Structure and Development of Curriculum


The course of study is non a simple word that can be defined ; it is a subject that consists of many factors that finally create the course of study. Upon reading farther into this topic, it has become obvious that the course of study is a complex field and is more likely to uncover that many writers, bookmans, academic authors each have a definition depicting what the course of study best agencies to them or its best definition in the context they discuss. This paper will concentrate on the Australian Curriculum and will try to turn to issues such as the assorted definitions of the course of study, the intent or end of the course of study, how the course of study is developed, the construction of the course of study, how the course of study is influenced by different larning theories, the procedures of instruction, larning and appraisal and how the course of study relates to twenty-first Century scholars. Integrating these factors and understanding this information will let the reader to explicate his or her ain educated definition of the course of study whilst recognizing the primary characteristics which influence larning within our schools.

Definition of Curriculum and its Stakeholders

Several definitions surround the significance of course of study ; to acquire an overview of the definition we can throw relevant words together such as program, nonsubjective, content, capable affair, chances, guidelines, model, experiences or schemes, although in order to do sense of these words and their relationship to the course of study we must link these words in a logical form. Writers and faculty members Brady & A ; Kennedy ( 2010, p.5 ) merely province “ In seeking to understand better the function of the course of study in the twenty-first century, the intent should be to guarantee that kids and immature people are good equipped to manage whatever it is that this century will name them to make and be ” , in other words, there must be a common involvement and a common bond by all those involved, while Marsh and Willis ( 2007, as cited in Marsh, 2010, p.93 ) define course of study as “ an interconnected set of programs and experiences which a pupil completes under the counsel of the school ” . Other definitions of the course of study arise, dependent on the stakeholders in inquiry, these stakeholders are people who have an involvement in the course of study, its formation and its bringing. The concern community feel that the course of study must be able to back up pupils in their future employment chances while fixing them for the economic demands of society ( Brady & A ; Kennedy, 2010 ) and parent groups are concerned that the course of study could be manipulated by authorities organic structures for academic analysis alternatively of concentrating on fiting their kids with the appropriate cognition and experiences for a successful hereafter ( Brady & A ; Kennedy, 2010 ) . ACARA ( 2010c ) describes the new National course of study as “ a wide range and sequence of nucleus acquisition. Critical determinations about the entire educational plan and how it will be implemented and adapted to run into the demands and involvements of pupils will be the duty of instruction governments, schools, instructors, parents and pupils ”

Marsh ( 2010, p.24 ) provides a list of stakeholders with whom the National Curriculum Board ( NCB ) , now known as the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority ( ACARA ) consults

Government – Federal/State Minister for Education, Council of Australian Governments, Premiers, State/Territory curates, Federal resistance, State/Territory resistance

Education governments – Government and Non-Government Schools, Australasian Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authorities ( ACACA ) , Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations ( DEEWR ) .

Professional associations – Unions, Business, Employers

School-based – Principals, Administrators, Teachers, Students

Community – Parents, Parent groups, Parent Associations

Tertiary Sector – Universities, TAFE, Industry preparation sectors, Academicians

From this information it is apparent that the course of study is complex, elaborate and is influenced by many groups. Basically, it is a program that consists of goals/aims, content and accomplishment criterions for each topic to be taught within Australian schools, in other words, the course of study is a planned description of the what, how and when of instruction, larning and appraisal. Understanding the foundation of course of study, we can now concentrate on the end of the course of study – WHO is it for and WHAT do we anticipate from our instruction system and for immature Australian citizens?

The intent or end of the Curriculum and Education

“ Course of study must be of direct relevancy to the kid ‘s societal, cultural, environmental and economic context and to his or her present and future demands and take full history of the kid ‘s evolving capacities ; learning methods should be tailored to the different demands of different kids ” ( UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment 1 as cited in Sullivan & A ; Keeney, 2008, p.38 ) .

In order to understand the end or intent of instruction, we must understand who we are directing our acquisition to. Admiting the diverseness of scholars will help in placing the range and scope of the content to be covered by the course of study.

