The History Of Cooperative Learning Education Essay

2.0 Introduction

The reappraisal of the literature is organized in seven subjects. The first subject purposes to supply an overall overview on the history and old surveies made on Cooperative Learning. The 2nd subject addresses the importance of Cooperative Learning. Then, the 3rd and 4th subjects focus on Group Work and its benefits. Followed by, are the 5th and 6th subjects base on the positive perceptual experiences and experiences from pupils utilizing group work and usage of Group work in accounting category. The seveseventh subdivision which is the last one of the literature reappraisal enumerates some of the unfavorable judgments of utilizing group work as a instruction and acquisition scheme.

2.1 History of Cooperative acquisition

The beginning of the Cooperative Learning dated back at least 100 old ages ago, and even 1000s of old ages ago, but small research was made until the sixtiess ( Jacobs et al. , 2002:2 ) . Since so, it has awakened much attending and has invariably been a hot subject in instruction.

From 1960s boulder clay today great importance has been attached to the term Cooperative Learning. For case, in the mid 1960s Johnson and Johnson contributed much for concerted acquisition in the preparation of instructors at the University of Minnesota. Then, it progressed till the early 1970s where research workers like David DeVries and Keith Edwards at Johns Hopkins University built up Teams-Games-Tournaments and other research workers like Sholmo and Yael Sharan in Israel developed the group probe process for the Cooperative Learning groups.

In the late seventiess Robert Slavin extended DeVries and Edwards ‘ work at Johns Hopkins into Student Teams-Achievement Divisions and modifying computer-assisted direction into Team-assisted Instruction. At the same clip, Spencer Kagan created the Co-op co-op process. Followed by, in the 1980s Donald Dansereau widened a figure of concerted books, and many other persons worked out further concerted processs ( Johnson, Johnson & A ; Smith, 1991 ) .The Cooperative Learning has besides been found as an effectual prototype of communicative linguistic communication instruction. As affirmed by Putnam ( 1995 ) that “ The Cooperative Learning is embraced within a communicative linguistic communication learning model ” He besides pointed out that the concerted acquisition activities are frequently used in communicative linguistic communication instruction

Cooperative acquisition has become so common that it is no more considered as a new thought in instruction. This can be viewed in the mid of twentieth century where applications of concerted acquisition drew its development to sociology and societal psychological science specifically to Gordon Allport ‘s Social Contact Theory and Morton Deutsch ‘s surveies of group kineticss. This continues on, as Concerted Learning is believed to do educational thaumaturgy in a unambiguously twenty-first century manner.

2.2 Definitions of Cooperative acquisition

It is believed that the usage of concerted acquisition in the schoolroom as an instructional scheme had been a capable affair for many old ages. Jenkins and O’Connor ( 1996 ) suggested that concerted acquisition in the schoolroom is amongst the best schemes for learning pupils with and without disablements in the schoolroom. As a consequence, the success of learning utilizing concerted acquisition was conclusive in about all surveies.

To get down with, it can be noted that many bookmans and research workers have attempted to look into into the construct of Cooperative Learning. In position of that different definitions have been given to Cooperative acquisition.

Harmonizing to Slavin ( 1983 ) Cooperative acquisition has been defined as a instruction scheme that encourages pupils to work in “ little, heterogenous larning groups ” in order to advance single acquisition. The fact that larning groups should be assorted or diverse is important to guarantee that scholars can larn from each other, and supply encouragement and support to each other in different facets and at different degrees of the course of study. Likewise, concerted acquisition has by and large avowed to be the best option for all pupils since it emphasizes active interaction between pupils of diverse abilities and backgrounds ( Nelson, Gallagher, & A ; Coleman, 1993 ; Tsai, 1998 ; Wei, 1997 ; Yu, 1995 ) .

The recognized thought proposed in these different definitions by different writers is that Cooperative acquisition should be taken as a acquisition attack in which pupil are grouped together in order to guarantee that they help each other in larning an academic topic in the range of a common end and besides where they are actively take parting in the teaching-learning procedure

2.3 Importance of Cooperative Learning

Today concerted acquisition is a matter-of-fact in about all school content countries and, increasingly more, in college and university contexts all over the universe ( Johnson & A ; Johnson, 1989 ; Kessler, 1992 ) . This could be found in the consequences of several surveies of the concerted acquisition literature where Springer, Stanne, and Donovan ( 1997 ) acknowledged that there is the demand for a displacement in importance from learning to larning.

At the really first glimpse, it might look that concerted acquisition is simply the dividing up of pupils with varying degrees in little groups in order to achieve common ends. Thingss ; though, are non ever what they appear to be. In world, concerted acquisition goes beyond forming pupils.

