Month: October 2017

Ways to Reduce Internet Addiction


BACKGROUND OF THE BUSINESS| 3| 2| CONTENT 2. PURCHASING 3. STORAGE 4. HOLDING 5. PREPARATION 6. COOKING 7. SERVICING| 4| 3| CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION| 11| 4| APPENDIX| 12| 5| REFERENCES| 16| INTRODUCTION For our group assignment, we had to do some research and do some interview to know further about how the food handlers deal with foods. We need to choose a stall in pasar malam tu do our research. We had chosen kebab stall in Pasar Malam Taman Sri Indah, Sungai Besar, Selangor. The kebab stall named Kebab Ayam Sedap. The kebab stall is opened in various places.

The entrepreneur of the kebab stall is Mr. Malik bin Rahman. He is 56 years old. The kebab stall is his own family business. His two sons and his wife always help him out to do the business. He started this business right after he retired from army when he was 44 years old. His family depends on this business to survive in life. Besides the money that he gains from his pension, the money that he gain from this business is the main source of his family income. Luckily, his two sons are all grown up and can be independent to help him out each time he need them.

The kebab that he sells is very delicious. This is because he had a lot of experience and he had his own recipe to make the kebab taste so delicious. So, it is possible for him to attract more customers compared to other kebab stall. Moreover, skills are not enough without passion in doing business. In his soul, there is one thing that makes him be strong and not easily give up. In business, there are ups and downs and these makes him to be stronger and keep trying to be the best of the best. Mr. Malik sells his kebab almost every day at different places.

On Monday and Thursday, he sells kebab at Taman Sri Indah while on Tuesday and Friday he sells his kebab at Taman Perdana. However, on Wednesday and Saturday, he sells his kebab at Taman Padu Permai 2. He take a leave on Sunday to take a rest and spend his precious time with his beloved family. For him, family is very important and precious thing that he had. He is a lovable person, kind-hearted person, friendly and workaholic. So, in this paperwork, we will tell more about his business and how he handles food. Does he practice personal hygiene in his business?

Does he take a precaution regarding these issues? CONTENT PURCHASING During purchasing, he bought the raw chicken straight from the chicken slaughtering house which is confirmed Halal. He will make sure that the food is well covered. He uses his only vehicle that is an old van to bring the chicken to his house. It’s also known that he bought the raw chicken more than 20 kilograms, bread and vegetables a day before the night market every week. According to the owner, the workers in the slaughtering house wear gloves, apron and suitable closed safety shoes.

Food should be bought from an approved source as it can reduce the risk of food borne illness. The poultry is examined live before slaughter, during evisceration (removal of the internal organs). It’s is important to check the poultry to be delivered in vehicles that are clean and in good repair to protect food from contamination. The vehicle should be used for only one purpose –delivery. Vehicles used for transporting refuse or garbage may not be used for transporting food. During transportation, the vehicle used must be able to maintain the perishable poultry at safe temperature, approximately at 5? or below. If food temperatures cannot be maintained then mechanical refrigeration or hot holding equipment is required. Vegetables especially, are advised to be purchased as fresh as possible before served since it’s a ready-to-eat food. Vegetables hold their top quality for only a few days. Therefore, vegetables should be bought in the morning on the day it’ll be served to the customers at night. Clean clothes and apron should be worn and changed regularly since slaughtering involves a blood, microorganisms can grow rapidly at this point. Contaminated clothes can transmit microbes to other food items.

STORING After the purchasing, the owner and his wife will marinade the raw chickens before putting it into a container and store it in the chillers of the refrigerator with other food. The container however is not covered. He doesn’t label the container by date and time the chicken is marinated. The utensils are kept on a single rack. It’s noted that the utensils has been reused and again to save money. When asked about First In First Out (FIFO) in storing utensils, he never heard of the term before. Interviewer: Did you cover your food when you store them inside of the refrigerator?

Owner: No, so they can be cold quickly. Interviewer: What First In First Out of FIFO? Did you practise them? Owner: I don’t know what does the term mean. Marinade is a savoury acidic sauce in which food is soaked to enrich its flavour or to tenderize it. Marinades typical consist of an acidic ingredient like vinegar, lemon juice, wine, plus oil and herbs or spices. Red meat marinades don’t always include oil since the meat generally contains enough fat. (whatscokingamerica. net/MarinatingSafely. htm) Poultry should be covered carefully to prevent leakage, dehydration, contamination, and loss of quality.

Contamination can easily occur since the chicken is stored with other food. Germs that already present in some parts of the chicken can be transmitted to another. Fresh cuts of meat contain spoilage bacteria on the surface that will grow, produce slime, and cause spoilage after 3 days of refrigerator storage in oxygen-permeable packaging fill, especially marinated meat. Bacteria can multiply rapidly in foods left to marinate at room temperature. Also, never reuse marinating liquid as a sauce unless you bring it to a rapid boil first.

Poultry are not be stored more than 2 days in the refrigerator and reheated to a full boil (212°F) before consuming. Poultry is a potentially hazardous food. Variety of food borne disease bacteria, such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni often grow on live bird’s skin and intestinal tract. Potentially hazardous food includes foods that consist in whole or in part of meat, poultry or other ingredients in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms. FIFO method is what comes in first is handed first, what comes in next waits until the first is finished.

We should use the utensils in that rotation manner. Equipment and utensils aren’t supposed to be stored in toilet rooms, locker areas, mechanical rooms, and similar spaces. They must be kept 6-inches off the floor and away from the wall and on slatted shelves to discourage insects and rodents from harbouring there. HOLDING The roasted chicken is a hot-held food. Hot-holding is holding potentially hazardous food above 135°F (57°C) during transportation and delivery to any site away from the primary preparation and service areas. Encik Malik holds the chicken in the grill at 57°C and above.

At this temperature, the growth of harmful microorganism on the chicken will slow down and be prevented. The temperature is maintained using the griller. The griller however is seen not washed before usage again. The chicken waste that found in the grill was not been throw away before he put the new chicken at the grill. He has to clean the grill first before continuing the process. This is because, microorganism can growth easily in this situation. When Encik Malik wants to put the newly cooked chicken at the grill, he wears apron and gloves to hold the chicken.

When he wants to turn the chicken on the grill, he will make sure that his hand has been washed and cleaned. This will prevent the microorganisms at his hand from spreading away to the other parts of the chicken. He keeps holding the chicken in the grill for about 40 minutes to make sure the chicken is fully cooked. Germs can be transmitted by a food worker, equipment and utensils, or another food. Therefore, we have to keep all food-contact surfaces clean and sanitary. We should wash the equipment and utensils before using it for a new work thoroughly and use separate things for raw and cooked/ready-to-eat foods.

PREPARATION For preparation, the owner and his wife will wash their hands using soap every time before they start a new work. They always keep their fingernails short and clean too. Hands are significant sources of contamination and cross contamination of foods. Staphylococcus aureus, Hepatitis A virus, and Shigella spp. are examples of pathogens that can be found in and on the human body and can be transferred to foods by hand contact. Nails should be short as the hand washing will effectively remove soil from under and around them.

The fingers tips and around the nails and cuticles are where the majority of pathogens are found on the hands. Long fingernails are harder to keep clean. This part is very critical since the owner said he doesn’t use gloves. They don’t use single service paper towel though, but instead a dish towel to dry their hands to save budget. The owner and his wife wear clean clothes while preparing the food. Food worker’s clothing could easily become contaminated during food preparation and service. Contaminated outer clothing has to be changed into a new set of work clothes to prevent the germs transferred to the food.

Vegetables are rinse thoroughly before preparation starts to make sure visible soils are removed. However the owner doesn’t sanitize the vegetables. They cover all cuts, wounds, and sores with a waterproof dressing like plasters. This is to ensure that no microbes would be transferred to the food. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are often found in infected wounds, cuts and pimples. The bacteria produce toxins that cause intoxication. It was seen that the owner and wife didn’t wear any jewelleries too. Jewelleries can be a medium to contaminate the food, thus causing food borne illness.

Jewellery can also fall into food causing a physical hazard. Drying hands is included in a proper hand washing technique. Hands should be dried by using single-service paper towel, an electric hand dryer or clean section of continuous rolled cloth towel. Dish towel is strongly prohibited as it can be contaminated by microbes. A dish towel cannot be used for two purposes – drying the dishes and hands. Cross contamination can also occur at this point. The contaminated hand that’s in contact with food will transmit the bacteria. Vegetables should be sanitized to kill bacteria.

E-coli can easily grow on vegetables if none of precaution steps are taken. Rinse with pipe water only is not enough, but it isn’t guaranteed to fully destroy E-coli. Toxins strains of E-coli are very hard to kill. Using a sanitizer can help to destroy them. Sanitizing vegetables procedures can be seen as below. 1. Wash all fruits and vegetable before cutting even if you do not eat the rind or skin. Bacteria from the skin can creep on to cut surfaces. 2. Clean fruits and vegetables with a brush and warm water if they have a tough skin. Do not use soap as it may leave a residue.

Soak things like lettuce in warm water and rinse in warm water. 3. Properly clean all utensils to be used in the preparation of fruits and vegetables. After washing knives and cutting boards soak in a solution of one tablespoon of bleach to one gallon of warm water for a few minutes. Let air dry. 4. Blanch fruits and vegetables by dropping them into boiling water for one minute. This will further decrease the possibility of microorganisms on the surface of the produce. Since the owner didn’t use gloves, handwashing process has to be repeated frequently. Gloves are optional, but they are quite favourable by food establishers.

Disposable gloves help prevent contamination of foods. They protect food from direct contact by human hands. Gloves are like second skin, what can contaminate a human hand can also contaminate a disposable glove. The owner should’ve known that money is highly contaminated. Before handling the food again, he should’ve washed his hands again. Proper hand washing technique and proper use of disposable a must procedure to know by personnel involved in food preparation and service. Hands should be washed in a separate sink specified as a hand washing sink, not water in the pile.

Hand washing station is to support a necessary hand washing program to prevent the spreading of filth and potential pathogenic organisms about the processing area or to foods. COOKING The owner uses a chicken griller during the cooking phase. The purpose of cooking is to make food more palatable by changing its appearance, texture, and aroma. Besides, cooking also heats the food and destroys harmful microorganisms that may found in and on the chickens. Encik Malik will wash the utensils and equipments every time they are used using soap to remove the waste part of chicken before starting to cook again.

A food-contact surface can accumulate and grow bacteria on the surface if it is not cleaned and sanitized properly. They can be difficult to remove once they get on the surface. That is why food-contact surfaces should always be cleaned and sanitized thoroughly before working with foods. But, Encik Malik takes cleanliness for granted while cooking. According to our observation, he always coughs and sneezes while he is cooking without covering his mouth. He doesn’t wear a face mask during the cooking process. As a food establisher, he needs to take care of the cleanliness of the food.

He needs to wear the face mask to prevent the microorganisms and germs from spread at the chicken. Other than that, he needs to stay away from the food if he is sick. Moreover, he also tastes the chicken by using his hand without washing it first. He needs to wash his hand first before tastes the dishes. It is important to prevent the food from contamination. SERVICING Good personal hygiene is very crucial during servicing. Pictures in the Appendix section show us that the owner doesn’t use any glove but only a knife to cut the chicken pieces. He holds the bread with his bare hands.

The knife was seen not washed after used using the same knife; he prepares food for another customer. The other utensils were just put on the table without placing it in a proper container. His wife, who helps him selling chicken kebabs and he are wearing apron during their business operation. Aprons help to reduce transfer of microbes to exposed food. Their heads are covered so that the hair won’t fall into food or onto food-contact surfaces. It is also to prevent their hair from making any contact with equipment, utensils and lines and unwrapped single-use articles.

They also didn’t smoke in food areas. Cough, sneeze, spit over food, wear strong smelling perfumes when handling foods. These are all parts of defining personal hygiene standards. The stall is located far from the drain, which is why there were no flies flying around the food. Flies are proven carriers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and other germs that can cause food borne illness. The pipe was quite far away from the stall, so the owner just washed his hands without any soap by using the water in a pile that he collected before his business started to operate.

He also didn’t wash his hands after receiving money from the customers. Again, we must wash the dirty utensils before using it for a new work. They should be placed in a clean, proper container to prevent cross contamination. Hands shall be washed in a separate sink, known as a hand washing sink according to the FDA Food Code, not by using the same pile of water. It’s a must to provide hand cleanser (soap or detergent) in a dispenser and a suitable hand-drying device. The stall must be relocated, near to the water source to ease all the washing procedure indeed. If money is received with bare hands, wash hands again.

This is because money is a highly contaminated object as it is passed from one person to another. Cross contamination can occur from here. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Therefore, from this interview and observation that we had done, we had found that most of the food handlers does not know and understands the terminology in food hygiene. For example, First In First Out (FIFO). This is because most of them are lack of knowledge about this issue. They should be given the valuable information about food hygiene and sanitation because they are the food handlers which provide food to the consumers.

If they did not have the valuable knowledge, they might be affects many people health. Most of the food handlers did not take things seriously. We can admit that their foods are the best among the best but we did not know the condition of their kitchen and how they deal with foods. They should practice a good personal hygiene so that they will not contaminate the foods they handle. Besides that, they should wear proper attire and did not wear any jewellery because jewellery can contaminate foods by cross contamination. Besides that, the government should take a precaution steps to prevent and encounter this problem.

The government should provide course for the food handlers so that they know how to handle foods and how to prevent from the foodborne outbreaks and so on. The government also should take a responsible to do inspection at the stalls in pasar malam. Mass media also should do some advertisement to promote and provide information to the food handlers and consumers. In conclusion, we need to improve our own personal hygiene. Besides that, we need to know about foodborne hazards in order to avoid contamination and foodborne illness. APPENDIX Proper handwashing steps

Proper attire to slaughter poultry. Preparation Packaging of foods Preparation Interview Session Servicing REFERENCES 1. (n. d. ). How to Sanitize Fruits and Vegetables. Sanitization. Retrieved on August 1, 2011. From http://www. ehow. com/how_2073072_sanitize-fruits-vegetables. html 2. (n. d. ). Food Safety. Food. Retrieved on July 24, 2011. From http://www. health. state. mn. us/divs/eh/food/fs/foodbanksafety. pdf 3. (n. d. ). For Consumers. FDA Code. Retrieved on July 24, 2011. From http://www. fda. gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm093704. htm) 4. (n. d. ). Personal Hygiene.

Food Safety and Regulations. Retrieved on July 27, 2011. From http://pubs. ext. vt. edu/348/348-960/348-960. html ——————————————– [ 2 ]. http://www. health. state. mn. us/divs/eh/food/fs/foodbanksafety. pdf [ 3 ]. http://www. ehow. com/how_2073072_sanitize-fruits-vegetables. html [ 4 ]. http://www. fda. gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm093704. htm) [ 5 ]. http://pubs. ext. vt. edu/348/348-960/348-960. html [ 6 ]. http://cooksafe. dumgal. gov. uk/FoodSafetyRefresher/safety_29. htm [ 7 ]. http://www. ehow. com/how_2073072_sanitize-fruits-vegetables. html

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Encourage Innovation or Kill Competition? Microsoft and Apple vs Google Android

“…Microsoft and Apple have always been at each other’s throats, so when they get into bed together you have to start wondering what’s going on…”- David Drummond, Senior VP and Chief Legal Officer, Google. Mr. Drummond stunned the world with this accusation late 3rd August 2011 in the official Google blog. The Android operating system took the mobile-phone market by storm as its latest version(Honeycomb 3. 0) wowed the smart-phone users with out-of-this-world features like multi-tasking, multi-touch interface, over the air updates, open source, etc.

Taken over by Google in 2005, and with 550,000 devices being activated every single day currently, Android seems to be the next big thing for smart-phones. But recent events involving the “patents war” and the blame-game being played out by the three behemoths, namely Google, Microsoft and Apple have brought a new issue to the forefront: are patents instruments to encourage innovation or to kill competition? Google claims that the recent acquisition of the wireless giant Nortel’s patent portfolio by an Apple-Microsoft consortium was “bogus” as a $1million deal was finally made at $4. million. Google was invited to bid on Nortel’s patent portfolio in early July but was outbid by the consortium. It has requested the US Department of Justice( DOJ) to investigate whether this was done to achieve anti-competitive means. It is also working on strengthening its own patent portfolio to be able to combat competitive threats in the future. The DOJ has already asked Microsoft to sell the patents it had bought earlier and make them open-source. Earlier, Oracle sued Google for using Java in Android.

