher.

Table 2: Dependability Analysis for SST Attribute

In Table X, it shows the consequences of the basic dependability analysis for SST Attribute. The concept dependability of these inquiries in SST Attribute is 0.8445 which is above the acceptable bound of 0.6 by Hair et al. , 1995, therefore these inquiry is dependable to the research.

The values in the column labeled “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” are the correlativities between each point and the entire mark from the questionnaire. In a dependable graduated table, all points should correlate with the sum. So, the analysis is looking for points that do n’t correlate with the overall mark from the graduated table: if any of these values are less than approximately 0.3 so it means that a peculiar point does non correlate really good with the graduated table overall. Items with low correlativities may hold to be dropped. In Table Ten, Q1-Q6 are holding acceptable value that greater than 0.3. However, the value of “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” between Q7 and Q1 to Q6 is lower than 0.3 which is Q7-Q1: 0.1648, Q7-Q2: 0.2758, Q7-Q3: 0.1639, Q7-Q4: 0.2918, Q7-Q5: 0.2039, Q7-Q6: 0.2899 ) . That means Q7 is holding low correlativities with Q1-Q6, and therefore it might hold to be dropped.

The values in the column labeled “Alpha if Item is Deleted” are the values of the overall alpha if that point is n’t include in the computation. As such, it reflects the alteration in Cronbach ‘s alpha that would be seen if a peculiar point were deleted. The overall alpha is 0.8445, and so all values in this column should be around that same value. If the values of alpha greater that the overall alpha, that means the omission of this point increase Cronbach ‘s alpha and the omission of this point improves dependability. In Table Ten, the worst wrongdoer is Q7: deleting this inquiry would increase the alpha from 0.8445 to 0.8744.

Table 3: Dependability Analysis for Personal Service Usage Attribute

In Table X, it shows the consequences of the basic dependability analysis for Personal Service Usage Attribute. The concept dependability of these inquiries in Personal Service Usage Attribute is 0.8018 which is above the acceptable bound of 0.6 by Hair et al. , 1995, therefore these inquiry is dependable to the research. On the other side, Q9-Q12 & A ; Q14 are holding acceptable value of “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” that greater than 0.3. However, the value between Q13-Q10, Q13-Q11, Q13-Q12 is lower than 0.3 which is 0.1873, 0.2387, 0.1753 severally. That means Q13 is holding low correlativities with Q10, Q11 and Q12. Last, the worst wrongdoer is Q13 which holding 0.8397 values of “Alpha if Item is Deleted” where the overall alpha is 0.8018. That means Q13 are recommended to be deleted and that would increase the alpha from 0.8018 to 0.8397.

Table 4: Dependability Analysis for Affective Commitment

In Table X, it shows the consequences of the basic dependability analysis for Affectional Commitment. The concept dependability of these inquiries in Affectional Commitment is 0.8991 which is above the acceptable bound of 0.6 by Hair et al. , 1995, therefore these inquiry is dependable to the research. Besides that, all value of “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” are greater than the acceptable scope of 0.3. Therefore, it shows that all inquiries ( Q15-Q19 ) for Affectional Committedness in this research is inter-correlated. Besides, since the overall alpha is 0.8991, the worst wrongdoer is Q16 which holding 0.8965 values of “Alpha if Item is Deleted” where it is still lower than the overall alpha. That means none of the points in Affective Commitment could be deleted to obtain a higher dependability.

Table 5: Dependability Analysis for Continuance Commitment

In Table X, it shows the consequences of the basic dependability analysis for Continuance Commitment. The concept dependability of these inquiries in Continuance Commitment is 0.7855 which is above the acceptable bound of 0.6 by Hair et al. , 1995, therefore these inquiry is dependable to the research. The “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” value for Q20 and Q21 is 0.656 where is greater than the acceptable scope of 0.3. Therefore, it shows that Q21 and Q21 for Continuance Commitment in this research are inter-correlated. However there are excessively less points for Continuance Commitment to bring forth the values of “Alpha if Item is Deleted” .