For illustration, as stated by Crandall ( 1999 ) “ Concerted acquisition is more than merely little group activity. In a well-structured concerted undertaking, there is a echt information spread, necessitating scholars to both listen and contribute to the development of an unwritten, written or other merchandise which represents the group ‘s attempts, cognition and positions. ”

Many surveies have been conducted vis-a-vis the effectivity of such concerted acquisition attacks. Concerted acquisition is group larning activity planned so that acquisition is reliant on the socially structured exchange of information between scholars in groups and in which each scholar is held accountable for his or her ain acquisition and is motivated to increase the acquisition of others. ( Olsen & A ; Kagan, 1992 ) .

In add-on Barbara Leigh Smith and Jean T. MacGregor ( 1992 ) mentioned collaborative acquisition as an “ umbrella term for a assortment of educational attacks affecting joint rational attempt by pupils, or pupils and instructors together ” . Pulling from this citation, it can be said that to some extent together with concerted acquisition, collaborative acquisition activities besides cover a wide district of attacks such as schoolroom treatments intersperse with short talks, equal instruction, pupils put together around group work in the sum of in-class or out-of-class clip and others. Nunan ( 1992 ) , for case, uses the footings cooperative acquisition and collaborative acquisition interchangeably and quotes the undermentioned definition: “ Collaborative acquisition entails pupils working together to accomplish common acquisition ends. “ ( Slavin, 1983 ; Sharan et Al. 1984 ) . But for this survey our premier focal point is on group work.

2.4 Definition of Group Work

Toseland and Rivas ( 1984 ) described group work as a end directed activity with little groups of people aimed at accomplishing socio-emotional demands and finishing undertakings. Normally, this activity is aimed at single members of a group and to the group as a whole within a system of service bringing.

The usage of group work has been loosely accepted as an effectual instruction and larning tool ( Conway, Kember, Sivan, & A ; Wu, 1993 ; Freeman, 1995 ) . More exactly, there is a significant organic structure of literature advocators that the usage of group work as a concerted acquisition attack has positively contributes to student acquisition ( James, 2005 ; Mahenthiran & A ; Rouse, 2000 ; Roberts, 2004 ; Rossin & A ; Hyland, 2003 ) .

Furthermore, as stated by Lundgren ( 2008 ) cooperative acquisition was considered as a relationship in a group of pupils that requires positive mutuality, single answerability, interpersonal accomplishments, face-to-face positive interaction, and processing. Infrequently, random or particular involvement squads could be formed to maximise pupil endowments or run into a specific pupil demand ( Kagan, 1994 ) .

2.5 Benefits of Group work

2.5.1 Group Work enhance Learning

To get down with, it is recognized that prosecuting pupils in Cooperative larning do them larn best when they are actively involved in the procedure ( Gross Davis, B 1993 ) and besides Cooperative larning involves groups of pupils working to finish a common undertaking together ( Siegel, 2005 ) . It has besides been viewed by Vygotsky ( 1978 ) that pupils perform at higher degrees when they work in diverse groups, as opposed to working separately. Furthermore, as asserted by Johnson and Johnson ( 1987 ) immense bulk of the research comparing student-student interaction forms indicated that pupils learn more efficaciously when they work hand in glove.

Other research workers like Cotterill and Mills ( 1994 ) , in Australia at Wollongong University, stated that all three benefits of group work in their appraisal policy, “ Group work, under proper conditions, encourages peer larning and peer support and many surveies validate the efficaciousness of equal acquisition. ” It is said that instructors besides get satisfaction with the integrating of concerted larning groups ( Linchevski & A ; Kutscher, 1998 ) . It is so because the usage of little groups requires cardinal alterations non merely in the organisation of the schoolroom but besides in ways of acquisition ( Kramarski & A ; Mevarech, 2003 ) .

Similarly, concerted acquisition facilitate persons to develop their ain apprehension as concerted acquisition attacks force scholars to actively associate their ain experiences and perceptual experiences to those of others. Consequently, while interacting in concerted acquisition activities single apprehensions are verbalized and discussed and in the procedure of treatment new significances are created as scholars help each other to better understand the acquisition affair. ( e.g. Akan, 2005 ; Anderson et Al, 1996 ; Kalliath et Al, 2006 ) .

It is at this point interesting to observe that Anderson et Al ( 1996 ) put frontward that group acquisition has become more of import, as establishments of higher larning consist of increasing Numberss of mature scholars who bring life and work experience into the schoolrooms. Therefore, these mature scholars return to formal instruction because rapid societal, economic and technological alterations require them to be womb-to-tomb scholars with movable accomplishments.

2.5.2 Group Work and its twenty-first Century Skills

Using Group work as a instruction and larning scheme does non merely advance cognitive development but besides plays an of import function in the development of personal and societal accomplishments which will assist pupils in future. As per Bermejo ( 2005 ) Group work is going more and more imperative with the demand for higher order believing accomplishments in the twenty-first century occupation market.