Brady and Kennedy ( 2010, p.38 ) province “ Teachers must analyze the course of study carefully to guarantee it does non except the diverse experiences that pupils bring with them to the schoolroom. More positively, the course of study should foreground those experiences and do them the footing for find and acquisition ” . The K-12 National Curriculum is directed towards pupils developing their cognition and apprehension of the major subjects – Mathematicss, English, Science and History to enable pupils to foster their cognition and specialise in Fieldss through farther third instruction. Further to this, the course of study provides the foundation that allows immature Australian citizens to cover confidently with issues that arise and enables them to do informed determinations sing societal and personal affairs. ( EQUITY )

ACARA is responsible for the development of the Australian course of study from Kindergarten to Year 12. ACARA ‘s work with the Australian course of study is directed by the 2008 Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. This declaration commits to back uping scholars with quality instruction and supplying them with the accomplishments necessary for future enterprises ( ACARA, 2009a ) . The Australian course of study will sketch the range and sequence of cardinal larning countries, in other words WHAT and WHEN it is to be taught at schools, although instructors will finally do the determination on HOW to organize, construction and present this information to profit each and every pupil ‘s learning experience ( ACARA, 2009b ) . The educational ends for immature Australian citizens focus on making successful scholars such as developing their capacity to be originative, resourceful and motivated persons, to be able to believe, obtain and measure grounds, work independently and in squads, be able to pass on thoughts, utilise current engineering and be able to do informed determinations and derive the necessary accomplishments sing their acquisition and employment waies. These ends besides aim to make confident persons by supplying the tools that promote a sense of self-awareness to be able to pull off all aspects of their well-being, develop values such as honestness, empathy and regard for themselves and others, form personal, societal and professional relationships and have the assurance to prosecute farther instruction and preparation. In add-on, going active and informed citizens is addressed through the cross-curriculum dimensions, which aim to instil an apprehension and grasp for Australia ‘s autochthonal history and diverse civilization and sustaining and bettering our natural and societal milieus ( ACARA, 2009b ) .

So far we have discussed what the course of study is and how it can be defined, the major influences on the course of study ‘s development, viz. the stakeholders and the intent or ends of the course of study and instruction. Before we discuss the construction and development of the course of study, it is of import to be cognizant of where and how the course of study originated and why the course of study is structured the manner it is.

Structure and Development of the Curriculum

The construction of the course of study and how it is developed caters for the broad scope of stakeholders involved while endeavoring to accomplish the best acquisition results for Australian pupils. The core-curriculum was developed through the Curriculum Development Centre ( CDC ) by the former Director, Malcolm Skilbeck in 1980. The 24-page papers “ attempted to reconceptualise the bing school topics within a social-reconstructionist model ” ( Marsh, 2010, p.11 ) . Even though parts of the core-curriculum were adopted in NSW, WA and NT, the development did non go on due to a deficiency of support for the CDC. As the decennaries passed, many efforts at developing a national course of study failed to do it successfully through its journey, eventually in 2008, under the Rudd Government, a National Curriculum Board ( NCB ) was created to develop a National Curriculum for pupils Kindergarten to Year 12, dwelling of four Key Learning Areas ( KLA ‘s ) – Mathematicss, English, History and Science, with extra constituents of general capablenesss and cross-curriculum dimensions working alongside these KLA ‘s ( Marsh, 2010 ) .

ACARA ( 2009c ) was created to supervise the successful development of the Kindergarten to Year 12 Curriculum, plus the Senior Secondary Curriculum and the Early Old ages Curriculum Framework. Below outlines the four phases involved in the development of the Australian Curriculum Kindergarten to Year 12.

Curriculum determining stage- This involves the development of the bill of exchange form paper, where adept advice is requested and endorsed by ACARA ‘s board for public feedback. This creates the concluding form paper, dwelling of an lineation of the Australian course of study including design advice for larning countries.

Curriculum composing phase – A squad consisting of authors, course of study experts, and ACARA curriculum staff developing the Australian course of study. The information includes content description and achievement criterions ; to accomplish this, the squad refers to national and international research on course of study, while besides mentioning to current province and district course of studies. After public feedback and necessary alterations, the Australian course of study for the peculiar learning country is ready for publication.

