Stimulate Recall of prior learning


This paper seeks to discourse how some of the cardinal instructional design constructs behind “ Second Life ” can be employed to polish the acquisition scheme within SI. Specifically, the cardinal properties in Second life that are of involvement include ( a ) the usage of Virtual infinite as the interface for synergistic acquisition, ( B ) how the practical infinite can be leverage to incentivize acquisition and ( degree Celsius ) how Robert Gagne ‘s nine events of direction can be applied in the design of a practical acquisition environment. This paper will discourse how these rules can be infused into the bing e-Learning platform in SI, called “ My Learning Space ” ( MLS ) , the purpose is non to replace MLS with Second Life but instead to present the acquisition attributes in 2nd life that will farther heighten bing design.

Current Situation – Learning in the 3G SAF Space:

2. As the SAF continues to develop itself into a technological advanced and sophisticated force, it is clear that the SAF will recognize an addition of military hardware and package that will fuel this transmutation attempt. Underpining these technological transmutation, is the demand for our service forces to be better trained to run these systems. The challenge to develop and fix the 3G SAF is non a fiddling matter because of the undermentioned grounds:

a. Because of the assorted engineerings and combat systems that are procured, trainees would hold to larn new accomplishments and competences to manage such equipment. Increasingly, these systems are besides going more complex over clip.

B. There is shorter clip to develop, chiefly because of the decrease in NSF preparation clip from 2.5 to 2 old ages and NS continuance from 13 to 10 old ages.

c. The acquisition penchants of the Net-Gen scholars will progressively present new challenges because of their preparation outlooks given what they have been exposed and more accustomed within their schools prior to enlistment and place ( smart school and a permeant web environment ) . However, the potency of the Net-Gen scholars should besides be seen as a purchase for larning in the 3G SAF infinite.

Impetus for development in the Future

3. Development Potential of Second Life. Second life as a practical universe offers the flexibleness that is ideal for making instructional tools, such as games, job based acquisition environments, simulation activities, and distance acquisition scenes. Second Life is an open-ended environment in which participants themselves design the universe, its objects and their behaviours. Integrating sophisticated 3-dimensional mold tools and a powerful scripting linguistic communication, the game invites participants to freely unleash their imaginativenesss[ 1 ]. Users, through their representations in the infinite, called embodiments, move about and interact with one another in Second Life. Users besides can make edifices and stuffs in Second Life. Therefore, challenges and job work outing undertakings can be created.

4. Restrictions of Current Knowledge Portal. MLS is an in-house developed larning portal that provides a common user interface for trainees to derive entree to a suite of preparation services and tools. From the digital preparation plan, trainees can see a library of preparation pictures and digital preparation manual that are relevant to their class. While these faculties may be utile in many ways, it is still missing and limited in range to enable deeper acquisition because of the undermentioned grounds:

a. It is typically structured as a cognition depository.

B. Does non ease execution of cognitive scheme.

c. Conventional motivational strategies are difficult to implement.

d. Hence, it becomes more a preparation media

Consideration for Learning in the Virtual World

5. The Cardinal considerations for larning in the practical environment are as follows:

a. Professionals:

Net Coevals scholars are really comfy operating in this infinite ( facebook, youtube, chat, etc )[ 2 ].

Relatively easier to make motive to larn, coaction and experiential acquisition chances that may non be readily available in the existent universe.

No bound to the usage of infinite.

Amplification of the Nine instructional Events

Modeling after Robert Gagne ‘s nine events of direction, the proposed MLS Ver 2.0 would integrate the nine design properties based on the information treating theoretical account of the mental events that occur when grownups are presented with assorted stimulations. This is summarized in the tabular array as follows:

Instructional Event

Internal Mental Process

1. Derive attending

Stimuli activates receptors

2. Inform scholars of aims

Creates degree of outlook for larning

3. Stimulate callback of anterior acquisition

Retrieval and activation of short-run memory

4. Show the content

Selective perceptual experience of content

5. Supply “ learning counsel ”

Semantic encryption for storage long-run memory

6. Elicit public presentation ( pattern )

Responds to inquiries to heighten encryption and confirmation

7. Supply feedback

Support and appraisal of right public presentation

8. Assess public presentation

Retrieval and support of content as concluding rating

9. Enhance keeping and transportation to the occupation

Retrieval and generalisation of learned accomplishment to new state of affairs

a. Addition attending in Hi-Res 3D Virtual World Learning Environment ( VWLE )

In order for any acquisition to take topographic point, you must first gaining control the attending of the pupil. To this terminal, MLS 2.0 would be designed as a practical reproduction of SI. The 3D interface accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory or ocular stimulations. From here, trainees can navigator and “ explore ” the assorted suites within the edifice. Each room constitutes a new acquisition sphere or capable and are merely accessible based on the intended sequence of larning. Trainees can merely entree other suites of “ higher acquisition ” merely if they have attained the needed criterions.