Microsoft and Apple have both sued Motorola, a licensee of Android. Another licensee, HTC has had to pay huge royalties to Apple for a twin 4 patent infringement. Implication: This will help to necessitate and encourage round-the-clock innovation in the open-source community. Also the Android suppliers and users will not have to suffer due to licensing fees and end-user costs being driven up by competitors of Android holding all patents. Google has to keep innovating for Android so as to maintain its competitive edge.

The fact that Android is offered for free and Microsoft has to charge a licensing fee for its Windows Phone 7 has not gone down well with Android competitors and that has led to the latter scrambling to acquire patents in the field of wireless, wireless 4G, optical, voice, internet, etc to gain long-term benefits and also suing Android as well as its partners for using the competitors’ patented technology. Whether acquisition of patents and lawsuits for their infringement can yield long term benefits for their holders or undermine innovation in the open-source community remains to be seen.

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Using Proper Tone in Communication

Using Proper Tone The challenge of online communication is that we have to depend solely on words to express our meaning. As an example, we do not have the ability to strengthen our communication in a positive manner with a simple smile or nod of the head, nor are we able to add body language or tone. This makes a simple message vulnerable to being misunderstood or to be taken negatively. Written communication also lacks visual cues such as a high pitch or deepening of the voice. When writing a message to a professor or classmates, I would keep the intended audience in mind and choose an appropriate greeting.

I would then reference specific comments posted, reinforce course material or express a personal experience. The response would be a natural unforced conversation that is clear, to the point, and direct to an individual or the classroom as a whole. When talking with family such as my parents or elders it’s very important for me to use proper grammar and etiquette. I was raised as I raised my children with these words as important responses yes mama, no mama, yes sir, no sir, thank you, my I, and please. A word was never spoken out of turn and you never asked questions.

The tone would always have an even balance in communication and responses were clear, concise and to the point. When talking with friends I sometimes use emoticons to express emotions such as being disappointed or laughing. There have been occasions when I have used upper case letter to convey excitement or shouting and even internet lingo to shorten typing such as lol (laugh out loud) or OMG (oh my god). Even though communication habits are a little relaxed they are still to the point and directed to an individual.

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Challenges Faced by Trade Unions

“Black labour unions in south Africa are of great value to policy makers who recognize that the industrial work force has often served as a catalyst for political progress and social change in the developing world. It was not uncommon for leaders of the independence movements to have come out of the ranks of organized labor, the trade unions were training grounds and early vehicles of political expression as they were often the only form of organized activity permitted by the colonial authorities. . (Freeman & Bendahmane 1978, p. 1) INTRODUCTION The South African history is one that has had a dramatic influence on all its citizens, socially, politically and economically. The difficulties faced by south Africans during oppression and the apartheid era have made south Africans the way they are today in terms of knowing their rights and how to fight for such rights.

There were massive political movements that were formed by activists who wanted to fight for the rights of all black workers within the labor market. The trade unions played an important role towards the development of new legislation laws that favored not only the white population but also the blacks Indians and colored’s . The South African economy was weakened by punishment, and sheltered by the apartheid government’s protectionist policies. This has created certain challenges for organized labour.

On one hand, the South African trade union movement maintained a significant following and organizational continuity in recent years combined with union decline, and enjoys an unique degree of political influence on account of its alliance with the ruling African National Congress (ANC). On the other hand, it has had to battle with a decreasing combination of possible employers as a result of increasing retrenchments and restructuring, particularly in fundamental areas of the economy such as the metal and mining industries. he challenge is to retain the integrity of a union voice whilst continuing to compromise where necessary with both state and capital. A: Unions/labour legislation. Apart from crime and the issue of education and training, in my view the single most important immediate reason for increasing unemployment is the set of interlocking labour laws that have been introduced in recent years, together with the militant behaviour of the trade unions.

Because of the Labour Relations Act, The Basic Conditions of Employment Act, and the Employment Equity Act, employers cannot employ the best person for the job without potential interference of a government officials, and – most importantly – cannot get rid of people who are not turning up for work, are performing badly, are stealing, or are undermining the functioning of the organisation in other ways, without a costly, time consuming, and very aggravating process often involving labour lawyers, labour courts, and arbitration.

The Minister of Labour claims that such interference in the employment process and the resulting `labour market inflexibility’ has not been proved to be a significant factor in increasing unemployment.

I can only assume he has not adequately talked to the people who create employment, and in particular those who have decided not to do so in view of the onerous burdens placed on anyone wishing to create employment – and is for example ignoring the fact that the Government itself has asked to be exempted from the provisions of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act (see Business Report, Friday May 5th, 2000) because of the way they inhibit getting the job done.

The phrase `labour market inflexibility’ does not begin to describe the aggravation of being treated as a criminal by a labour lawyer when one has not fulfilled the law to the letter, in the case of an employee who is drunk on the job and should face immediate dismissal for dereliction of duty .

The entrepreneur trying to run a profitable business can find himself or herself spending many days and indeed in some cases months involved with labour courts and arguing the toss with people who simply do not do the work for which they are paid; apart from the aggravation and effort involved, this causes major loss of valuable time, preventing one from getting on with the real job at hand. The outcome is inevitable: a choice to replace labour by mechanisation wherever possible.

There is an iron-clad law involved: the more difficult it is to dismiss someone who is not doing the work they are paid to do, the less likely one is to employ anyone at all if there is any alternative route open. For example, a local entrepreneur was setting up a company to manufacture paper plates, and had the choice of employing 20 people in a low-tech but satisfactory approach, or investing R1. 25m on a high-tech machine from Taiwan that would carry out the task, in this case employing only two people.

In view of the above factors, he chose the latter route. Why then have these laws been introduced? A likely suggestion is that the Department of Labour is dominated by ex-trade unionists who have never created a job in their lives and so have not had to face the risks entrepreneurs take in so doing, but now largely control the shape of these labour laws. Now there certainly is a need for laws to protect workers from major exploitation, but the laws we now have in place are not those laws.

They would be very suitable for a rich country like Switzerland or Sweden with a highly trained, disciplined, and highly motivated labour force – but that is precisely what we do not have, in the main. The essence of the current situation is that under pressure from the trade unions, the Government, through the Department of Labour, is providing an ever more privileged situation for the employed, at the expense of the unemployed. The Trade Unions themselves are acting strongly for the benefit of their own members alone, who are the labour aristocracy precisely because they are employed.

The union’s professed concern for the unemployed rings very hollow when one understands the impact of the laws they have been instrumental in shaping – it is the unemployed who bear the major cost of these laws, through the diminished possibility of their obtaining employment . Last year the Trade Unions engaged in `rolling mass action’ involving a series of strikes and public demonstrations to protest unemployment – while at the same time lobbying for even more onerous conditions to be put in place to block the dismissal of unproductive employees.

This activity is truly ironic – apart from the immediate effects of such strikes, inevitably leading to job losses due to lost . The government is aware that something needs to be done to break the stranglehold of these labour laws on entrepreneurial enterprises, but has not showed the resolution needed to get it done. Until they do, it is a safe bet that unemployment will continue to increase . The recently proposed changes to labour law make a marginal improvement in some areas, but these are balanced by negatives in other areas – they certainly are not the clear hange that could turn unemployment issue around. The situation is clearly stated in a quote from the Malamulela Social Movement for the Unemployed: “We know from experience in trying to find jobs for the unemployed that the sector most likely to offer employment to the poor and unskilled, small and medium enterprises, is constrained by that sector’s struggling efforts to comply with our current labour legislation.

We have for long suggested that the best way to remedy this is by allowing workers and employers in that sector to enter into voluntary agreements that are exempted from the onerous provisions of the labour legislation, and that take the interests of the worker and the small enterprise into account” (P C Mashego, Business Day 2001-02-21, page 14).

This view is supported by a highly pertinent quote from an employer in response to the presently announced changes: “My husband and I started our business 10 years ago and today employ about 80 people. We were full of enthusiasm and employed only unemployed people where possible, training them on the job. Sure they may have started on a low salary but if they were hard working and willing they were soon rewarded. If not, they were out. Today I hate coming to work. All we want to do is sell our business and start something that does not require labour. We fall under a bargaining council so wages, increases, hours, etc. are dictated to us and are non-negotiable. I spend much time on disciplinary action paperwork and stressing to managers that paperwork must be done. … Staff generally are aware of all their rights, but have no concept of the word obligation. They are convinced ?

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Mountain Dew

MOUNTAIN DEW: Selecting New Creative CASE STUDY SECTION A GROUP 5 Roll Numbers : FPM/04/005 (SUPRIYA K. K. ) PGP/14/005 (AMIT KUMAR) PGP/14/015 (ARITRA BASU ROY) PGP/14/025 (DEVARAJAN K) PGP/14/035 (KRISHNAN VR) PGP/14/045 (SAURABH MAHAJAN) PGP/14/055 (TANOY DHAR) Issues identified: 1. “Do the Dew” campaign was more than 8 years old. 2. Ads were becoming too predictable and repetitive. 3. Use of alternative sports was becoming predictable. 4. Increase in competition amongst CSD and non CSD categories. Increase in ad budgets by Competitors. Recommendations:

Based on the analysis our recommendations for the AD’s to be selected for broadcasting at the Super Bowl are * Cheetah * Mock Opera The recommendations for broadcasting throughout the year 2000, based on the criteria listed above are, * Cheetah * Mock Opera * Showstopper Analysis: The STP Identified by the Mountain Dew Management for the financial year 2000:Objective: Expand appeal of Mountain Dew to new users while reinforcing it among current usersPositioning: To 18 year old males, who embrace excitement, adventure and fun, Mountain Dew is the great tasting carbonated soft drink that exhilarates like no other because it is energizing, hirst-quenching, and has a one-of-a-kind citrus flavor. Communication Strategy:  Symbolize that drinking Mountain Dew is an exhilarating experience. Target: Male Teens—18 year-old epicenter * Ensure appeal amongst 20-39 year olds (current users) * Drive universal appeal (white, African-American, Hispanic, and other ethnic) Product Benefits| Emotional Benefits| Personality | Energizing| Exhilaration| Irreverent| Quenching| Excitement| Daring| Great Taste| | Fun| | possible choice of ads, before Pepsico for the superbowl * Labor of Love * Cheetah Ad * Dew or Die * Mock Opera * Showstopper 3 to be chosen among the above 5 above which would enable Pepsico to project its new positioning while at the same time maintaining it existing users. Decision filters used to evaluate brand communications: 1. Market research carried out to assess brand health (KPIs) measures 2. Unofficial sources of information like websites, talk shows and other mass media 3.

Official sources like brand’s 800 number and Mountain Dew website Evaluation of 5 Ad Campaigns: Labor of Love Pros * Conveys irreverence for rules * Consistent with humorous ad image Cons * Does not conveys product benefits * Involves risk in terms of alienating the existing consumers, especially during the Super Bowl. * Target positioning not clear * Humor may be taken in bad taste especially those with kids * Inconsistent with the brand STP Cheetah Ad Pros Consistent with the Dew Dudes image of wild, athletic, young and adventurous * Conveys exhilaration, excitement, daring and fun so consistent with the new positioning adopted * Focus on overall image perception of the consumer, no specific sport highlighted * Consistent with the Super Bowl energy and excitement * Potrayal of Cheetah will convey an universal imagery of energy ,athleticism which can appeal to all sections in the youth population (African Americans, Hispanics ,Whites and other ethnic). * Brings out the product benefit, like taste Consistent with the brand STP Cons * Like extreme sporting action, almost on similar lines with previous ads. Showstopper Pros * Cashes on the retro phenomenon * BMX riders and skate boarders represent fun, wild and athletic * Consistent with the brand STP Cons * Dew Dudes image not consistent * Does not convey excitement and exhilaration Mock Opera Pros * Conveys irreverence with the parody * The athletic action relates to the present Dew image * Consistent with the brand STP Cons * Does not convey exhilaration as much as previous extreme sport ads Dew or Die Pros Consistent with Dew Dude image showcasing exhilaration, daredevilry, excitement and fun * Showcasing competitive spirit Cons * Loses on product benefit attributes * Cliched ad, low on creativity, will not appeal much to the target audience * Inconsistent with brand STP The decision filters used by us: 1. Target positioning being followed a. Universal consumer appeal across different ethnic groups b. Leveraging and developing further on the strengths of the brand image c. Ensuring brand consistency with the existing consumers 2. Consistency of the ad with the product benefits, emotional benefits and personality

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Zen Soul Spa Business Proposal

BUSINESS PROPOSAL ZEN SOUL HEALTH SPA [pic] Executive Summary Zen Soul aims to be the premier health spa in Iran through its first venture in the capital city, Tehran. Through a unique combination of offered services and products, we will quickly gain market share. Zen Soul will provide customers with a relaxing, rejuvenating atmosphere where all of our mind and body needs can be met. The business will be set up as a partnership with Zen Soul Massage Therapy Sdn Bhd (Malaysia) and Akbar Boorboor.

Products and Services Zen is devoted and focuses in accelerating health through our wide variety of mind and body healing services and products. The health spa business is devoted to providing holistic methods of physiotherapy that coalesce with massage, body work, as well as muscle work. This is all done in a relaxing, serene setting. Location Zen Soul has chosen Tehran as the city for the business venture. Tehran is the capital and largest city of Iran and also the economic centre of Iran.

Tehran has an overall cost of living index which equates it with middle cost of living locations. Tehran is currently ranked 170 overall, most expensive place in the world for expatriates to live, out of 300 international locations. Additionally, Tehran has one of the most educated populations that loosely correlates to earning potential, or at least indicates a higher average household income. Thus, according to the population earning potential, education level, and its’ household income, Tehran carries high potential for our health spa business.

Competitive Edge Zen Soul’s competitive edge is our unique combination of services, location, and customer-centric focus. Zen Soul has set out since its inception to provide quality, dependable services. Zen Soul has an innovative training program that is extensive in its depth, properly training employees to provide an unprecedented level of customer service. All customers will leave Zen Soul with a feeling that their needs were met well beyond any expectations that they previously had and far better than any competitor.

This customer-centric business model is not just rhetoric; there are financial incentives in place for employees to offer unprecedented levels of service. This will ensure a high rate of return customers, allowing Zen Soul to meet our ambitious goal of 90%. Financials Zen Soul has forecasted substantial sales revenues by year two. Also by year two the business will reach profitability and have achieved a healthy profit before taxes. Zen Soul is an exciting business that provides a combination of sought after services that are have no direct competitor.

Zen Soul will provide a relaxing, serene setting for a variety of mind and body health rejuvenation services for the booming Iran population. 1. 1 MISSION AND OBJECTIVES 1. 1. 1 Objectives The objectives for Zen Soul are outlined below: 1. Promotes health for body and mind 2. Substantial sales revenue by end of second year. 3. Profit before tax by end of second year. 4. Have clientele return rate of 90% by end of first year. 5. Become established health destination by end of first year. 1. 1. 2 Mission

Zen Soul will provide a comforting, yet stimulating, atmosphere in which customers will be able to relax both their body and mind, reconnecting their daily lives to our true purpose through a wide range of holistic methods of physiotherapy that coalesce with massage, body work, as well as muscle work. Zen Soul will establish itself as a dependable destination to which they can always come to escape the stress of life, accelerate their health, and rejuvenate their energies, their souls, and their lives. . 1. 3 Keys to Success 1. Quality and skilled employees familiar with mind, body, energy and muscle work. 2. Establish trust within the community that each customer’s needs will be taken care of during every visit. 3. Easily accessible location. 4. Effective advertising. Company Summary Zen Soul Health Spa is a new destination offering customers the unique combination of physiotherapy, massage, body as well as muscle work, all in one beautifully serene setting.