Table 6: Dependability Analysis for Calculative Commitment

In Table X, it shows the consequences of the basic dependability analysis for Calculating Commitment. The concept dependability of these inquiries in Calculating Commitment is 0.8221 which is above the acceptable bound of 0.6 by Hair et al. , 1995, therefore these inquiry is dependable to the research. On the other manus, all value of “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” for Calculative Commitment is greater than the acceptable scope of 0.3. Therefore, it shows that all inquiries ( Q15-Q19 ) in this research is inter-correlated. Last, since the overall alpha is 0.8221, the worst wrongdoer is Q25 which holding 0.8630 values of “Alpha if Item is Deleted” . That means Q25 are recommended to be deleted and that would increase the alpha from 0.8221 to 0.8630.

Table 7: Dependability Analysis for Consumer Satisfaction

In Table X, it shows the consequences of the basic dependability analysis for Consumer Satisfaction. The concept dependability of these inquiries in Consumer Satisfaction obtain a high value of 0.9434 which is besides above the acceptable bound of 0.6 by Hair et al. , 1995, therefore these inquiry is really dependable to the research. Besides, all value of “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” for Consumer Satisfaction is greater than the acceptable scope of 0.3. Therefore, it shows that all inquiries ( Q26-Q31 ) for Consumer Satisfaction in this research is inter-correlated. Since the overall alpha is 0.9434, the worst wrongdoer is Q26 which holding 0.9410 values of “Alpha if Item is Deleted” where it is still lower than the overall alpha. That means none of the points in Consumer Satisfaction could be deleted to obtain a higher dependability.

4.4 Factor Analysis

Concept

No. of points

Factor Loads

Inter-item Correlations

Lowest

Highest

Lowest

Highest

Self-Service Technology Attributes

7

0.559

0.857

0.073

0.532

Personal Service Usage Attributes

7

0.490

0.829

0.010

0.688

Affectional Committedness

5

0.604

0.804

0.075

0.694

Continuance Committedness

2

0.828

0.828

0.205

0.667

Calculating Committedness

4

0.377

0.819

0.010

0.205

Consumer Satisfaction

6

0.691

0.851

0.027

0.694

Table 8: Consequence tabular array of Factor Analysis

Factor analysis efforts to place implicit in variables, or factors, that explain the form of correlativities within a set of ascertained variables. Factor analysis is frequently used in informations decrease to place a little figure of factors that explain most of the discrepancy observed in a much larger figure of manifest variables. Factor analysis can besides be used to bring forth hypotheses sing causal mechanisms or to test variables for subsequent analysis. It is related to chief constituent analysis ( PCA ) but non indistinguishable because PCA performs a variance-maximizing rotary motion of the variable infinite, it takes into history all variableness in the variables. In contrast, factor analysis estimates how much of the variableness is due to common factors ( “ communality ” ) .

First of all, ciphering a correlativity matrix of all variables of involvement is the get downing point for factor analysis. This starting point provides some initial hints as to how factor analysis works. It is clear that factor analysis is derived from some combinations of inter-correlation. If the correlativity coefficient between two points is positively and greater than 0.3 with correlativity important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) , this shows that two points are extremely inter-correlated with positive impact. In other words, if there are no important correlativities between the points, so this means that they are unrelated and that it would non be worthwhile to travel on to carry on farther factor analysis.

Second, the part of a variable ‘s discrepancy that is associated with discrepancy on the common factors is an of import inquiry in a factor analysis ( i.e. , the proportion of the variable ‘s discrepancy that is explained by the common factors ) . This sum is called communality or the common discrepancy and is calculated by

( h2i is the communality of variable I )

Consequently, it is equal to the amount of the squared factor burdens for all factors for a given variable ( row ) is the discrepancy in that variable accounted for by all the factors

The communality is normally a figure less than 1. In the “Initial Statistics” matrix, all the communalities are 1. This is because all factors are included in this solution. When all factors are included in the solution, all of the discrepancy of each variable is accounted for, and there is no demand for a alone factor in the theoretical account. The proportion of discrepancy accounted for by the common factors, or the communality of a variable, is hence 1 for all the variables. If the communality exceeds 1.0, there is a specious solution, which may reflect excessively little a sample or the research worker has excessively many or excessively few factors.