B. Inform scholars of aims

Early on in each lesson pupils would be given a list of larning aims. This initiates the internal procedure of anticipation and helps actuate the scholar to finish the lesson. These aims form the footing for appraisal, and structured based on Mager ‘s theoretical account of Performance, status and Criterion. Beyond these stated aims, trainees would be asked to place 3 other personal aims that he/she would wish to accomplish by the terminal of the class. Trainees will hold a existent clip position of their advancement in the attainment of these aims so that they can chart their ain acquisition advancement. This makes larning relevant to the trainees.

Stimulate callback of anterior acquisition

Associating new information with anterior cognition can ease the acquisition procedure. It is easier for scholars to encode and hive away information in long-run memory when there are links to personal experience and cognition. To excite this, every acquisition faculty would get down by inquiring inquiries about old experiences, an apprehension of old constructs, or a organic structure of content. To guarantee that the pre-requisite faculties are covered in the right sequence, the faculty would repeat the indispensable faculties and will besides foreground those that have been left out before allow trainees to continue farther.

d. Present the content

This event of direction is where the new content is really presented to the scholar. To appeal to different larning modes, a assortment of media would be used. These include text, artworks, audio narrative, and developing pictures. The preparation pictures are organized in a “ youtube ” manner and related pictures are grouped in a consistent order. To widen the range of acquisition, other “ related picture ” that are relevant to the subject would besides be “ suggested ” and made for easy entree. These preparation pictures are intentionally kept short to keep the attending span of the trainees.

e. Provide “ larning counsel ”

To assist scholars encode information for long-run storage, extra counsel in the signifier of a acquisition map will be provided along with the presentation of new content. Guidance schemes include the usage of illustrations, non-examples, instance surveies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies. This larning map serves to supply the higher degree overview and besides memory assistance to assist retain the cognition gained.

f. Elicit public presentation ( pattern )

Arousing public presentation provides an chance for scholars to corroborate their correct apprehension, and the repeat further increases the likeliness of keeping. To accomplish this result, the usage of MLS is coupled with the other facets of a blended acquisition attack. Building upon the cognition acquired in these learning faculty, the trainees would be asked to execute simple undertaking ( e.g. practical hands-on to put up an equipment ) , and short quizzes.

g. Provide feedback

As scholars pattern new behaviour it is of import to supply specific and immediate feedback of their public presentation. To accomplish this, the online acquisition quizzes would supply tonss as a placeholder towards the overall class public presentation. Besides the instantaneous feedback, the tonss serve to reflect the “ Top 3 scorers ” across the cohort.

h. Assess public presentation

Upon finishing instructional faculties, all trainees would be subjected to an-of-module trial. This may come in the signifier of a paper quiz taken online or a practical test depending on the nature of the accomplishments demand. On top of this, the real-time accumulation of the single tonss helps to arouse the weaker public presentations from the better public presentations. This allows teachers to scope their lesson and custom-make them to run into single trainee ‘s lack.

I. Enhance keeping and transportation to the occupation

To assist in the keeping of cognition, a day-to-day electronic diary is maintained by each trainee. This seeks to assist trainee recap what they have gain over the class of their preparation. To assistance in the effectual keeping, a mind-map will be drawn by the trainees at the terminal of each faculty. This pictural representation would be shared across the groups to assist in the indexing of cognition.

Longer Term Implementation Approach

7. MLS can non be used in isolation, it has to be organized with bing didactic attack of larning to organize a blended methodological analysis. This Blended larning gives scholars and teachers an environment to larn and learn more efficaciously. Learners can choose the best activities to accommodate their ain gait, larning manner and degree, every bit good as clip and topographic point. Learners can be more independent and autonomous in their ain acquisition. They can besides be more able to take determinations, think creatively and critically, investigate and explore every bit good as solve jobs they face in acquisition and existent life. Meanwhile, teachers can be facilitators, supervisors, assessors, organisers and directors of larning activities, and so should be originative and able to back up scholars and provide assorted larning stuffs in different formats. In SI, the blended attack we adopt is captured in the diagram below:




Field Experience

Master of library science


Contemplation Log


Mandated Reading

Online Quiz

and Exercises


8. Adopting the larning object in Second Life to make a practical universe larning environment ( VWLE ) applied in a blended acquisition environment is a new teaching method the SAF hopes to leverage upon to run into the preparation demands of the 3G SAF soldiers.