Zen Soul will offer all ranges, physiotherapic and therapeutic massage, reflexology, manicure, pedicure, scrub, sauna, and specific complimentary product offerings. The goal and promise of Zen Soul can be summed up in our name and slogan: Zen Soul health Spa – Getaway to Relaxation [pic] 2. 1 Company Ownership Zen Soul, at this time, is a privately held partnership, owned by Zen Soul MASSAGE THERAPY SDN BHD (Malaysia) and Akbar Boorboor. 2. 2 Start-up Summary In the following table, the start-up cash has been marked for the estimated amount needed to cover operational expenses for the first two months. | |Start-up Funding | |  |  | |Start-up Expenses to Fund |  | |Start-up Assets to Fund |  | |Total Funding Required |  | |  |  | |Assets |  | |Non-cash Assets from Start-up |  | |Cash Requirements from Start-up |  | |Additional Cash Raised |  | |Cash Balance on Starting Date |  | |Total Assets |  | |  |  | |Liabilities and Capital |  | |Liabilities |  | |Current Borrowing |  | |Long-term Liabilities |  | |Accounts Payable (Outstanding Bills) |  | |Other Current

Liabilities (interest-free) |  | |Total Liabilities |  | |  |  | |Capital |  | |Planned Investment |  | |Investor 1 |  | |Investor 2 |  | |Investor 3 |  | |Additional Investment Requirement |  | |Total Planned Investment |  | |Loss at Start-up (Start-up Expenses) |  | |Total Capital |  | |Total Capital and Liabilities |  | |Total Funding |  | |  |  | |Start-up | |  |  | |Requirements |  | |Start-up Expenses |  | |Legal |  | |Stationery etc.   | |Brochures |  | |Construction/Design |  | |Insurance |  | |Rent |  | |Research and Development |  | |Expensed Equipment |  | |Other |  | |Total Start-up Expenses |  | |Start-up Assets |  | |Cash Required |  | |Start-up Inventory |  | |Other Current Assets |  | |Long-term Assets   | |Total Assets |  | |Total Requirements |  | 2. 3 Company Locations and Facilities • Where are the target sites? • The facilities of the place (parking/malls/ etc) • The size and psf/ how much? Products and Services Zen Soul will provide customers with health-oriented and relaxational services with complimenting products, as well as training in specific forms of physiotherapy body work, accessible materials on a wide range of health-related topics, and the option to purchase artwork displayed in Zen Soul.

Explanations and/or consultations will be provided on all services and products if needed. At Zen Soul, every customer is unique, with individual needs. Understanding such, our massage techniques are tailored to focus on these individual needs to ensure customers satisfaction. Our techniques are uniquely Zen Soul’s. Zen Soul aromatherapy head to toe signature massage combines the mix of traditional Balinese, Malay, Shiatsu and Swedish massage. We then create and blend it into our own unique massage technique. We believe that the technique applied by our therapist for aromatherapy massage in particular, is distinctively Zen Soul’s own technique.

Aromatherapy essential oil will be applied in all our massage and physiotherapy ranges. In aromatherapy[y treatment, each client is assessed prior to each treatment. During the consultation, a detailed case history will be taken, to find the most suitable oil and treatment methods for the individual. The individualized blend will be used in the massage, using a technique which is most suitable for the individual. Aromatherapy is one the oldest healing art on earth, and is the enhancement of the body, mind and soul using aromatherapy botanical essential oils. True the century’s aromatherapy has been mostly practice by civilization like Rome, Egypt, Greece and Persian.

Essential oils enter the body via inhalation and through the skin. They end up in the blood stream via the lungs or absorbing into the deepest layers of the skin through to the muscle. The fragrance molecules associated with essentials oils also affects the brain directly, through the olfactory system in our nose. These essentials oils can be one of the fastest ways to galvanize or bring about physiological or psychological effects such as to relax, to calm, to fresh, to ease emotional imbalances and to regulate imbalance hormone level. Essential oils are used for cosmetics, pest control, as well as deodorant values. 3. 1 Product and Service Description | | |3. 1. Zen Body Massage | |3. 1. 1. 1 Zen Aromatherapy massage | |Zen Soul’s head to toe signature massage combines the mix of traditional Balinese, Malay, shiatsu and Swedish massage. We then create and | |blend it into our own unique. The technique combining short and long kneading strokes plus deep rhythmic strokes and lomi-lomi on the back. | |Aromatherapy oil is used to enhance the skin ability to receive the treatment and soothing signals to the brain. | | |Aromatherapy uses the purest plant essence in the form of organic essential oils, which are extracts from various parts of plants, fruits, | |flowers, bark, roots, or resin. Essential oils contain dozens of powerful complex natural chemicals that have beneficial properties. Due to| |the diversity of essential oils and their individual therapeutic properties, the range of benefits and effects of Aromatherapy is wide | |ranging. | |Our therapists will have a holistic approach to client consultation. This provides the information necessary to select the appropriate | |essential oils for the maximum therapeutic benefit. The selected essential oils are blended with a carrier/base massage oil to create a | |unique mix for each client’s individual needs.

This aromatherapy blend is usually applied to the skin with body massage. Other massage | |techniques such as deep tissue work may also be used, depending on the client’s requirement. | | | |BENEFITS & EFFECTS | |Aromatherapy treatments have both physiological and psychological effects. The combination of massage and the medicinal and therapeutic | |qualities of the essential oils (molecules both inhaled [aroma] and absorbed through the skin) can soothe, revitalise, uplift the spirit, | |encourage positive thinking and boost the immune system enabling the body to heal itself. |Physiological Benefits – Aromatherapy massage can: | |enhance lymphatic drainage – this helps to reduce fluid retention and prevent oedema | |induce a feeling of deep relaxation in the body | |help to restore balance in the body | |stimulate the body’s natural immune system | |increase the oxygen and nutrient supply to the tissues by increasing the blood circulation | |help to increase energy levels as blockages and congestion in the nerves are eased | |Psychological Benefits – Aromatherapy massage can: | |promote a general state of well-being |calm and soothe the mind | |help to reduce nervous tension | |help to lift the mood and reduce feelings of depression | | | | | |3. 1. 1. 2 Zen Traditional massage | |Zen soul therapist uses elbow and thumb press techniques concentrating on the pressure points throughout the body. A specially signature | |Zen Soul blended balm provides heat that penetrates into the skin and enhances the massage. The combination of pressure and heat sends | |signals to the body and mind allowing the tired body to relax and the mind to feel at ease. |This massage benefits your body by improving the muscle tone, relaxing the body, and by getting rid of various aches and pains. It also | |acts on another level, and makes you feel relaxed and rejuvenated. | |Following are various benefits of traditional massage: | |Improves Blood Circulation: The movements of hands of the therapist help improve circulation of blood by dilating the vessels. It means | |improved supply of nutrients to muscles, thereby making the body stronger and healthier. Improved blood circulation also helps lower the | |blood pressure. |Massage Benefits Muscular System: improved supplies of nutrients to muscles help the muscles in recovering from fatigue and stress. It | |helps one get rid of muscular pains and aches. Massage prevents muscles from wasting due to paralysis or injuries. | |Improves Skeletal System: The massage helps in improving the blood circulation to joints. It releases the tense muscles and tendons. All of| |which improves the range of movements of various joints. | |Benefits Nervous System: The movements and touch of the expert therapist soothes your nerves, and sends you to deep states of relaxation. | |Your mind gets calm and stress free, and enjoys these sensations of modulated movements with a sense of deep relaxation. |Massage for Total Relaxation: The massage brings down the level of stress hormones, and increases the production of relaxing hormones, like| |Serotonin. Massage makes one feel good. The feeling of rejuvenation gives you more energy. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |3. 1. 1. Body Massage Trigger Points | |The massages are referred on trigger points technology as shown below: | |[pic][pic] | 3. 1. 2 Foot, neck and shoulder massage This massage concentrates on the three most stressed parts of the body. The pressure points in the feet are massaged to relax and reduce pain while long strokes are applied to the calves to release tension. As for shoulder we use the pressure point technique which relieves tension in the shoulders. Foot reflexology pressure therapy is a safe holistic remedy.

Records of this ancient healing art date back as far as ancient Egypt. Foot Reflexology is very old, and was practiced as an ancient form of pressure treatment that uses the application of focused pressure known as “reflex” points that are found in the foot as shown below. The various points correspond to areas on and within the body. [pic] When a person receives a foot reflexology treatment they may benefit from increased circulation as well as relaxation. A session promotes the release of tensions. Although there are many other benefits, (for which empirical proof may not yet exist). But recipients have noted that this ancient tool does promote the clearing of emotional debris.

Additionally, therapists have evidence that reflexology helps with the release of toxins from organs, and tired cells and tissues are rejuvenated, the body is more grounded. In general terms, the benefits of reflexology have to do with the reduction of stress. Because the feet help set the tension level for the rest of the body, they are an easy way to interrupt the stress signal and reset homeostasis, the body’s equilibrium. Reflexology is a complement to standard medical care. Learn some of the conditions that can benefit from foot massage and reflexology: ? Foot Ulcers Research suggests that it may work by improving local circulation and that it has the potential to be used to supplement standard surgical and medical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. ? Cancer Patients

Patients dealing with cancer experience many changes to their bodies and minds. Massage and reflexology have been used as complementary therapies to traditional medical treatments in patients who have cancer. Many research studies have shown benefits such as decreased anxiety, pain intensity, nausea, vomiting and fatigue in patients who have cancer. ? Post-op Pain After surgery, it is not uncommon for patients to have pain. Foot and hand massages were given to post-operative patients and the research study found that pain scores, heart rate and respiratory rate decreased. ? Artery Disease Massage and Reflexology has been shown to increase blood flow.

A research study in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (decreased blood flow in their lower legs), showed that reflexology increased the blood flow in the patients’ lower legs. ? Aging A research study involving middle-aged women showed that self-reflexology decreased depression, perceived stress, systolic blood pressure, and helped strengthen their immune systems. ? Menopause Many physiological and psychological changes take place during menopause. Both reflexology and foot massage helped to decrease anxiety, depression, hot flashes and night sweats in women during menopause. ? High Blood Pressure A research study looked at the benefits of reflexology on blood pressure, cholesterol and life satisfaction.

They found that reflexology helped lower the systolic blood pressure, but not the diastolic number, and that life satisfaction was improved significantly ? Amputations People with leg amputations often suffer from phantom limb pain. A research study looked at reflexology and its possible benefits for people with one leg amputated. The study found that reflexology of the foot and hands helped decrease the intensity and duration of phantom limb pain. 3. 1. 3 Aromatherapy kids massage Aromatherapy massage helps to relax hyper-active kids, enhance their sense of touch and smell as well as the benefits listed below: ? Asthma: Asthmatic children: demonstrated an enhanced ability (in volume and flow rate) to exhale, compared with children who were not massaged. Atopic dermatitis/Eczema : Children with this scaly, itchy skin problem seem to experience less redness, scaling, and other symptoms if receiving massage between flares. ? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Massage may improve mood in children with ADHD and help them feel less fidgety and hyperactive. ? Bulimia: Studies have shown that adolescents with this eating disorder feel less depressed and anxious after receiving massage therapy. ? Cystic fibrosis: Massage may reduce anxiety and improve respiration in children with this lung condition. ? Diabetes: Massage may help regulate blood sugar levels and reduce anxiety and depression in children with diabetes.

There was also notable improvement with compliance with insulin and food regulation, compared with children who were not massaged. Average blood glucose levels among the massaged children dropped from 159 on the first day of the study to 118 on the last day. ? Rheumatoid arthritis: Children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) have been shown to experience less pain, morning stiffness, and anxiety as a result of massage therapy. 3. 1. 4 Therapeutic Head Massage [pic] Head Massage is a therapeutic massage of the shoulders, neck, scalp & face, with the use aromatherapy essential oil. Benefits of Head Massage: • Relieves tension and headaches, neck and back pain • Alleviates stress, promotes relaxation and a popular massage often requested for general well-being Stimulates lymphatic drainage, helping to remove toxins and boost the immune system • Restores joint mobility, improving circulation which lifts energy improving concentration • Head Massage reaches all energy centers where tension accumulates. This traditional and effective massage is excellent for relieving stress and also promotes relaxation. With many benefits it is also great for general well being. A gentle & highly effective treatment, this relaxing massage has been practiced in Ancient India and other Asian countries over 5000 years. Many office workers or people who use computers suffer. Having a head massage is similar to having reflexology.

This is because all the organs are not only linked to the nerves on your feet but also to the head. Therefore, when you have a head massage you are giving the whole body to relax. All the organs of the body are then able to release harmful toxins to help the body avoid many illnesses. 3. 1. 5 Body scrub aromatherapy Zen soul aromatherapy body scrubs will help your skin to look healthy and radiant. By exfoliating the top layer of dead epidermis cells of your skin, it will be smoother and less wrinkled. The outermost layer of skin, the epidermis, accumulates dead skin cells that need to be removed. Normal bathing does not provide the exfoliation that is needed for the healthiest skin.

Regular exfoliation with a body scrub will  remove the dead outer layer of your skin and reveal a younger, smoother, soft, healthier layer of skin. The antioxidants in coffee, cocoa, and chocolate scrubs help to prevent the signs of aging skin. Scrub Facts: (1) promote increased blood circulation (2) fight cellulite (esp. scrubs with caffeine or coffee) (3) open and cleanse pores (4) remove dry itch and flakiness (6) nourish and moisturize you skin 3. 1. 6 Ear Candling Ear candling (also known as coning or ear funneling) has been practiced for centuries. Excessive ear wax can also cause discomfort, headaches, tinnitus (ringing in the ear), or vertigo. Ear candling may help alleviate these conditions. [pic][pic]

Ear Candling, a safe, simple, non-invasive natural relaxing cleansing method, uses long hollow Ear candles to extract earwax and other debris from the ear canal. The proponents of this method say that Ear Candling improves mental clarity and balances fluids that may cause headaches. The benefits of ear candling include: ? Improved sense of smell ? Relief of “swimmer’s ear ? Reduced ear pain ? Improved sense of taste ? Balanced emotional state ? Reduced ringing in ears ? Relief of dizziness ? Reduced pain of a tear in the eardrum ? Improved color perception ? Equalized pressure in the ear ? Reduced stress and tension ? Clearer thinking ? Improved lymphatic fluid flow 3. 1. 7 Zen Health Shop

Zen health shop would be focusing on selling health products that would provide added value for the customers as well as related compliment spa products such as: ? Spa Slipper ? Gift Set (Spa) ? Aroma Stick ? Hot Balm – Strong/Mild ? Aromatherapy essential oil ? Flower Candle ? Hot Oil ? Aromatherapy body oil ? Calming Face Oil ? Purifying Body Oil 3. 1. 8 Artwork Most of the artwork in Zen Soul will be by local artists, for sale to the customers. Zen Soul will earn a 15% commission on each piece sold. This adds an extra element of community integration to Zen Soul with an added emphasis of the art being from beginning artists, and that the art be spiritual and/or modern in form. 3. 2 Competitive Comparison

There are no direct competitors for Zen Soul. There are only domed bathhouse which offers after-shower massage at a price of IR5000 to IR15000 that are available from 6am to 7pm which are mainly providing its’ services to men-only. These services are only concentrating on relaxation which the practitioners are not train in a proper health-conscious manner. Whereas, Zen Soul are focusing on a combination of physiotherapy, Balinese, Swedish and shiatsu massage techniques as well as trigger point technologies to accelerate blood flow and promotes health. Besides providing the services to men, Zen Soul would also focus on large- potential market, the women.

Which consist of 23,522,861 between the age of 15-64 years old. Additionally, 14,000,000 populations in Tehran is a very viable opportunity for Zen Soul. 3. 3 Sales Literature ? Services brochure ? Logo and slogan ? Advertising ? Planned website. 3. 4 Fulfillment Zen Soul services sell as a natural and healthier way to rejuvenate one’s life. 3. 5 Future Products and Services Zen Soul will continuously add and improve its services. Zen Soul will always remain involved with the best spa healthy and relaxational techniques, and will implement them if deemed appropriate and feasible for Zen Soul clientele. Strategy and Implementation Summary 1. Emphasize quality, originality, and dependability of service.

Although we do not have direct competitors, we will differentiate ourselves from indirect or future competitors by offering a staff of therapist who are not only certified in their professions, but will be trained in understanding the dynamics of individual body systems so as to maximize the connection to their client and more easily meet the needs of the client. 2. We will provide a unique atmosphere. From the name to the ambience of our spa, Zen Soul will distinguish itself as a completely trustworthy and soothing setting where customers can enjoy being pampered and escape the stress of their everyday lives whilst boosting their health. 3. Build a community relationship-oriented business.