The field of collaborative acquisition broadens beyond the schoolroom walls and so concerted acquisition may be observed as a constituent of collaborative acquisition. This has been clearly discussed by Wiersma ( 2002 ) who believed that collaborative acquisition has a wider application outside the schoolroom and is instead a doctrine of life that involves ‘working together, constructing together, larning together, altering together, bettering together. It ‘s a doctrine that fits today ‘s globalized universe ‘ .

Furthermore, it has been seen that in a literature there is a strong support that a successful concerted work environment will take to greater attempt to accomplish, more positive interpersonal relationships, and greater psychological wellness when compared to a competitory work environment ( Johnson & A ; Johnson, 1989 ) .

As argued by Gibbs ( 2001 ) the demands for pupils to come in today ‘s work force with the ability to place and form information and resources, communicate good with others, and understand societal and organisational systems. Therefore, it will be true to state that Collaborative acquisition does heighten leading accomplishments by developing and beef uping squad members ‘ abilities to reflect, regard, converse, and decide struggle.

2.6 Positive perceptual experiences and experiences from pupils utilizing Group Work

Harmonizing to Walker ( 2001 ) small research has been published to day of the month coverage on pupil perceptual experiences of group work. Despite the fact that focal point of her survey is on pupil perceptual experiences of group work associated to peer appraisal, her findings suggest that “ pupils in general had a positive attitude towards group work ” .

The facts that most pupils are normally positive about group work have been echoed by extra research workers. To get down with, Chapman et Al ( 2006 ) in a survey found that “ the overall attitude by and large positive [ and ] grade of struggle was moderate ” . As a consequence, it can be said that most group experiences can be categorized as a positive 1.

The inquiry which needs to be answered is: What are these positive experiences? At foremost, it will be true to state that pupils appear to bask working hand in glove and are willing to collaborate with others in the group ( Krol, Janssen, Veenman, & A ; van der Linden, 2004 ) . The ground behind which is the fact that it encourages assorted manners in which larning takes topographic point. Normally, larning in groups is experienced as merriment and more active. This can be found in a survey by Yazici ( 2004 ) entitled as ‘Student Percepts of Collaborative Learning in Operations Management Classes ‘ provided grounds “ that the pupils agreed that they had a better apprehension of Operations Management in a collaborative direction environment ” .

As said by Colbeck et Al ( 2000 ) pupils who experienced to group larning attacks in instruction learn to value the accomplishments which they are acquired for their hereafter callings, like for case, the ability to listen to other positions with an unfastened head, to suspend judgements, and to seek for solutions in a democratic and inclusive mode.

Furthermore, in a survey made by De Vita ( 2001 ) pupils found group work to be demanding, but on the other manus they felt that they learned a batch about themselves and felt better prepared to work in diverse squads in the hereafter. As a consequence, it can be said that group work has lead to positive impact on pupils.

2.7 Use of group work in Accounting Class

Many surveies have focused on concerted acquisition as learning scheme in accounting field. For case, Norman, Rose & A ; Lehmann ( 2004 ) in their wide reappraisal of literature between 1990 and 2003 agreed on the footings ‘collaboration ‘ and ‘cooperative acquisition ‘ were used interchangeably in many international accounting diaries and elsewhere. In a survey by B.J Farrell and H.M Farrell ( 2009 ) called Student satisfaction with concerted acquisition in an Accounting course of study showed that squad work has been as an instructional scheme. As a consequence, it can be viewed that the used of concerted acquisition is common in third sector. Thus, instructors in secondary schools must guarantee that concerted schemes are being used.

In Mauritius, either it is in Primary or Secondary schools ; more focal point is paid on teacher-centered schoolroom instead than student-centered. Therefore, for accounting pupils who will choose for farther surveies in Universities or will fall in the universe market, they should possess the cognition, quality and accomplishment to work in groups. It is because squad work is required in about every universities and work topographic point.

Hence, in every schoolroom, particularly in accounting instructors must construction lessons so that pupils work carbon monoxide operatively in little groups, guaranting that all members master the assigned stuff. Restructuring the schoolroom utilizing one of the many concerted acquisition theoretical accounts represents a major going from the traditional schoolroom scene.

In Mauritius it can be clearly noted that there are a competitory state of affairss in schoolroom. Students merely aim is to vie with each other for classs, they work against each other to achieve a end that is acquiring the highest grade. Therefore this lead to a competitory or individualistic schoolroom environment, but surveies have shown that working in groups lead to important positive effects on the acquisition of the pupils ( Johnson & A ; Johnson, 1989 ; Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 1981, 1991 ; Johnson et. Al. 1981 ; Qin, Johnson, & A ; Johnson, 1995 ) .