Execution phase – Execution programs are developed by ACARA and state/territory course of study and school governments ( ACARA, 2010b )

Evaluation and reappraisal phase – Implementation feedback is reviewed carefully via procedures that monitor this information.

Below is a ocular snapshot of the constituents included in the National Curriculum to be implemented in the twelvemonth 2011.

Australian course of study graph.png

Beginning: ( ACARA, 2009a )

Each KLA contains a statement of principle, purposes, content construction and descriptions, and achievement criterions.

Statement of rationale – Overview of the peculiar topic

Aims – What pupils will accomplish from this topic

Contented structure/organisation – How the topic is arranged/designed and the information involved

Contented description – specifies what instructors are expected to learn for each larning country at each twelvemonth degree, besides provides the range and sequence of learning

Accomplishment criterions – describes the quality of larning e.g. the understanding, cognition and skill pupils are required to accomplish at each twelvemonth degree.

While the National course of study will maintain the original construction of range and sequence for the KLA ‘s, it is apparent the new course of study has become more elaborate and involved, by presenting general capablenesss and cross-curriculum dimensions in add-on to the KLA ‘s, instructors may happen it hard to be able to acquire through all the needed content in the clip allocated, while some may necessitate farther intensive preparation to increase their cognition in certain countries such as History. “ Few primary instructors have a sufficient background in History and that they will necessitate concentrated preparation to develop academic and pedagogical cognition in History ” ( Harris-Hart, 2009 as cited in Marsh, 2010, p.26 ) , although ACARA ( 2010c ) states the cardinal focal point during course of study development is on deepness of larning and non breadth of acquisition, so as non to overcrowd the course of study. Since the Australian Curriculum has been collated from different constituents of the eight state/territory course of studies presently in operation, they have maintained the KLA ‘s, added general capablenesss and cross-curriculum dimensions while maintaining the bing construction for sequencing within the larning countries. ( REFERENCE ) For illustration, the NSW course of study comprises of six KLA ‘s for primary school and eight KLA ‘s for secondary school. Below is a ocular snapshot of the NSW Primary course of study.

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Beginning: ( NSW-BOS, 2008 )

Schools in New South Wales use the Kindergarten to Year 10 Curriculum Framework as the foundation of what, how and when the content is to be taught, although the NSW Board of Studies acknowledges that schools and instructors take duty for the manner in which the content is organised and delivered ( NSW-BOS, 2002a ) . NSW primary instructors use the NSW Primary Curriculum Foundation Statements to happen out what needs to be taught in each topic. The six topics within the NSW course of study are English, Mathematics, Science and Technology, Personal Development, Health and Physical Education ( PDHPE ) , Human Society and Its Environment ( HSIE ) and Creative humanistic disciplines ( NSW-BOS, 2002b ) , while the Australian Curriculum takes into consideration two new constituents that will heighten the acquisition procedure by working alongside the four KLA ‘s, these constituents are ten ( 10 ) general capablenesss and three ( 3 ) cross-curriculum dimensions. “ The 10 ( 10 ) general capablenesss are: literacy, numeracy, information and communicating engineering, believing accomplishments, ethical behavior, creativeness, self-management, teamwork, intercultural apprehension and societal competency. The three ( 3 ) cross-curriculum dimensions are: Autochthonal history and civilization, Asia and Australia ‘s battle with Asia and Sustainability ( ACARA, 2010a ) .


The Curriculum is a planned description of the what, how and when of instruction, larning and appraisal, it is the foundation for scholars, pupils and instructors while being influenced by the many stakeholders that want a share/input in the way of the Curriculum. The construction and development of the Australian Curriculum includes many constituents such as instruction, larning and appraisal which have focused on the deepness of larning non the comprehensiveness. Throughout this paper it is besides apparent that the Australian Curriculum has been influenced by the theories of instruction and larning from several theoreticians such as Piaget, Bloom, Krathwohl, Vygotsky, Bruner and Maslow ‘s taxonomy. In add-on, we must maintain in head that by understanding our pupils altering nature and their diversenesss, the Australian Curriculum has the chance to be in the head of instruction and acquisition in the twenty-first Century.