We will focus on strengthening the trust of our customer base, and providing not only services, but information that will aid everyone in the progression of obtaining a balanced and healthy lifestyle. We will also work with local artists to provide their work to inspire our customers. 4. 1 Value Proposition Our value proposition is that we will bring a unique mode of healthy, relaxation and fulfillment to the community. When people are healthier, relaxed, comfortable, and happy, they have the ability to work harder, concentrate better, feel physically, emotionally, and mentally balanced, and give that happiness back into their homes, workplaces, and community. Simply put, our value proposition is that we help our community become a better place to live and work. 4. 2 Competitive Edge

Our competitive edge is a combination of our unique services, outstanding location, and our interaction with customers. By providing our customers a holistic and integrative heath spa, we build relationships of trust and satisfaction. Our customers will come to depend on our unique services and fulfilling environment. 4. 3 Marketing Strategy Our marketing strategy is the key to our success: 1. Emphasize our name and unique services through advertising. 2. Focus on the convenience of our location. 3. Build community relationships through unique and quality service, friendly and caring atmosphere, and establishing absolute dependability of our services. 4. 3. 1 Promotion Strategy

Our promotional strategy will be two-fold: first phase promotion will deal with advertising before, during, and six months following our opening; the second phase advertising will deal with all long-term advertising. 1. FIRST PHASE PROMOTIONS a. Advertising We will utilize local newspaper, local social and health magazines, local radio, mail-outs to all households within the immediate five mile radius, and mail-outs to all local business within a five-mile radius. b. Internet We will have a comprehensive website. c. Alliances We will place our brochures within the offices of our medical referral clients. 2. SECOND PHASE PROMOTIONS a. Advertising We will continue to place ads in the local social and health magazines year around. Mail-outs will be done again within a five-mile radius one year later after opening, then again only every three to five years.

Radio ads will be done only when we have sale promotions during the most stressful times of the year for festive seasons. Television ads are not certain, we will evaluate their effectiveness before further implementation. b. Internet We will continue to have a comprehensive website. After the first six months, and certainly after the first year, we will evaluate the viability of having target clients advertise on our site, and conversely, we will evaluate viability of advertising on our target clientele websites (if applicable). c. Alliances This type of advertising will be implemented once we have grown beyond our break-even point. We will also form advertising alliances with any business with whom we share common business goals.

We will also implement mutual perks with our business and restaurant neighbors which will aid in local visibility. Advertising promotions with certain restaurants will also be considered. 4. 3. 2 Marketing Programs Owner will be responsible for marketing Zen Soul through the advertising channels. The manager will be responsible for assisting with the implementation of alliance advertising partnerships. Our advertising budget is IRXX,XXX for the first year. Advertising will begin one week prior to opening. 4. 3. 3 Positioning Statement We will automatically position ourselves as the top spa in the Tehran area. Considering that none of the other competitors will offer the range of services we will, or that their staffs will be trained like ours, and that here are not any spa of our type in our target locations or in the country, we will be able to provide services to a portion of Tehran populace not currently being tapped. 4. 3. 4 Pricing Strategy We will not charge over, nor substantially under, standard prices for our services. We will be paying our employees a higher straight percentage of their total individual customer sales. This will allow us to hire the best employees, and have a built-in motivational factor that will keep them working hard and happily. 4. 4 Sales Strategy a) Our umbrella sales strategy is to sell Zen Soul to public consumers as a uniquely desirable destination that will enhance their lives and health. ) We will sell Zen Soul through each therapist’s skill, courtesy, and warmth, creating a trusting impression on all customers, thusly establishing loyalty and return. We will ensure each visit to Zen Soul is a relaxing and memorable experience, so that customers can always depend on our brand of service when they arrive. 4. 4. 1 Sales Forecast The important elements of the Sales Forecast are shown in the chart and table below. Initial sales forecasts indicate vigorous first year sales, almost doubling by the end of second year, then leveling out somewhat by the end of third year. These figures are based only on revenue from minimum average estimates from salon stylings and spa massages only, with sales cost reflective of the 60% commission earnings to each stylist/therapist. [pic] [pic] Sales Forecast | | |Year 1 |Year 2 |Year 3 | |Sales | | | | |Salon Styles Only Revenue |$717,500 |$1,400,000 |$1,600,000 | |Spa Massage Only Revenue |$182,500 |$350,000 |$400,000 | |Total Sales |$900,000 |$1,750,000 |$2,000,000 | | | | | | |Direct Cost of Sales |Year 1 |Year 2 |Year 3 | |Salon Styles Only Revenue |$429,300 |$840,000 |$960,000 | |Spa Massage Only Revenue |$109,500 |$210,000 |$240,000 | |Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales |$538,800 |$1,050,000 |$1,200,000 | 4. 4. 2 Sales Programs 1. Our comprehensive brochure will explain the holistic nature of our services, and how this benefits the customer. . Our website will be comprehensively informative of our services and their benefits. 4. 5 Strategic Alliances We will form alliances with our referral practitioners, local restaurants, offices, and businesses who will be strategically beneficial for generating new customers; we will also form alliances with local certified massage schools and hair styling schools. 4. 6 Milestones The following table lists important store milestones, with dates, implementation duty, and budgets for each. The milestone schedule emphasizes the timeliness for implementation per the sales and marketing targets listed in detail in the previous topics. [pic] [pic] Milestones | | | | | | | | |Milestone |Start Date |End Date |Budget |Manager |Department | |Business Plan |1/15/2001 |2/1/2001 |$0 |Steve |Owner | |Financial Backing |2/1/2001 |2/5/2001 |$200,000 |Steve |Owner | |Design Contractor Retainer |2/5/2001 |5/1/2001 |$5,000 |Steve |Owner | |Construction Contractor |2/5/2001 |5/1/2001 |$20,000 |Steve |Owner | |Retainer | | | | | | |Lease Agreement |1/17/2001 |2/12/2001 |$20,000 |Steve |Owner | |Logo Design |2/12/2001 |3/1/2001 |$1,000 |Steve |Owner | |Business Cards (Initial) |2/19/2001 |3/1/2001 |$300 |Steve |Owner | |Brochures |3/1/2001 |5/1/2001 |$3,000 |Steve |Owner | |Grand Opening |5/1/2001 |6/1/2001 |$0 |Steve |Owner | |Seven Customers Per |8/1/2001 |9/1/2001 |$0 |Steve |Owner | |Stylist/Therapist | | | | | | |Totals | | |$249,300 | | | Management Summary The management philosophy of Zen Soul is based on respect for each of our fellow employees, respect for every customer, and individual responsibility.

Zen Soul’s success is dependent on the warmth and uniqueness of its atmosphere which is generated by a fun-loving and caring employee. The management team will consist of the owner, manager, and assistant manager (if deemed necessary). We will hire only those whom demonstrate the qualities necessary for working in a nurturing environment, and the willingness to move forward in study of energetic principals if not already so trained. We will be hiring the ultimate “people persons. ” 5. 1 Organizational Structure Our initial team consists of 8 employees, inclusive of a manager and an assistant manager, both of whom will be responsible for the management activity. 6 therapists would be provided and trained by Zen Soul (Malaysia) SDN. BHD at the initial stage.

There will be room for expansion to 12 to 15 therapists as the health spa begins to capture the market’s eyes. The therapist would be train from Malaysia before they are allowed to practice in Iran. Additionally, Zen Soul Malaysia would send their senior therapist 6 months for the first 2 years and annually for the years after for quality control purposes. 5. 4 Personnel Plan The Personnel Plan below reflects our projected need at opening, and carries through the second year expansions (in USD). |Personnel Plan | |  |Year 1 |Year 2 |Year 3 | |Owner,

President |$36,000 |$36,000 |$36,000 | |Manager |$26,400 |$30,000 |$30,000 | |Assistant Manager |$13,200 |$15,000 |$15,000 | |100% Commissioned Employees |  |  |  | |Therapist |$10,080 |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist |$10,080 |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist |$10,080 |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist |$10,080 |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist |$10,080 |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist |$10,080 |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist |  |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist | |$10,080 |$10,080 | |Therapist | | |$10,080 | |Therapist |  | |$10,080 | |Total People |8 |10 |12 | |Total Payroll |$136,080 |$161,640 |$181,800 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5. 5 Commissions Structure No. |Duration |Commission |Aroma |Traditional |Foot |Kids |Scrub |Ear | |1 |25 mins |6 |  |  |  |  |  |E/45 | |2 |40 mins |10 |  |  |F/40 |  |  |  | |3 |50 mins |12 |  |  |  |  |B/88 |  | |4 |60 mins |14 |A/85 |T/75 |F/50 |K/50 |  |  | |5 |90 mins |21 |A/95 |T/85 |  |K/70 |  |  | |6 |120 mins |28 |A/120 or A/100 |T/110 |  |  |  |  | |

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Watch Market

“MARKET SEGMENTATION OF WRIST WATCHES. ” A report submitted to IIMT, Greater NOIDA as per a fulfillment of full time Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Dr. D. K. Garg Hareram Kumar Chairman,ENR- 15033 Ishan Institute of Management 15th Batch PGDBM And Technology ISHAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 2 A, KNOWLEDGE PARK – 1, GREATER NOIDA Website: www. ishanfamily. com, E-mail: [email protected] com PREFACE

In the Watch industry, marketing and selling are playing a big role, sales have big concern with the profit but marketing of any product in sector is concern with the need, want, and recruitment of customer with the organization profitability. In telecom industry competition is very tough and change is very fast. So marketing strategy play a very vital role in this industry My final project is all about the Market segmentation of wrist watches. It means that I have to work on the strategy which the company is adopting in marketing and selling of its products and services for expanding its business and competing with the competitors.

In this project, I supposed to know the selling and marketing strategies of the MTNL product and services. What are the marketing steps being taken by the agencies. The queries, which are asked by the client, should be solved by the discussion with the company guide and marketing research. CERTIFICATE I have great pleasure in certifying that the final project on “Market Segmentation of wrist watches” submitted by Shri HARERAM KUMAR of Ishan Institute of Management and Technology, Greater Noida in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of P. G. Diploma in Management has carried out under my supervision and guidance.

This work has not been submitted anywhere else for any other degree or diploma. Date: (Ajay kumar) Guide of project ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Practical study is essential for any Professional curriculum otherwise it will merely leap in dark. Apart from classroom study it is necessary to know about the day to day working of the organization. To fulfill the above objective every student has to undergo practical study before he/she can consider himself/herself fully qualified as a Potential Manager. During the course of my training, I learn that there is big difference between class room study and practical life.

I got opportunity to undergo training under Mr. Ajay Kumar I express my thanks to my company guide Mr. Ajay Kumar ( Managing Director Gagdamba Watch Tugalpur Gr. Noida) for accepting me as a Summer Trainee in the organization and for his resolute guidance, meticulous supervision and constant encouragement during training till now. I would also like to wish a special thanks to our Dr. D. K. Garg (Chairman) and Pro. M. K. Verma (Dean) without whose guidance this project would have been a distant dream. (HARERAM KUMAR) DECLARATION The final project on “Market Segmentation of Wrist Watches. ” Under the guidance of Mr.

Ajay Kumar Gr. Noida. This is the original work done by me. This is the property of the institute and use of this report without prior permission of the institute will be considered illegal and actionable. Date: Name: HARERAM KUMAR Signature: Place: ENR. No: 15033 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Executive summary Literature Review Objective of the study Chapter 2 Introduction a)History of wrist watches b) Early growth c) Recent Development Chapter 3 a)Wrist watch business in India b)Recent step taken in India

Chapter 4 Market segmentation Men’s wrist watch Women’s wrist watch Kids wrist watch Watches according to the ceremony,marriage purpose,gifts Chapter -5 Market strategy of different watch company •Titan •Hmt •Maxima •Timex •Rado •Swiss Chapter-6 Organised player Titan Maxima Hmt Timex Citizen Casio Seiko Chapter -7 Product planning Expansion of watches Chapter-8 How company generate revenue by wrist watches. Chapter -9 My experience. Chapter -10 Consumer behavior of different segment towards wrist watches. A market survey. Questionnaire Chapter-11 •Conclusion •Finding •Suggestion •Bibliography EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report introduces a brief study of marketing segmentation of different wrist watches for its customers. The study report will provide an opportunity to know customers psychographic needs, it may provide an opportunity to the Wrist watch to frame a good future plan to satisfy maximum needs, taste and preferences of the customers and established its guiding role in the market and in marketing plan in particular area. An Analysis report provides detailed information about using the opportunities in market competition and thus prepares itself to meet the market challenge by making adjustment in its new strategy and promotions activities.

Gone are the days when people were very unsure about the future and hardly cared about it in terms of technological developments. But the situation has changed now. In the new millennium, people often feel a growing uneasiness about the future. Certainly many countries today are suffering from chronic high unemployment, a persistent deficit of economy and gradual deterioration of purchasing power. Nations are passing through a phase of rapid transformation. Forces are mostly responsible for these types of drastic changes; they are explosive growth of trade and international competition.

This new era has witnessed remarkable advancement in the availability of information and a number of large companies operations in such market where the principal of natural selection lead to “survival of the fittest”. Market provides a key to gain actual success only to those companies which match best to the current environment i. e. “imperative” which can be delivered what are the people needs and they are ready to buy at the right time without any delay. It is perfectly true but this also depends on the availability of good quality products and excellent services, which further attract and add a golden opportunity for huge sales.

This also depends on the good planning approach and provide ample opportunity plus sufficient amount of products for sales in the coming next financial year. LITERATURE REVIEW In this report I have described the facts and theories which were seen by me in field. I have described the market mix in this report and then I have applied the marketing mix to the MTNL’s products. I have given full description about the marketing strategy, how it works and how it plays a vital role in selling the product. I have described about the advertisement and how it play a very important role in selling the product.

I have also described promotion and various tools of promotion. I have described various types of pricing strategies used by the different companies and the strategy used by the MTNL for selling its products. I have given full description of the segmentation, what is the role of segmentation, types of segmentation, targeting and positioning is also explained by me. I have explained the strategy used by MTNL for 3G and how it is trying to take the advantage of monopoly because right now it is single in the market and private player will come after few months.

Here I am giving the brief of marketing and the rest topics are in the form of chapters. Marketing Marketing is an ongoing process of planning and executing the marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) for products, services or ideas to create exchange between individuals and organizations. Marketing tends to be seen as a creative industry, which includes advertising, distribution and selling. It is also concerned with anticipating the customers’ future needs and wants, which are often discovered through market research.

Essentially, marketing is the process of creating or directing an organization to be successful in selling a product or service that people not only desire, but are willing to buy. Its specialist areas include: * Advertising and branding * Communications * Database marketing * Direct Marketing * Event organization * Global marketing * International marketing * Internet marketing * Industrial marketing * Market research * Public Relations * Retailing * Search Engine Marketing * Marketing Strategy * Marketing Plan * Strategic Management

Concept of Marketing Marketing is an instructive business domain that serves to inform and educate target markets about the value and competitive advantage of a company and its products. “Value (marketing)” is worth derived by the customer from owning and using the product. “Competitive Advantage” is a depiction that the company or its products are each doing something better than their competition in a way that could benefit the customer. Marketing is focused on the task of conveying pertinent company and product related information o specific customers, and there are a multitude of decisions (strategies) to be made within the marketing domain regarding what information to deliver, how much information to deliver, to whom to deliver, how to deliver, when to deliver, and where to deliver. Once the decisions are made, there are numerous ways (tactics) and processes that could be employed in support of the selected strategies. The goal of marketing is to build and maintain a preference for a company and its products within the target markets. The goal of any business is to build mutually profitable and sustainable relationships with its customers.

While all business domains are responsible for accomplishing this goal, the marketing domain bears a significant share of the responsibility. Within the larger scope of its definition, marketing is performed through the actions of three coordinated disciplines named: “Product Marketing”, “Corporate Marketing”, and “Marketing Communications”. Two levels of marketing Strategic marketing attempts to determine how an organization competes against its competitors in a market place. In particular, it aims at generating a competitive advantage relative to its competitors.

Operational marketing executes marketing functions to attract and keep customers and to maximize the value derived for them, as well as to satisfy the customer with prompt services and meeting the customer expectations. Operational Marketing includes the determination of the porter’s five forces model 1. INTRODUCTION a) History of wrist watch Over the centuries clocks have been used as a status symbol by those who wear them. Their precision, elegance and convenience are just some of the attributes that clocks and watches represent.

Often they are bought purely for their aesthetic looks. and at other times they are bought because of their technical attributes like being precise to the last second or even millisecond. This is what makes clocks and watches so collectible and in some cases they can command high sums of money. Whether you collect the new high precision watches or ones that come from a past era, the fact is that over the years this hobby has become a high turnover business. And collecting watches is in a lot of circles regarded as a wise form of investing.

At the start of the last century the clocks that were available for men or women were firstly pocket clocks, and then clocks that held by a pendant attached to the lining of jackets or corsets. The advent of war, industrialization, and the development of the sport activities, brought over new trends which extended to not only the way we dressed, but also how we carried our clocks. It is said that it was a nanny who invented wrist watches at around the end of the 19th century, who fixed a clock around her wrist by using a silk band.