2.8 Criticism of Group Work

It is believed that to avoid drawbacks of this peculiar instruction scheme, it is of the kernel to acknowledge what has been said against it. Many research workers have proved that concerted elements entirely do non guarantee maximum productiveness from a larning group ; at that place has to be both cooperation and struggle ( Iganaki & A ; Hatano, 1986, Tjosvold & A ; Johnson, 1978, Worchel & A ; McCormick, 1963 ) . To be more precise, group work patterns have been criticized as being uneffective ( Alexander, Rose & A ; Woodhead, 1992 ) . It is because many jobs like struggles of thoughts, dissensions, misconstruing and free riders can be found during the procedures of the scheme.

On the word of D.Johnson, R.Johnson and A.Smith ( 1990 ) , it has been viewed that when pupils interact struggles among their thoughts, decisions, theories, information, positions, sentiments and penchants are obvious. Furthermore, Cohen ( 1996 ) stressed upon the fact that, “ Disagreements about thoughts is a healthy mark during group work every bit long as rational dissension does non devolve into crisp interpersonal struggle. ”

As said by Ames ( 1984 ) when concerted groups fail, there is the inclination to repair fault on others and the weaker group members become the whipping boy. Therefore, misconstruing might lift up. There are still some instances where students, even in little groups, tend to be soundless participants and depend on the thought of other pupils. Previous surveies by Galton et Al. ( 1980 ) and Bennet ( 1987 ) have shown that, whilst kids in schoolrooms may be seen sitting in groups ; closer observation proves that their manner of working is seldom collaborative.

“ Free-rider ” is a familiar job in group work. In a survey by Per Ola Borjesson et Al. named “ Free-riding in Group Work – Mechanisms and Countermeasures ” , free-riding in group work has been described “ when one or several members of a group contribute so small to a group undertaking that if the same class is given to all members of the group, the class would be deceptive and unjust ” . Hence, this is ascertained that such job is inevitable.

Although many surveies have shown that both low and high ability pupils tend to profit from concerted acquisition, the inquiry of whether the experience of working in group will be of value in footings of making a pleasant environment which will take pupils in accomplishing academically is remained to be answered.

Occasionally, random or particular involvement squads could be formed to maximise pupil endowments or run into a specific pupil demand ( Kagan, 1994 ) .

It was surely apprehensible

Jerome Bruner wrote “ The individual most characteristic thing about human existences is that they learn ” ( 1967: 113 ) .

The reappraisal of the concerted acquisition literature is structured around six subjects. The first subject purposes to supply a theoretical frame of larning underpinning the usage of group work as acquisition and learning scheme in instruction in general. The 2nd subject focuses on the principle for the usage of group work in Accounting. Vital in a treatment about group work in accounting instruction are the group work experiences and positions of scholars and pedagogues as discussed in surveies about group work – these make up the 3rd and 4th subject severally. The reappraisal so examines suggestions put frontward in the literature sing ways to get the better of some of the challenges associated with group work. The last subject focal points on the influence of undertaking design on group work and suggests that good design can lend to turn toing a figure of group work challenges.

Use of collaborative acquisition in general

collaborative acquisition

Use of group work in accounting

Group work experiences and positions of scholars as discussed in old surveies

Get the better of some challenges

Undertaking to plan group work

There have besides been unfavorable judgments of this pedagogic attack, Holt et Al ( 1997 ) council

against its indiscriminate usage. They note the complex relationship between person,

competitory and collaborative behaviors. Holt besides stresses that all costs and benefits,

peculiarly to the pupils, must be weighed. Further observing that clip, in peculiar, is a

really scarce resource for pupils.

Evaluation has been carried out on the effectivity of group work in accounting

instruction for run intoing the desired acquisition results ( Caldwell et al 1996 ; Ravenscroft

et al 1997, Berry, 1993 ) . Berry expresses concerns similar to those above approximately theconflict between single and collaborative behavior in this context. The consequence of

concerted acquisition has been measured utilizing pupil scrutiny public presentation

Ciccotello et Al ( 1997 ) . observed that pupils exposed to cooperative acquisition

outperformed pupils taught by single job work outing Sessionss on a managerial

accounting class. Several documents report on the execution and operational issues

originating from the usage of group work in accounting ( Cottell et al, 1992 ; Cottell et Al 1993 ;

Peek et Al, 1995 ) .

Mentioning back to the

Group work in accouting

that concerted acquisition as a student-focussed pedagogical attack provides educational satisfaction ( Norman et al. , 2004 ) in

making a positive acquisition battle for most pupils analyzing International Accounting and in

developing their interpersonal, professional and written communicating accomplishments.

Norman, Rose & A ; Lehmann ( 2004 ) in their extended reappraisal of

literature between 1990 and 2003 found the footings ‘collaboration ‘ and ‘cooperative acquisition ‘ were used

interchangeably in many international accounting diaries and elsewhere.