4.41 Correlations Matrix

Table 9: Inter-correlations of the variable

It is shown that the above correlativity matrix that the largest correlativity coefficient occurs between Consumer Satisfaction and Affective Commitment ( i.e. 0.694 ) and correlativity is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) . This shows that Consumer Satisfaction and Affective Commitment are extremely inter-correlated with positive impact. Therefore, it extremely reflects the hypothesis “H3: Consumer satisfaction will hold positive impact on Affective Commitment” which have been predicted in Chapter 2. The 2nd largest correlativity coefficient is 0.688 and correlativity is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) , which occurs between Personal Service Usage Attribute and Affective Commitment. This shows that Personal Service Usage Attribute and Affective Commitment are besides extremely inter-correlated with positive impact. It extremely reflects the hypothesis “H9: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on Affective Commitment” . For the Consumer Satisfaction, the correlativity coefficient of both SST Attribute and Personal Service Usage Attribute is around 0.53 which is both acceptable and correlativity is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) . This consequence can turn out the hypothesis “H1: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on consumer satisfaction” and “H2: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on consumer satisfaction” where SST Attribute and Personal Service Usage Attribute is besides correlated with Consumer Satisfaction. Similarly, Continuance Commitment has a good value of correlativity coefficient with Consumer Satisfaction ( i.e. 0.614 ) and correlativity is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) . Therefore, it verify that hypothesis “H4: Consumer satisfaction will hold positive impact on Continuance Commitment” where Continuance Commitment is inter-correlate with Consumer Satisfaction. Besides, SST Attribute obtain an acceptable value of correlativity coefficient with both Affective Commitment and Continuance Commitment ( i.e. 0.386 and 0.426 severally ) and correlativity is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) . So this justifies the hypothesis “H6: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on Affective Commitment” and “H7: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on Continuance Commitment” where SST Attribute is inter-correlated with both Affective Commitment and Continuance Commitment severally. On the other manus, Personal Service Usage Attribute occur a good value of correlativity coefficient with Continuance Commitment at 0.618 and correlativity is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) . This can back up that Personal Service Usage Attribute is correlative with Continuance Commitment and turn out the hypothesis “H10: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on Continuance Commitment” .

However, non all correlativity coefficient are acceptable. The consequence for Calculative Commitment has obtain some low correlativity coefficient value which is below r=0.1 and unacceptable in between SST Attribute ( r=0.073 ) , Personal Service Usage Attribute ( 0.01 ) and Consumer Satisfaction ( 0.027 ) . This consequence can non turn out the hypothesis “H5: Consumer satisfaction will hold positive impact on Calculative Commitment” , “H8: Self-service Technology ( ATM ) property will hold positive impact on Calculative” and “H11: Personal Service Usage ( Teller ) property will hold positive impact on Calculative Commitment” . The consequence shows that respondent might still keep a relationship with the organisation even the important awaited expiration or shift costs associated with go forthing. Since the old informations were obtained in foreign states such as US, UK etc, and so the consequence obtained in this study might non conform to the old 1. It is because the banking environment in HK is different from other states. For illustration in Q25, “I feel that I have excessively few options to see go forthing this bank” , respondent from other states may truly experience excessively few options to see go forthing the bank. However, this state of affairs is non suit to HK because HK has many options of different Bankss for consumers since the distribution of the subdivision is near while there are truly few options of bank and subdivision in some foreign states.

4.42 Factor Loads

The Factor Loadings is besides called constituent burdens in chief constituent analysis PCA. It is the correlativity coefficients between the variables ( rows ) and factors ( columns ) . Analogous to Pearson ‘s R, the squared factor burden is the per centum of discrepancy in that index variable explained by the factor and that is the Communality. To acquire the per centum of discrepancy in all the variables accounted for by each factor, add the amount of the squared factor burdens for that factor ( column ) and divide by the figure of variables. By one regulation of pollex in collateral factor analysis, burdens should be 0.7 or higher to corroborate that independent variables identified the predicted hypothesis are represented by a peculiar factor, on the principle that the 0.7 degree corresponds to about half of the discrepancy in the index being explained by the factor. However, the 0.7 criterion is a high one and real-life informations may good non run into this standard. By some old research workers, peculiarly for exploratory intents, a lower degree ( i.e. 0.3 ) will be used for the cardin