The first watches to be made were in fact smaller models of pocket clocks that were fitted with a leather strap. Once this product hit the market newer designs started to be produced based around this same concept. It was Louis Cartier who first made the kind of watches we see today when he created a watch for a flying pioneer hero by the name Santos Dumont. By 1911 this same type of watch was on general sale. That same type of watch became the blueprint of what wrist watches look like to this day. Soon after the design of wrist “clocks” began to diversify away from the classical round shape that had been in vogue up until that time.

From the Cartier classical wrist watch other makes of watch started to emerge which were characterized by their shape. Movado is the perfect example of these new designs when it came out with the “Polyplan” shaped watch. Then came the famously and cryptically called “clock reference n. 1593” by Patek Philippe which was a rectangular shaped watch. From 1913 onwards more and more watches started to be developed in all shapes and styles. From the “gondola” watch of Patek Phillipe to Louis Cartiers’ “Tank”; named thus because it was inspired by the shape of English armored cars of the time. These are watches which are very much sought after.

There were other numerous watch makers like Audemars Piguet, Vacheron Constantin who along with Patek Philippe and Cartier came out with many other designs which added other features to the watches like lunar phases, month and day most of which are found in modern watches now. Of course we could not mention wrist watches without mentioning the most famous of them all: the Rolex watch. In the 1920s Rolex debuted in the world of wrist watches with the elegant Rolex Prince and its revolutionary “dual time” feature made famous for having the “seconds sector” larger than that of the minutes.

At the same time Jaeger Le Coultre produced an even more advanced piece called the “Reverse”, also very revolutionary in that it could be turn 180 degrees within its case, thus protecting the crystal and dial. It became incredibly popular and was only prevented from achieving even greater success by the recession of the 1930s and the advent of world war 2. These early watches of the 1910s to 1930s are what define all the makes of watches that we see and wear today. This short article has only scratched the surface of what is a very vast subject which has many more watch makers with diverse and revolutionary designs.

However it is makers like Rolex, Cartier, Jaeger Le Coultre and the others mentioned that are amongst the most valuable and collectible, and should you ever be so lucky to get one then make sure you hang on to it – preferably to your wrist. For thousands of years, devices have been used to measure and keep track of time. The current sexagesimal system of time measurement dates to approximately 2000 BC, in Sumer. The Ancient Egyptians divided the day into two 12-hour periods, and used large obelisks to track the movement of the Sun.

They also developed water clocks, which were probably first used in the Precinct of Amun-Re, and later outside Egypt as well; they were employed frequently by the Ancient Greeks, who called them clepsydrae. The Shang Dynasty is believed to have used the outflow water clock around the same time, devices which were introduced from Mesopotamia as early as 2000 BC. Other ancient timekeeping devices include the candle clock, used in China, Japan, England and Iraq; the timestick, widely used in India and Tibet, as well as some parts of Europe; and the hourglass, which functioned similarly to a water clock.

The earliest clocks relied on shadows cast by the sun, and hence were not useful in cloudy weather or at night and required recalibration as the seasons changed (if the gnomon was not aligned with the Earth’s axis). The earliest known clock with a water-powered escapement mechanism, which transferred rotational energy into intermittent motions,[1] dates back to 3rd century BC ancient Greece;[2] Chinese engineers later invented clocks incorporating mercury-powered escapement mechanisms in the 10th century,[3] followed by Arabic engineers inventing water clocks driven by gears and weights in the 11th century. 4] Mechanical clocks employing the verge escapement mechanism were invented in Europe at the turn of the 14th century, and became the standard timekeeping device until the spring-powered clock and pocket watch in the 16th century, followed by the pendulum clock in the 18th century. During the 20th century, quartz oscillators were invented, followed by atomic clocks. Although first used in laboratories, quartz oscillators were both easy to produce and accurate, leading to their use in wristwatches.

Atomic clocks are far more accurate than any previous timekeeping device, and are used to calibrate other clocks and to calculate the proper time on Earth; a standardized civil system, Coordinated Universal Time, is based on atomic time. b) Early growth Many ancient civilizations observed astronomical bodies, often the Sun and Moon, to determine times, dates, and seasons. [5][6] Methods of sexagesimal timekeeping, now common in Western society, first originated nearly 4,000 years ago in Mesopotamia and Egypt;[5][7][8] a similar system was developed later in Mesoamerica. 9] The first calendars may have been created during the last glacial period, by hunter-gatherers who employed tools such as sticks and bones to track the phases of the moon or the seasons. [6] Stone circles, such as England’s Stonehenge, were built in various parts of the world, especially in Prehistoric Europe, and are thought to have been used to time and predict seasonal and annual events such as equinoxes or solstices. [6][10] As those megalithic civilizations left no recorded history, little is known of their calendars or timekeeping methods. 11] [edit] 3500 BC – 500 BC See also: History of timekeeping devices in Egypt Sundials have their origin in shadow clocks, which were the first devices used for measuring the parts of a day. [12] The oldest known shadow clock is from Egypt, and was made from green schist. Ancient Egyptian obelisks, constructed about 3500 BC, are also among the earliest shadow clocks. [6][13][14] The Luxor Obelisk in Place de la Concorde, Paris, France Egyptian shadow clocks divided daytime into 10 parts, with an additional four “twilight hours”—two in the morning, and two in the evening.

One type of shadow clock consisted of a long stem with five variable marks and an elevated crossbar which cast a shadow over those marks. It was positioned eastward in the morning, and was turned west at noon. Obelisks functioned in much the same manner: the shadow cast on the markers around it allowed the Egyptians to calculate the time. The obelisk also indicated whether it was morning or afternoon, as well as the summer and winter solstices. [6][15] A third shadow clock, developed c. 1500 BC, was similar in shape to a bent T-square. It measured the passage of time by the shadow cast by its crossbar on a non-linear rule.

The T was oriented eastward in the mornings, and turned around at noon, so that it could cast its shadow in the opposite direction. [16] Although accurate, shadow clocks relied on the sun, and so were useless at night and in cloudy weather. [15][17] The Egyptians therefore developed a number of alternative timekeeping instruments, including water clocks, hourglasses, and a system for tracking star movements. The oldest description of a water clock is from the tomb inscription of the 16th-century BC Egyptian court official Amenemhet, identifying him as its inventor. 18] There were several types of water clocks, some more elaborate than others. One type consisted of a bowl with small holes in its bottom, which was floated on water and allowed to fill at a near-constant rate; markings on the side of the bowl indicated elapsed time, as the surface of the water reached them. The oldest-known waterclock was found in the tomb of pharaoh Amenhotep I (1525–1504 BC), suggesting that they were first used in ancient Egypt. [15][19][20] The ancient Egyptians are also believed to be the inventors of the hourglass, which consisted of two vertically aligned glass chambers connected by a small opening.

When the hourglass was turned over, grains of sand fell at a constant rate from one chamber to the other. [17] Another Egyptian method of determining the time during the night was using plumb-lines called merkhets. In use since at least 600 BC, two of these instruments were aligned with Polaris, the north pole star, to create a north–south meridian. The time was accurately measured by observing certain stars as they crossed the line created with the merkhets. [15][21] [edit] 500 BC – 1 BC Ctesibius’s clepsydra from the 3rd century BC.

Clepsydra, literally water thief, is the Greek word for water clock. [22] Water clocks, or clepsydrae, were commonly used in Ancient Greece following their introduction by Plato, who also invented a water-based alarm clock. [23][24] One account of Plato’s alarm clock describes it as depending on the nightly overflow of a vessel containing lead balls, which floated in a columnar vat. The vat held a steadily increasing amount of water, supplied by a cistern. By morning, the vessel would have floated high enough to tip over, causing the lead balls to cascade onto a copper platter.

The resultant clangor would then awaken Plato’s students at the Academy. [25] Another possibility is that it comprised two jars, connected by a siphon. Water emptied until it reached the siphon, which transported the water to the other jar. There, the rising water would force air through a whistle, sounding an alarm. [24] The Greeks and Chaldeans regularly maintained timekeeping records as an essential part of their astronomical observations. Greek astronomer, Andronicus of Cyrrhus, supervised the construction of the Tower of the Winds in Athens in the 1st century B.

C. In Greek tradition, clepsydrae were used in court; later, the Romans adopted this practice, as well. There are several mentions of this in historical records and literature of the era; for example, in Theaetetus, Plato says that “Those men, on the other hand, always speak in haste, for the flowing water urges them on”. [26] Another mention occurs in Lucius Apuleius’ The Golden Ass: “The Clerk of the Court began bawling again, this time summoning the chief witness for the prosecution to appear.

Up stepped an old man, whom I did not know. He was invited to speak for as long as there was water in the clock; this was a hollow globe into which water was poured through a funnel in the neck, and from which it gradually escaped through fine perforations at the base”. [27] The clock in Apuleius’ account was one of several types of water clock used. Another consisted of a bowl with a hole in its centre, which was floated on water. Time was kept by observing how long the bowl took to fill with water. 28] Although clepsydrae were more useful than sundials—they could be used indoors, during the night, and also when the sky was cloudy—they were not as accurate; the Greeks, therefore, sought a way to improve their water clocks. [29] Although still not as accurate as sundials, Greek water clocks became more accurate around 325 BC, and they were adapted to have a face with an hour hand, making the reading of the clock more precise and convenient. One of the more common problems in most types of clepsydrae was caused by water pressure: when the container holding the water was full, the increased pressure caused the water to flow more rapidly.

This problem was addressed by Greek and Roman horologists beginning in 100 BC, and improvements continued to be made in the following centuries. To counteract the increased water flow, the clock’s water containers—usually bowls or jugs—were given a conical shape; positioned with the wide end up, a greater amount of water had to flow out in order to drop the same distance as when the water was lower in the cone. Along with this improvement, clocks were constructed more elegantly in this period, with hours marked by gongs, doors opening to miniature figurines, bells, or moving mechanisms. 15] There were some remaining problems, however, which were never solved, such as the effect of temperature. Water flows more slowly when cold, or may even freeze. [30] Although the Greeks and Romans did much to advance water clock technology, they still continued to use shadow clocks. The mathematician and astronomer Theodosius of Bithynia, for example, is said to have invented a universal sundial that was accurate anywhere on Earth, though little is known about it. [31] Others wrote of the sundial in the mathematics and literature of the period.

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, the Roman author of De Architectura, wrote on the mathematics of gnomons, or sundial blades. [32] During the reign of Emperor Augustus, the Romans constructed the largest sundial ever built, the Solarium Augusti. Its gnomon was an obelisk from Heliopolis. [33] Similarly, the obelisk from Campus Martius was used as the gnomon for Augustus’ zodiacal sundial. [34] Pliny the Elder records that the first sundial in Rome arrived in 264 BC, looted from Catania, Sicily; according to him, it gave the incorrect time until the markings and angle appropriate for Rome’s latitude were used—a century later. 35] [edit] AD 1 – AD 1500 [edit] Water clocks The water-powered elephant clock by Al-Jazari, 1206. Joseph Needham speculated that the introduction of the outflow clepsydra to China, perhaps from Mesopotamia, occurred as far back as the 2nd millennium BC, during the Shang Dynasty, and at the latest by the 1st millennium BC. By the beginning of the Han Dynasty, in 202 BC, the outflow clepsydra was gradually replaced by the inflow clepsydra, which featured an indicator rod on a float.

To compensate for the falling pressure head in the reservoir, which slowed timekeeping as the vessel filled, Zhang Heng added an extra tank between the reservoir and the inflow vessel. Around 550 AD, Yin Gui was the first in China to write of the overflow or constant-level tank added to the series, which was later described in detail by the inventor Shen Kuo. Around 610, this design was trumped by two Sui Dynasty inventors, Geng Xun and Yuwen Kai, who were the first to create the balance clepsydra, with standard positions for the steelyard balance. [36] Joseph Needham states that: … the balance clepsydra] permitted the seasonal adjustment of the pressure head in the compensating tank by having standard positions for the counterweight graduated on the beam, and hence it could control the rate of flow for different lengths of day and night. With this arrangement no overflow tank was required, and the two attendants were warned when the clepsydra needed refilling. [36] Between 270 BC and 500 AD, Hellenistic (Ctesibius, Hero of Alexandria, Archimedes) and Roman horologists and astronomers were developing more elaborate mechanized water clocks.

The added complexity was aimed at regulating the flow and at providing fancier displays of the passage of time. For example, some water clocks rang bells and gongs, while others opened doors and windows to show figurines of people, or moved pointers, and dials. Some even displayed astrological models of the universe. Some of the most elaborate water clocks were designed by Muslim engineers. In particular, the water clocks by Al-Jazari in 1206 are credited for going “well beyond anything” that had preceded them. In his treatise, he describes one of his water clocks, the elephant clock. The clock recorded the passage of temporal hours, which eant that the rate of flow had to be changed daily to match the uneven length of days throughout the year. To accomplish this, the clock had two tanks: the top tank was connected to the time indicating mechanisms and the bottom was connected to the flow control regulator. At daybreak the tap was opened and water flowed from the top tank to the bottom tank via a float regulator that maintained a constant pressure in the receiving tank. [37] [edit] Candle clocks A candle clock It is not known specifically where and when candle clocks were first used; however, their earliest mention comes from a Chinese poem, written in 520 by You Jianfu.

According to the poem, the graduated candle was a means of determining time at night. Similar candles were used in Japan until the early 10th century. [38] The candle clock most commonly mentioned and written of is attributed to King Alfred the Great. It consisted of six candles made from 72 pennyweights of wax, each 12 inches (30 cm) high, and of uniform thickness, marked every inch (2. 5 cm). As these candles burned for about four hours, each mark represented 20 minutes. Once lit, the candles were placed in wooden framed glass boxes, to prevent the flame from extinguishing. 39] The most sophisticated candle clocks of their time were those of Al-Jazari in 1206. One of his candle clocks included a dial to display the time and, for the first time, employed a bayonet fitting, a fastening mechanism still used in modern times. [40] Donald Routledge Hill described Al-Jazari’s candle clocks as follows: The candle, whose rate of burning was known, bore against the underside of the cap, and its wick passed through the hole. Wax collected in the indentation and could be removed periodically so that it did not interfere with steady burning.

The bottom of the candle rested in a shallow dish that had a ring on its side connected through pulleys to a counterweight. As the candle burned away, the weight pushed it upward at a constant speed. The automata were operated from the dish at the bottom of the candle. No other candle clocks of this sophistication are known. [41] An oil-lamp clock A variation on this theme were oil-lamp clocks. These early timekeeping devices consisted of a graduated glass reservoir to hold oil — usually whale oil, which burned cleanly and evenly — supplying the fuel for a built-in lamp.

As the level in the reservoir dropped, it provided a rough measure of the passage of time. [edit] Incense clocks Main article: Incense clock In addition to water, mechanical, and candle clocks, incense clocks were used in the Far East, and were fashioned in several different forms. [42] Incense clocks were first used in China around the 6th century; in Japan, one still exists in the Shosoin,[43] although its characters are not Chinese, but Devanagari. [44] Due to their frequent use of Devanagari characters, suggestive of their use in Buddhist ceremonies, Edward H.

Schafer speculated that incense clocks were invented in India. [44] Although similar to the candle clock, incense clocks burned evenly and without a flame; therefore, they were more accurate and safer for indoor use. [45] Several types of incense clock have been found, the most common forms include the incense stick and incense seal. [46][47] An incense stick clock was an incense stick with calibrations;[47] most were elaborate, sometimes having threads, with weights attached, at even intervals. The weights would drop onto a platter or gong below, signifying that a certain amount of time had elapsed.

Some incense clocks were held in elegant trays; open-bottomed trays were also used, to allow the weights to be used together with the decorative tray. [48][49] Sticks of incense with different scents were also used, so that the hours were marked by a change in fragrance. [50] The incense sticks could be straight or spiraled; the spiraled ones were longer, and were therefore intended for long periods of use, and often hung from the roofs of homes and temples. [51] In Japan, a geisha was paid for the number of senkodokei (incense sticks) that had been consumed while she was present, a practice which continued until 1924. 52] Incense seal clocks were used for similar occasions and events as the stick clock; while religious purposes were of primary importance,[46] these clocks were also popular at social gatherings, and were used by Chinese scholars and intellectuals. [53] The seal was a wooden or stone disk with one or more grooves etched in it[46] into which incense was placed. [54] These clocks were common in China,[53] but were produced in fewer numbers in Japan. [55] To signal the passage of a specific amount of time, small pieces of fragrant woods, resins, or different scented incenses could be placed on the incense powder trails.

Different powdered incense clocks used different formulations of incense, depending on how the clock was laid out. [56] The length of the trail of incense, directly related to the size of the seal, was the primary factor in determining how long the clock would last; all burned for long periods of time, ranging between 12 hours and a month. [57][58][59] While early incense seals were made of wood or stone, the Chinese gradually introduced disks made of metal, most likely beginning during the Song dynasty.

This allowed craftsmen to more easily create both large and small seals, as well as design and decorate them more aesthetically. Another advantage was the ability to vary the paths of the grooves, to allow for the changing length of the days in the year. As smaller seals became more readily available, the clocks grew in popularity among the Chinese, and were often given as gifts. [60] Incense seal clocks are often sought by modern-day clock collectors; however, few remain that have not already been purchased or been placed on display at museums or temples. [55] [edit] Clocks with gears and escapements

Greek washstand automaton working with the earliest escapement. The mechanism was also used in Greek water clocks. [61] The earliest instance of a liquid-driven escapement was described by the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium (fl. 3rd century BC) in his technical treatise Pneumatics (chapter 31) where he likens the escapement mechanism of a washstand automaton with those as employed in (water) clocks. [61] Another early clock to use escapements was built during the 7th century AD in Chang’an, by Tantric monk and mathematician, Yi Xing, and government official Liang Lingzan. 62][63] An astronomical instrument that served as a clock, it was discussed in a contemporary text as follows:[64] [It] was made in the image of the round heavens and on it were shown the lunar mansions in their order, the equator and the degrees of the heavenly circumference. Water, flowing into scoops, turned a wheel automatically, rotating it one complete revolution in one day and night. Besides this, there were two rings fitted around the celestial sphere outside, having the sun and moon threaded on them, and these were made to move in circling orbit … And they made a wooden casing the surface f which represented the horizon, since the instrument was half sunk in it. It permitted the exact determinations of the time of dawns and dusks, full and new moons, tarrying and hurrying. Moreover, there were two wooden jacks standing on the horizon surface, having one a bell and the other a drum in front of it, the bell being struck automatically to indicate the hours, and the drum being beaten automatically to indicate the quarters. All these motions were brought about by machinery within the casing, each depending on wheels and shafts, hooks, pins and interlocking rods, stopping devices and locks checking mutually. 64] The original diagram of Su Song’s book showing the inner workings of his clock tower Since Yi Xing’s clock was a water clock, it was affected by temperature variations. That problem was solved in 976 by Zhang Sixun by replacing the water with mercury, which remains liquid down to ? 39 °C (? 38 °F). Zhang implemented the changes into his clock tower, which was about 10 metres (33 ft) tall, with escapements to keep the clock turning and bells to signal every quarter-hour. Another noteworthy clock, the elaborate Cosmic Engine, was built by Su Song, in 1088.

It was about the size of Zhang’s tower, but had an automatically rotating armillary sphere—also called a celestial globe—from which the positions of the stars could be observed. It also featured five panels with mannequins ringing gongs or bells, and tablets showing the time of day, or other special times. [15] Furthermore, it featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive in horology. [3] Originally built in the capital of Kaifeng, it was dismantled by the Jin army and sent to the capital of Yanjing (now Beijing), where they were unable to put it back together.

As a result, Su Song’s son Su Xie was ordered to build a replica. [65] Drawing of the Jayrun Water Clock in Damascus from the treatise On the Construction of Clocks and their Use (1203) The clock towers built by Zhang Sixun and Su Song, in the 10th and 11th centuries, respectively, also incorporated a striking clock mechanism, the use of clock jacks to sound the hours. [66] A striking clock outside of China was the Jayrun Water Clock, at the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria, which struck once every hour. It was constructed by Muhammad al-Sa’ati in the 12th century, and later described y his son Ridwan ibn al-Sa’ati, in his On the Construction of Clocks and their Use (1203), when repairing the clock. [67] In 1235, an early monumental water-powered alarm clock that “announced the appointed hours of prayer and the time both by day and by night” was completed in the entrance hall of the Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad. [68] The first geared clock was invented in the 11th century by the Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Islamic Iberia; it was a water clock that employed a complex gear train mechanism, including both segmental and epicyclic gearing,[4][69] capable of transmitting high torque. 70] The clock was unrivalled in its use of sophisticated complex gearing, until the mechanical clocks of the mid-14th century. [69][70] Al-Muradi’s clock also employed the use of mercury in its hydraulic linkages,[71][72] which could function mechanical automata. [72] Al-Muradi’s work was known to scholars working under Alfonso X of Castile,[73] hence the mechanism may have played a role in the development of the European mechanical clocks. [69] Other monumental water clocks constructed by medieval Muslim engineers also employed complex gear trains and arrays of automata. 74] Like the earlier Greeks and Chinese, Arab engineers at the time also developed a liquid-driven escapement mechanism which they employed in some of their water clocks. Heavy floats were used as weights and a constant-head system was used as an escapement mechanism,[4] which was present in the hydraulic controls they used to make heavy floats descend at a slow and steady rate. [74] A mercury clock, described in the Libros del saber de Astronomia, a Spanish work from 1277 consisting of translations and paraphrases of Arabic works, is sometimes quoted as evidence for Muslim knowledge of a mechanical clock.

However, the device was actually a compartmented cylindrical water clock,[75] which the Jewish author of the relevant section, Rabbi Isaac, constructed using principles described by a philosopher named “Iran”, identified with Heron of Alexandria (fl. 1st century AD), on how heavy objects may be lifted. Astronomical clocks Astrolabes were used as astronomical clocks by Muslim astronomers at mosques and observatories. During the 11th century in the Song Dynasty, the Chinese astronomer, horologist and mechanical engineer Su Song created a water-driven astronomical clock for his clock tower of Kaifeng City.

It incorporated an escapement mechanism as well as the earliest known endless power-transmitting chain drive, which drove the armillary sphere. Contemporary Muslim astronomers also constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their mosques and observatories, such as the water-powered astronomical clock by Al-Jazari in 1206, and the astrolabic clock by Ibn al-Shatir in the early 14th century. [80] The most sophisticated timekeeping astrolabes were the geared astrolabe mechanisms designed by Abu Rayhan Biruni in the 11th century and by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr in the 13th century.

These devices functioned as timekeeping devices and also as calenders. Castle clock by Al-Jazari in 1206 A sophisticated water-powered astronomical clock was built by Al-Jazari in 1206. This castle clock is considered by some to be an early example of a programmable analog computer. It was a complex device that was about 11 feet high, and had multiple functions alongside timekeeping. It included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar orbits, and a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which travelled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cart and causing automatic doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour.

It was possible to re-program the length of day and night in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year. This clock also featured a number of automata including falcons and musicians who automatically played music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaft attached to a water wheel. Modern devices Modern devices of ancient origin A 20th-century sundial in Seville, Andalusia, Spain Sundials were further developed by Muslim astronomers. As the ancient dials were nodus-based with straight hour-lines, they indicated unequal hours—also called temporary hours—that varied with the seasons.

Every day was divided into 12 equal segments regardless of the time of year; thus, hours were shorter in winter and longer in summer. The idea of using hours of equal length throughout the year was the innovation of Abu’l-Hasan Ibn al-Shatir in 1371, based on earlier developments in trigonometry by Muhammad ibn Jabir al-Harrani al-Battani (Albategni). Ibn al-Shatir was aware that “using a gnomon that is parallel to the Earth’s axis will produce sundials whose hour lines indicate equal hours on any day of the year”. His sundial is the oldest polar-axis sundial still in existence.

The concept appeared in Western sundials starting in 1446. Following the acceptance of heliocentrism and equal hours, as well as advances in trigonometry, sundials appeared in their present form during the Renaissance, when they were built in large numbers. In 1524, the French astronomer Oronce Fine constructed an ivory sundial, which still exists; later, in 1570, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Padovani published a treatise including instructions for the manufacture and laying out of mural (vertical) and horizontal sundials.

Similarly, Giuseppe Biancani’s Constructio instrumenti ad horologia solaria (c. 1620) discusses how to construct sundials. The Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan used 18 hourglasses on each ship during his circumnavigation of the globe in 1522. Since the hourglass was one of the few reliable methods of measuring time at sea, it is speculated that it had been used on board ships as far back as the 11th century, when it would have complemented the magnetic compass as an aid to navigation.

However, the earliest evidence of their use appears in the painting Allegory of Good Government, by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, from 1338. From the 15th century onwards, hourglasses were used in a wide range of applications at sea, in churches, in industry, and in cooking; they were the first dependable, reusable, reasonably accurate, and easily constructed time-measurement devices. The hourglass also took on symbolic meanings, such as that of death, temperance, opportunity, and Father Time, usually represented as a bearded, old man. Though also used in China, the hourglass’s history there is unknown.

Clocks The astronomical clock of St Albans Abbey, built by its abbot, Richard of Wallingford Clocks encompass a wide spectrum of devices, ranging from wristwatches to the Clock of the Long Now. The English word clock is said to derive from the Middle English clokke, Old North French cloque, or Middle Dutch clocke, all of which mean bell, and are derived from the Medieval Latin clocca, also meaning bell. Indeed, bells were used to mark the passage of time; they marked the passage of the hours at sea and in abbeys. Throughout history, clocks have had a variety of power sources, including ravity, springs, and electricity. The invention of mechanical clockwork itself is usually credited to the Chinese official Liang Lingzan and monk Yi Xing. However, mechanical clocks were not widely used in the West until the 14th century. Clocks were used in medieval monasteries to keep the regulated schedule of prayers. The clock continued to be improved, with the first pendulum clock being designed and built in the 17th century by Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch scientist. Early Western mechanical clocks The earliest medieval European clockmakers were Christian monks.

Medieval religious institutions required clocks because daily prayer and work schedules were strictly regulated. This was done by various types of time-telling and recording devices, such as water clocks, sundials and marked candles, probably used in combination. When mechanical clocks were used, they were often wound at least twice a day to ensure accuracy. Important times and durations were broadcast by bells, rung either by hand or by a mechanical device, such as a falling weight or rotating beater. As early as 850, Pacificus, archdeacon of Verona, constructed a water clock (horologium nocturnum).

The religious necessities and technical skill of the medieval monks were crucial factors in the development of clocks, as the historian Thomas Woods writes: The monks also counted skillful clock-makers among them. The first recorded clock was built by the future Pope Sylvester II for the German town of Magdeburg, around the year 996. Much more sophisticated clocks were built by later monks. Peter Lightfoot, a 14th-century monk of Glastonbury, built one of the oldest clocks still in existence, which now sits in excellent condition in London’s Science Museum. Da Dondi’s 1364 Padua clock

The appearance of clocks in writings of the 11th century implies that they were well-known in Europe in that period. [104] In the early 14th century, the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri referred to a clock in his Paradiso; considered to be the first literary reference to a clock that struck the hours. The earliest detailed description of clockwork was presented by Giovanni da Dondi, Professor of Astronomy at Padua, in his 1364 treatise Il Tractatus Astrarii. This has inspired several modern replicas, including some in London’s Science Museum and the Smithsonian Institution. 97] Other notable examples from this period were built in Milan (1335), Strasbourg (1354), Lund (1380), Rouen (1389), and Prague (1462). Salisbury cathedral clock, dating from about 1386, is the oldest working clock in the world, still with most of its original parts. [106] It has no dial, as its purpose was to strike a bell at precise times. [106] The wheels and gears are mounted in an open, box-like iron frame, measuring about 1. 2 metres (3. 9 ft) square. The framework is held together with metal dowels and pegs, and the escapement is the verge and foliot type, standard for clocks of this age.

The power is supplied by two large stones, hanging from pulleys. As the weights fall, ropes unwind from the wooden barrels. One barrel drives the main wheel, which is regulated by the escapement, and the other drives the striking mechanism and the air brake. Peter Lightfoot’s Wells Cathedral clock, constructed c. 1390, is also of note. The dial represents a geocentric view of the universe, with the Sun and Moon revolving around a centrally fixed Earth. It is unique in having its original medieval face, showing a philosophical model of the pre-Copernican universe.

Above the clock is a set of figures, which hit the bells, and a set of jousting knights who revolve around a track every 15 minutes. The clock was converted to pendulum and anchor escapement in the 17th century, and was installed in London’s Science Museum in 1884, where it continues to operate. Similar astronomical clocks, or horologes, can be seen at Exeter, Ottery St Mary, and Wimborne Minster. The face of the Prague Astronomical Clock (1462) One clock that has not survived to the present-day is that of the Abbey of St Albans, built by the 14th-century abbot Richard of Wallingford.

It may have been destroyed during Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries, but the abbot’s notes on its design have allowed a full-scale reconstruction. As well as keeping time, the astronomical clock could accurately predict lunar eclipses, and may have shown the Sun, Moon (age, phase, and node), stars and planets, as well as a wheel of fortune, and an indicator of the state of the tide at London Bridge. According to Thomas Woods, “a clock that equaled it in technological sophistication did not appear for at least two centuries”.

Giovanni de Dondi was another early mechanical clockmaker, whose clock did not survive, but has been replicated based on the designs. De Dondi’s clock was a seven-faced construction with 107 moving parts, showing the positions of the Sun, Moon, and five planets, as well as religious feast days. Around this period, mechanical clocks were introduced into abbeys and monasteries to mark important events and times, gradually replacing water clocks which had served the same purpose. During the Middle Ages, clocks were primarily used for religious purposes; the first employed for secular timekeeping emerged around the 15th century.

In Dublin, the official measurement of time became a local custom, and by 1466 a public clock stood on top of the Tholsel (the city court and council chamber). It was probably the first of its kind in Ireland, and would only have had an hour hand. The increasing lavishness of castles led to the introduction of turret clocks. A 1435 example survives from Leeds castle; its face is decorated with the images of the Crucifixion of Jesus, Mary and St George. Clock towers in Western Europe in the Middle Ages were also sometimes striking clocks.

The most famous original still standing is possibly St Mark’s Clock on the top of St Mark’s Clocktower in St Mark’s Square, Venice, assembled in 1493, by the clockmaker Gian Carlo Rainieri from Reggio Emilia. In 1497, Simone Campanato moulded the great bell that every definite time-lapse is beaten by two mechanical bronze statues (h. 2,60 m. ) called Due Mori (Two Moors), handling a hammer. Possibly earlier (1490 by clockmaster Jan Ruze also called Hanus) is the Prague Astronomical Clock, that according to another source was assembled as early as 1410 by clockmaker Mikulas of Kadan and mathematician Jan Sindel.

The allegorical parade of animated sculptures rings on the hour every day. Early clock dials did not use minutes and seconds. A clock with a minutes dial is mentioned in a 1475 manuscript, and clocks indicating minutes and seconds existed in Germany in the 15th century. Timepieces which indicated minutes and seconds were occasionally made from this time on, but this was not common until the increase in accuracy made possible by the pendulum clock and, in watches, the spiral balance spring. The 16th-century astronomer Tycho Brahe used clocks with minutes and seconds to observe stellar positions.

Ottoman mechanical clocks The Ottoman engineer Taqi al-Din described a weight-driven clock with a verge-and-foliot escapement, a striking train of gears, an alarm, and a representation of the moon’s phases in his book The Brightest Stars for the Construction of Mechanical Clocks (Al-Kawakib al-durriyya fi wadh’ al-bankamat al-dawriyya), written around 1556. Similarly to earlier 15th-century European mechanical alarm clocks, the alarm was set by placing a peg on the dial wheel at the appropriate time. The clock had three dials reading in hours, degrees and minutes.

Taqi al-Din later constructed a clock for the Istanbul Observatory, where he used it to make observations of right ascensions, stating: “We constructed a mechanical clock with three dials which show the hours, the minutes, and the seconds. We divided each minute into five seconds. ” This was an important innovation in 16th-century practical astronomy, as at the start of the century clocks were not accurate enough to be used for astronomical purposes. An example of a watch which measured time in minutes was created by an Ottoman watchmaker, Meshur Sheyh Dede, in 1702.

Pendulum clocks Main article: Pendulum clock Innovations to the mechanical clock continued, with miniaturization leading to domestic clocks in the 15th century, and personal watches in the 16th. In the 1580s, the Italian polymath Galileo Galilei investigated the regular swing of the pendulum, and discovered that it could be used to regulate a clock. Although Galileo studied the pendulum as early as 1582, he never actually constructed a clock based on that design. The first pendulum clock was designed and built by Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, in 1656.

Early versions erred by less than one minute per day, and later ones only by 10 seconds, very accurate for their time. The Jesuits were another major contributor to the development of pendulum clocks in the 17th and 18th centuries, having had an “unusually keen appreciation of the importance of precision”. In measuring an accurate one-second pendulum, for example, the Italian astronomer Father Giovanni Battista Riccioli persuaded nine fellow Jesuits “to count nearly 87,000 oscillations in a single day”.

They served a crucial role in spreading and testing the scientific ideas of the period, and collaborated with contemporary scientists, such as Huygens. The modern longcase clock, also known as the grandfather clock, has its origins in the invention of the anchor escapement mechanism in about 1670. Before then, pendulum clocks had used the older verge escapement mechanism, which required very wide pendulum swings of about 100°. To avoid the need for a very large case, most clocks using the verge escapement had a short pendulum.

The anchor mechanism, however, reduced the pendulum’s necessary swing to between 4° to 6°, allowing clockmakers to use longer pendulums with consequently slower beats. These required less power to move, caused less friction and wear, and were more accurate than their shorter predecessors. Most longcase clocks use a pendulum about a metre (39 inches) long to the center of the bob, with each swing taking one second. This requirement for height, along with the need for a long drop space for the weights that power the clock, gave rise to the tall, narrow case.

In 1675, 18 years after inventing the pendulum clock, Huygens devised the spiral balance spring for the balance wheel of pocket watches, an improvement on the straight spring invented by English natural philosopher Robert Hooke. [This resulted in a great advance in accuracy of pocket watches, from perhaps several hours per day to 10 minutes per day, similar to the effect of the pendulum upon mechanical clocks. Clockmakers A pocket watch The first professional clockmakers came from the guilds of locksmiths and jewellers. Clockmaking developed from a specialized craft into a mass production industry over many years.

Paris and Blois were the early centers of clockmaking in France. French clockmakers such as Julien Le Roy, clockmaker of Versailles, were leaders in case design and ornamental clocks. Le Roy belonged to the fifth generation of a family of clockmakers, and was described by his contemporaries as “the most skillful clockmaker in France, possibly in Europe”. He invented a special repeating mechanism which improved the precision of clocks and watches, a face that could be opened to view the inside clockwork, and made or supervised over 3,500 watches.

The competition and scientific rivalry resulting from his discoveries further encouraged researchers to seek new methods of measuring time more accurately. An antique pocket watch movement, from an 1891 encyclopedia. Between 1794 and 1795, in the aftermath of the French Revolution, the French government briefly mandated decimal clocks, with a day divided into 10 hours of 100 minutes each. The astronomer and mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace, among other individuals, modified the dial of his pocket watch to decimal time.

A clock in the Palais des Tuileries kept decimal time as late as 1801, but the cost of replacing all the nation’s clocks prevented decimal clocks from becoming widespread. Because decimalized clocks only helped astronomers rather than ordinary citizens, it was one of the most unpopular changes associated with the metric system, and it was abandoned. In Germany, Nuremberg and Augsburg were the early clockmaking centers, and the Black Forest came to specialize in wooden cuckoo clocks. [135] The English became the predominant clockmakers of the 17th and 18th centuries.

Switzerland established itself as a clockmaking center following the influx of Huguenot craftsmen, and in the 19th century, the Swiss industry “gained worldwide supremacy in high-quality machine-made watches”. The leading firm of the day was Patek Philippe, founded by Antoni Patek of Warsaw and Adrien Philippe of Berne. : Wristwatch In 1904, Alberto Santos-Dumont, an early aviator, asked his friend, a French watchmaker called Louis Cartier, to design a watch that could be useful during his flights. 136] The wristwatch had already been invented by Patek Philippe, in 1868, but only as a “lady’s bracelet watch”, intended as jewelry. As pocket watches were unsuitable, Louis Cartier created the Santos wristwatch, the first man’s wristwatch and the first designed for practical use. Wristwatches gained in popularity during World War I, when officers found them to be more convenient than pocket watches in battle. Also, because the pocket watch was mainly a middle class item, the enlisted men usually owned wristwatches, which they brought with them.

Artillery and infantry officers depended on their watches as battles became more complicated and coordinated attacks became necessary. Wristwatches were found to be needed in the air as much as on the ground: military pilots found them more convenient than pocket watches for the same reasons as Santos-Dumont had. Eventually, army contractors manufactured watches en masse, for both infantry and pilots. In World War II, the A-11 was a popular watch among American airmen, with its simple black face and clear white numbers for easy readability. A twin-barrel box chronometer.

Marine chronometers Marine chronometers are clocks used at sea as time standards, to determine longitude by celestial navigation. They were first developed by Yorkshire carpenter John Harrison, who won the British government’s Longitude Prize in 1759. Marine chronometers keep the time of a fixed location—usually Greenwich Mean Time—allowing seafarers to determine longitude by comparing the local high noon to the clock. Chronometers A modern quartz watch and chronograph A chronometer is a portable timekeeper that meets certain precision standards.

Initially, the term was used to refer to the marine chronometer, a timepiece used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. More recently, the term has also been applied to the chronometer watch, a wristwatch that meets certain precision standards set by the Swiss agency COSC. Over 1,000,000 “Officially Certified Chronometer” certificates, mostly for mechanical wrist-chronometers—wristwatches—with sprung balance oscillators, are delivered each year, after passing the COSC’s most severe tests, and being singly identified by an officially recorded individual serial number.

According to COSC, a chronometer is a high-precision watch, capable of displaying the seconds and housing a movement that has been tested over several days, in different positions, and at different temperatures, by an official, neutral body. To meet this requirement, each movement is individually tested for several consecutive days, in five positions, and at three temperatures. Any watch with the designation chronometer has a certified movement. Quartz oscillators Main article: Crystal oscillator Internal construction of a modern high performance HC-49 package quartz crystal.

The piezoelectric properties of crystalline quartz were discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. The first quartz crystal oscillator was built by Walter G. Cady in 1921, and in 1927 the first quartz clock was built by Warren Marrison and J. W. Horton at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Canada. The following decades saw the development of quartz clocks as precision time measurement devices in laboratory settings—the bulky and delicate counting electronics, built with vacuum tubes, limited their practical use elsewhere.

In 1932, a quartz clock able to measure small weekly variations in the rotation rate of the Earth was developed. The National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) based the time standard of the United States on quartz clocks from late 1929 until the 1960s, when it changed to atomic clocks. In 1969, Seiko produced the world’s first quartz wristwatch, the Astron. Their inherent accuracy and low cost of production has resulted in the subsequent proliferation of quartz clocks and watches. Atomic clocks Atomic clocks are the most accurate timekeeping devices known to date.

Accurate to within a few seconds over many thousands of years, they are used to calibrate other clocks and timekeeping instruments. The first atomic clock, invented in 1949, is on display at the Smithsonian Institution. It was based on the absorption line in the ammonia molecule, but most are now based on the spin property of the cesium atom. The International System of Units standardized its unit of time, the second, on the properties of cesium in 1967. SI defines the second as 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation which corresponds to the transition between two electron spin energy levels of the ground state of the 133Cs atom.

The cesium atomic clock, maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, is accurate to 30 billionths of a second per year. Atomic clocks have employed other elements, such as hydrogen and rubidium vapor, offering greater stability—in the case of hydrogen clocks—and smaller size, lower power consumption, and thus lower cost (in the case of rubidium clocks). c) Recent Development The concept of latent demand is rather subtle. The term latent typically refers to something that is dormant, not observable, or not yet realized.

Demand is the notion of an economic quantity that a target population or market requires under different assumptions of price, quality, and distribution, among other factors. Latent demand, therefore, is commonly defined by economists as the industry earnings of a market when that market becomes accessible and attractive to serve by competing firms. It is a measure, therefore, of potential industry earnings (P. I. E. ) or total revenues (not profit) if a market is served in an efficient manner. It is typically expressed as the total revenues potentially extracted by firms. The ? market? s defined at a given level in the value chain. There can be latent demand at the retail level, at the wholesale level, the manufacturing level, and the raw materials level (the P. I. E. of higher levels of the value chain being always smaller than the P. I. E. of levels at lower levels of the same value chain, assuming all levels maintain minimum profitability). The latent demand for mid-range wrist watches is not actual or historic sales. Nor is latent demand future sales. In fact, latent demand can be lower either lower or higher than actual sales if a market is inefficient (i. e. not representative of relatively competitive levels). Inefficiencies arise from a number of factors, including the lack of international openness, cultural barriers to consumption, regulations, and cartel-like behavior on the part of firms. In general, however, latent demand is typically larger than actual sales in a country market. For reasons discussed later, this report does not consider the notion of ? unit quantities? , only total latent revenues (i. e. , a calculation of price times quantity is never made, though one is implied). The units used in this report are U. S. dollars not adjusted for inflation (i. e. the figures incorporate inflationary trends) and not adjusted for future dynamics in exchange rates. If inflation rates or exchange rates vary in a substantial way compared to recent experience, actually sales can also exceed latent demand (when expressed in U. S. dollars, not adjusted for inflation). On the other hand, latent demand can be typically higher than actual sales as there are often distribution inefficiencies that reduce actual sales below the level of latent demand. As mentioned in the introduction, this study is strategic in nature, taking an aggregate and long-run view,

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Samsung Electronics

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1. 1. Industry 1. 2. Company 2. Analysis 2. 1. Swot of consumer durable industry 2. 2. Porter’s 5 forces model for consumer durable industry 3. Marketing strategies followed by samsung 4. Problems & suggestions 5. Conclusion and the road ahead ? INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE INDUSTRY Before the liberalisation of the Indian economy, only a few companies like Kelvinator, Godrej, Allwyn and Voltas were the major players in the consumer durables market, accounting for no less than 90 per cent of the market after liberalisation,foreign players like LG, Sony, Samsung, Whirlpool, Daewoo and Aiwa came into the picture.

Today, these players control a major share of the consumer durables market. With the increase in income levels, easy availability of finance, increase in consumer awareness and introduction of new models, the demand for consumer durables has increased significantly. Products like washing machines, air-conditioners, microwave ovens and colour televisions (CTVs) are no longer considered luxury items. However, there are still very few players in catego ries like vacuum cleaners and dishwashers. The consumer durables sector is characterised by the emergence of MNCs, exchange offers, discounts and intense competition.

The market share of MNCs in the consumer durables sector is 65 per cent. MNCs’ major target is the growing middle class of India. This offer superior technology to the consumers, whereas Indian companies compete on the basis of firm grasp of the local market, their well-acknowledged brands and hold over wide distribution network. As per a survey conducted by FICCI on the Indian consumer durables industry, a shift in consumer preferences towards higher? end, technologically advanced branded products has been quite discernable. This shift can be explained by narrowing differentials between the prices of branded and unbranded products dded with the high quality of after sales service provided by the branded players. The shift has also been triggered by the availability of foreign branded products in India owing to lower import duties coupled with other liberal measures as introduced by the government. Some facts about the consumer durables industry • Consumer Durables Industry in India to post ~15% CAGR growth over next five years. • We believe that the consumer durables industry’s growth has been two pronged (a) driven by lower penetration in rural markets and (b) new innovations and replacement demand in urban markets. • Key growth drivers include: 1.

Continued economic growth demonstrated through 8. 4% CAGR growth in GDP over last 5years 2. Favorable demographics; 64% of the population in working age category 3. Increasing Urbanization, nuclear families 4. Increase in disposable incomes; which drives consumption 5. Increasing affordability coupled with declining prices of products 6. Lower consumer product penetration 7. Availability of new products and technologies, 8. Easy financing schemes and 9. Increase in organized retail • However, increasing raw material prices, intense competition and increased cost of service and distribution are major challenges being faced by industry. Valuation and view: In a scenario of shorter product life cycles and increasing competition, we believe that the companies with strong R&D, wide distribution network, strong brand would dominate the segment. Indian consumer durables sector has limited stock selection available for value investors. Key Industry Dynamics Industry Size: Rs. 350bn Key Categories: White Goods, Brown goods and Consumer electronics. Competitive landscape: dominated by Korean majors like LG and Samsung in most of the segments Margin Profile: Low margin, dependant on volumes

Growth opportunities: Lower penetration coupled with increasing disposable income The Indian Consumer Durables Industry can be segmented into 3 Key Group Sources : IBEF, GEPL Capital Research Consumer Durables – Share by Volume Source: Market discussion (Indian Steel Markets – 2011 Conference) CONSUMER DURABLESMARKET SIZE 2010MN UNITS 2011(E)GROWTH Flat Panel TV2. 84. 561% Refrigerators9. 012. 033% Washing Mashines5. 06. 020% Air Conditioners3. 44. 429% Microwave1. 01. 544% Sources: CEAMA, MOSPI, GEPL Capital Research Top 10 Players in Consumer Durables Sector •Nokia India •LG Electronics India Ltd • Philips India Titan Industries • Samsung India Electronics • Whirlpool Appliances • Siemens • Sony India • Videocon Industries • Blue star Source: http://www. naukrihub. com/india/consumer-Durables/companies-list/top-players ? INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE COMPANY The Samsung Philosophy At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology to creating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society. Every day, our people bring this philosophy to life. Our leaders search for the brightest talent from around the world, and give them the resources they need to be the best at what they do.

The result is that all of our products—from memory chips that help businesses store vital knowledge to mobile phones that connect people across continents— have the power to enrich lives. And that’s what making a better global society is all about. Our Values We believe that living by strong values is the key to good business. At Samsung, a rigorous code of conduct and these core values are at the heart of every decision we make. People Quite simply, a company is its people. At Samsung, we’re dedicated to giving our people a wealth of opportunities to reach their full potential. Excellence

Everything we do at Samsung is driven by an unyielding passion for excellence—and an unfaltering commitment to develop the best products and services on the market. Change In today’s fast-paced global economy, change is constant and innovation is critical to a company’s survival. As we have done for 70 years, we set our sights on the future, anticipating market needs and demands so we can steer our company toward long-term success. Integrity Operating in an ethical way is the foundation of our business. Everything we do is guided by a moral compass that ensures fairness, respect for all stakeholders and complete transparency.

Co-prosperity A business cannot be successful unless it creates prosperity and opportunity for others. Samsung is dedicated to being a socially and environmentally responsible corporate citizen in every community where we operate around the globe. Vision 2020 As stated in its new motto, Samsung Electronics’ vision for the new decade is, “Inspire the World, Create the Future. ” This new vision reflects Samsung Electronics’ commitment to inspiring its communities by leveraging Samsung’s three key strengths: “New Technology,” “Innovative Products,” and “Creative Solutions. — and to promoting new value for Samsung’s core networks — Industry, Partners, and Employees. Through these efforts, Samsung hopes to contribute to a better world and a richer experience for all. As part of this vision, Samsung has mapped out a specific plan of reaching $400 billion in revenue and becoming one of the world’s top five brands by 2020. To this end, Samsung has also established three strategic approaches in its management: “Creativity,” “Partnership,” and “Talent. ” Samsung is excited about the future.

As we build on our previous accomplishments, we look forward to exploring new territories, including health, medicine, and biotechnology. Samsung is committed to being a creative leader in new markets and becoming a truly No. 1 business going forward. Samsung is comprised of companies that are setting new standards in a wide range of businesses, from consumer electronics to petrochemicals, from advertising to life insurance. They share a commitment to creating innovative, high quality products that are relied on every day by millions of people and businesses around the world. •Samsung Electro-Mechanics Samsung SDI •Samsung Corning Precision Materials •Samsung SDS •Samsung Mobile Display •Samsung LED •Samsung Heavy Industries •Samsung Techwin •Samsung Total Petrochemicals •Samsung Petrochemicals •Samsung Fine Chemicals •Samsung BP Chemicals •Samsung Life Insurance •Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance •Samsung Card •Samsung Securities •Samsung Investment Trust Management •Samsung Venture Investment •Samsung C Corporation •Samsung Engineering •Cheil Industries •Samsung Everland •The Shilla Hotels & Resorts •Cheil Worldwide •S1 Corporation •Samsung Medical Centre •Samsung Economics Research Institute Samsung Human Resources Development Centre •Samsung Lions •The Ho-Am Foundation •Samsung Foundation of Culture •Samsung Welfare Foundation Set Business •Through innovative technology, distinctive designs, and a dual focus on convenience and value, Samsung has remained at the forefront of the digital revolution we helped launch. We lead the global digital marketplace by continually launching new products that not only meet- but also anticipate- customers’ demands. •Our mobile phones, admired by customers around the world, enhance mobile lifestyles while meeting the diverse needs of the mobile marketplace.

We’ve led the standardization of next- generation mobile phone technologies such as Mobile WiMAX and High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) to solidify our alliances with phone carriers around the world. •The business also comprises personal computers and MP3 players, creating synergies across platforms. We merge the latest mobile technology with core computing technology for the PC business, while mobile technologies – also combine with our world-leading power efficiency and design to enhance MP3 player capabilities.

Our goal is to use our leadership in technological convergence to guide the industry as it takes mobility to the next level. •The TV business is a key driver in in the Samsung Set Business portfolio, along with the Mobile phone business. The TV business enjoys the top position in the current market. LED TVs, which have shown explosive growth in the latest market is a flagship product within the TV business. LCD TV and Monitors have also maintained top positions in their respective categories. We seek to sustain our leadership through constant innovation and development in new technology such as 3D. A premium brand image has powered Samsung’s growth in the telecommunications category. We lead the global telecommunication industry with the widest range of mobile phones on the market today – including 3G and multimedia phones – in addition to telecommunication systems. •Our printer and camera businesses are also receiving positive responses in the market and we continue to innovate in technology to increase our competitiveness in these segments. Finally, Samsung’s Set Business also encompasses world-leading, premium home appliances that are stylishly designed, equipped with convenient digital features, and environmentally friendly.

Our lineup includes refrigerators, air conditioners, washers, ovens, vacuum cleaners and other appliances that are indispensable in today’s households. SAMSUNG INDIA PVT LTD. Samsung India is the hub for Samsung’s South West Asia Regional operations. The South WestAsia Regional Headquarters looks after the Samsung business in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh,Maldives and Bhutan besides India. Samsung India which commenced its operations in India inDecember 1995, today enjoys a sales turnover of over US$ 1Bn in just a decade of operations inthe country.

Headquartered in New Delhi, Samsung India has a network of 19 Branch Offices located allover the country. The Samsung manufacturing complex housing manufacturing facilities for Colour Televisions, Colour Monitors, Refrigerators and Washing Machines is located at Noida,near Delhi. Samsung ‘Made in India’ products like Colour Televisions, Colour Monitors andRefrigerators are being exported to Middle East, CIS and SAARC countries from its Noidamanufacturing complex. Samsung India currently employs over 1600 employees, with around18% of its employees working in Research & Development.

GROWING TO BE THE BEST:- Samsung India aims to be the ‘Best Company’ in India bythe Year 2006. ‘Best Company’ in terms of both the internal workplace environment as well asthe external context in which the Company operates. Samsung aims to grow in India bycontributing to the Indian economy and making the lives of its consumers simpler, easier andricher through its superior quality products. “Our aim is to gain technological leadership in the Indian marketplace even as our goal is toearn the love and respect of more and more of our Indian consumers. ” Mr. S. H. Oh, President & CEO

Samsung South-West Asia Regional Headquarters MANUFACTURING Samsung’s state of the art highly automated manufacturing facilities are located at theCompany’s sprawling Noida Complex. Enjoying the Number 1 position amongst all Samsungsubsidiaries in terms of productivity and having been ranked as the subsidiary with the ‘BestQuality System’, Samsung India prides itself for its Manufacturing Value Innovation. The manufacturing capacities of the Samsung products manufactured in India (as of Year 2004)are: Samsung India is working with and contributing to the development of the domestic componentindustry in the country.

The Company is working with its partners to improve their productquality and processes. Thus, Samsung vendors are sent to different Samsung subsidiaries tomeet the Samsung overseas vendors in order to benchmark their own processes. Samsung isalso training its vendors on eco-partnership so that the components manufactured by them are‘eco friendly’ as per ROHS norms. ? ANALYSIS SWOT OF THE CONSUMER DURABLES INDUSTRY Strengths 1. Demand is seasonal and is high during festive season 2. Demand is dependent on good monsoons 3. Poor government spending on infrastructure . Low purchasing power of consumers Weaknesses 1. The rising growth rate of GDP, rising purchasing power of people 2. The increasing popularity of easily available consumer loans and the expansion of hire purchase schemes 3. In India, the penetration level of white goods is lower than in other developing countries 4. Unexploited rural market 5. Rapid urbanisation Opportunities 1. Higher import duties on raw materials imposed in the Budget 2007-08 2. Cheap imports from Singapore, China and other Asian countries 3. Heavy taxation in the country 4.

Poor infrastructure; regular power supply is imperative for any consumer electronics product, but that remains a major hiccup in India Threats 1. Presence of established distribution networks in both urban and rural areas 2. Presence of well-known brands 3. In recent years, organised sector has increased its share in the market ? Source: Stock Shastra Key Growth Driver of the White Goods Industry ? MARKETING STRATEGIES Samsung studied closely and picked up the salient features of the Japanese manufacturing and made themselves an expert in that. ? Their planning is very meticulous on the execution of the job in hand. The Koreans never shown any bias against India. The Americans and Japanese took their brand equity for granted. The Koreans did not. As a result of this they didn‘t make any value judgments of the Indian customers and introduced contemporary products. This way they got their brand noticed. ? Both L. G and Samsung have consistently launched contemporary models-be it fuzzi logic washing machines, flat screen TVs or microwave ovens-in step with their launch globally. ? Further power was added to this strategy of dazzling Indians with global products was their high advertising spends. L.

G spent Rs 110 crores in advertising while Samsung spent Rs 80 crore in 2001. In 2003 L. G spent Rs 225 crores and Samsung Rs 100 Crores. Such high voltage advertising has made the Koreans the biggest spenders in their businesses, and they outspend competition by a factor of at least two. These spends have placed the Koreans in the class of some of the highest spenders in India such as Colgate, ITC, Dabur and Hindustan Lever. ? They are huge buyers of advertising so they exude through a lot of visible brand building. ? The Koreans have also started making a name for their ability to understand what customers want.

They practice this shibboleth with unusual vigor. ? They figure out quickly and very well what the consumer wants. But the important part is they quickly adapt their strategies accordingly. ? Unlike U. S companies following the office marketing strategy the Koreans follow the principle of ? Feet marketing‘. That means even the higher officials roam about the market to give boost to dealers and also to gather the first hand information on the current market conditions. This helps in knowing the ground realities better which results in a better strategy. The Koreans always think big and take risks. That‘s why they have infused so investment, which is now bearing the fruits. ? Players like Whirpool and Electrolux that made a foray into consumer electronics around the same time that L. G and Samsung did. They hedged bets by buying existing brands and capacities here (Kelvinator, Maharaja, Allwyn, and the like) while the Koreans built capacity from scratch and gives them an edge over the competitors. ? The Koreans want to outdo the Japanese. They don‘t start on a hunch. Their planning is meticulous.

When they take up a job they take it very seriously. ? All Korean managers bring on board a monk like devotion to their task at hand. This ensures quick execution of the work. ? The Koreans believe that manufacturing is a key strength and that‘s why they eschew contract manufacturing and invest in their own manufacturing facilities around the globe. ? They have culture sensitive workshops to ensure that the Koreans and Indians work well together. ? They bundle one product with another so as to promote the weaker one backed by the established product. They have well-entrenched the consumers in India by sponsoring a number of premier events like cricket matches and others with a high TRP ratings. ? According to prof. R. R. Krishnan at center for East Asian Studies of Jawaharlal Nehru University the insecurity element in the history of Korean comprising colonization, acquisition of their country in the past tends them to form a marketing strategy that requires best of them. ? Though the Koreans are making huge profits in India they have not fully presented themselves in India. Many business like chip manufacturing, humungous chemicals, energy business etc. hich they are operating in other countries has not found its way to India. The reason being the instability and lack of infrastructure of India to support these businesses. This shows their marketing tactics and their inclination towards the prelaunch test that they conduct before induction of each product in India. ? The Koreans always do a prelaunch market survey unlike its Japanese or U. S counterparts who take their brand equity for granted. This research gives useful inputs to the Korean players and also times to adapt them for the new situatio ?

PROBLEMS & SUGGESTIONS 1. Organized outlet should improve it‘s after sales service because its hits badly to the company‘s market share. 2. More detailed customized services should be provided. 3. The training to in shop demonstration should be given at frequent time interval and feed back should be considered positively. 4. The companies have to look into the matter of person hiring for in shop demonstration. A big showroom should have at least 2 such kind of person. 5. Organized retail outlet should try new dealer who have the potential. So they can target more market. . As there is a bottle neck competition between Organized & Unorganized, it is necessary to take measure steps to overcome the area of downfall in Unorganized with respect to Organized. 7. Customer considers quality as their first preference, so the Outlet should give more stress on this. 8. The switching of customer from one brand to other brand is due to the bed after sell service in shop. 9. The product is well aware and it is on top of mind of customer. So organized as well as unorganized retail should always improve services and update their technology. ? Conclusion

As rapid socio-economic changes sweep across India, the country is itnessing the creation of many new markets and a further expansion of the existing ones. With over 300 million people moving up from the category of rural poor to rural lower middle class between 2005 and 2025, rural consumption levels are expected to rise to current urban levels by 2017. Indian incomes are likely to grow three-fold over the next two decades and India will become the world’s fifth argest consumer market by 2025, moving up from its position in 2007 as the 12th largest consumer market.

With easy availability of finance, emergence of double- income families, fall in prices due to increased competition, government support, growth of media, availability of disposable incomes, improvements in technology, reduction in customs duty,rise in temperatures and growth in consumer base of the rural sector,the consumer durables industry is growing at a fast pace. Given these factors, a good growth is projected in the future too. The penetration level of consumer durables is very low in India compared to other countries. This translates into vast unrealised potential.

The industry expects the government to deepen its focus on the rural economy with greater fiscal incentives and rural employment. The consumer durables industry in India is set for sustained growth over the long term, fuelled by favourable consumer demographics, overall growth in services and industrial sectors and infrastructure development in suburban and rural areas. Several Indian and MNC players are looking to strengthen their presence in India to leverage this opportunity. Success in the long-term will require firms to develop a wide and robust distribution network, differentiate their products in areas f relevance to the consumer and innovate in the areas of promotion, product financing, etc. The product and approach to market need to be customised to suit the unique needs of the Indian market. ? THE WAY AHEAD ? BIBLIOGRAPHY •http://indiansteelmarkets. ipfedge. com/pdf/ism_2011_day_2/session_3/Dilip_Oomen. pdf •http://stockshastra. moneyworks4me. com/consumer-durable-sector-analysis-and-review-of-indian-product-companies/ •http://www. gujaratmba. com/mba_project/Gp%20final%20formeted. pdf •http://www. geplcapital. com/reports/ConsumerDurables_vJuly_15v1. pdf •http://www. efymag. com/admin/issuepdf/Consumer%20Durables_Dec10. pdf

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Value of Technical Publication in the Semiconductor and Soc Industry

Our technical proficiency in software and authoring tools includes: TWB services a wide range of technology and knowledge driven industries, helping them meet their markets better, these include: TWB has been the preferred technical documentation outsourcing company for: [pic] ———————– “TWB believes that technology cannot exist without being communicated effectively. ” “Knowledge is people, money, learning, flexibility and competitive advantage. Knowledge is more relevant to sustained business than capital or labor. And yet knowledge remains the most neglected asset of a business.

TWB helps you unlock and share your technical knowledge with the world. ” US Office: TWB 11701 Norwegian Wood Drive Austin, TX 78758 Position Paper on Value of Technical Publication in the Semiconductor and SoC Industry ¦ Competitive Growth in the Semiconductor Industry: Growth of semiconductor vendors relies heavily on an accurate, timely, and cost-effective documentation process. Semiconductor vendors cater to a global audience and hence need simple-to-read content that will minimize localization expenses, while staying ahead of competitors. Value of Technical Publications: Technical Publications are very essential for transferring product knowledge to end users. Provisioning of proper material to use the technology and products enables the user to accept and efficiently use the product. Faulty documentation can lead to inaccurate and hard-to-understand content which will have a negative impact on the product’s performance in global markets. ¦ Role of Documentation Outsourcing: The complexity involved in implementing a SoC device requires that vendors and purchasers consider outsourcing their development needs to well-established technical publications solutions providers.

This helps the company cut costs and at the same time deliver their products with quality documents. United States represents the world’s largest SoC market, worth an estimated US$10. 4 billion in 2007, as stated in a recent report published by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. Asia (excluding Japan) and Europe are the second and third largest markets respectively. The three regions collectively account for about 80% of the global SoC market. Benefits Partnering with TWB has extremely benefited many companies in saving costs and producing professional documentation along with: ¦ Representing complex chip designs in simple documents Protecting technical and commercial data of newly developed products ¦ Updating and managing documents easily ¦ Challenges and solutions ¦ Some of the greatest documentation challenges that most companies face today include: ¦ Timely availability of quality documents during product release ¦ Frequently updating the documents for changes in integrated designs ¦ Difficulty in acquiring robust domain knowledge for documenting complex designs To capture the market, companies require system development teams to design better products.

At the same time, functionality integration, saving cost and product documentation are very important to improve the market performance. In most cases the integration function of SoC is transferred only through quality documents. Documentation for a new product requires working closer with the relevant development teams. Later, this knowledge is used to provide documentation about functionality, behavior, implementation, and integration into a SoC. TWB provides structured documentation solutions that maximize comprehension and ease-of-use.

TWB has expertise in working on complex domains and delivering quality documents. TWB provides continuous documentation support to update the changes in products. Growth and Penetration of Semiconductor Industry The SoCs average growth volume is 31% a year. In 1999, SoC shipments leaped whopping 116 percent i. e. 345 million units from 160 million units (1998). Later, in 2004 it touched 1. 3 billion units. [pic] The global and regional markets are expected to grow at Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) ranging between 20% and 35% through 2010.

Market for SoCs based on Embedded IP is growing at a CAGR of 29% from 2006 to 2010, while standard cell-based SoCs market is projected to expand at 21%. The market for SoC is set to experience robust growth with increase in demand for high-speed, low power consuming chips. TWB is a leading technical communication outsourcing company that provides services in technical documentation. TWB is the ideal choice for leading vendors of Semiconductor and SoC systems. TWB helps customers with all their technical documentation needs TWB’s xperience in outsourcing to major companies drove its position to be a leader in Technical Documentation. Well trained and experienced employees are the main asset of TWB. TWB works closely with client teams located globally, and assists them in meeting their worldwide product announcements and launch deadlines. TWB’s documentation services enable customers launch their products with world-class documentation. TWB – Leading Technical Documentation Outsourcing Company ¦ Business Proposals ¦ Legal Disclaimers ¦ Policy Manuals ¦ Style Guide Design ¦ Template Design

The faulty assumptions listed below result in incomprehensible document: ¦ Developers know their products better than anyone else – due to time constraints and limited resources, many companies assign their documentation tasks to the programmers. This more often results in the creation of technology-centered information, while end users require task-oriented information. [pic] ¦ Documentation of complex applications requires a longer learning curve for the writer – learning the product will not be a major obstacle for writers with the right technical background.

Besides transferring knowledge, technical publications are also used for marketing a product. Before a product is released in the market, information about the product needs to be effectively communicated to the customers. Well-designed, accurately presented, and attractive marketing collaterals increase the market prospects of a product and reduce support costs. Attractive Publications as Useful Marketing Tools In technical publications, audience is the focal point. Hence, the style, language, and content must vary depending on the type of audience being addressed.

It is because every user has a specific role in the implementation and usage of the technology. Therefore, it is important that documents be created keeping in mind the role of the person who will use the document. For example, when you document a software application designed for highly technical users, it is sufficient to provide the users with quick reference information to use the application. For users who start without technical or product knowledge, it is important to provide detailed product information along with instructions on how to use the product. Communication for Different Levels of Technical and Product Knowledge

Faulty Assumptions that Result in Problems in Documentation The purpose of technical communication is to transfer product knowledge to end users in a comprehensible manner. The strategies of communication and levels of information vary depending on the type of product and audience. Providing end users with information about a product’s operation and maintenance is critical to the market performance of the product. Hence, the need for quality documentation is imperative. In today’s business scenario, technical publications are often developed as an afterthought.

This usually results in inaccurate and incomprehensible documentation, which, in turn, renders the users incapable of using the products. Accurate, readily understandable, and quality documents determine how a product sells in the market and result in increased customer satisfaction. Technical Communication for Transferring Product Knowledge In this paper we will discuss the importance of technical publications for the Semiconductor and System-on-Chip (SoC) products, to facilitate the growth, implementation and evolution of Semiconductor and SoC.

Technical publications in the SoC industry include a wide variety of materials such as user guides, solution guides, data sheets, online Help, white papers, reference guides, installation manuals, application notes, information document, assembler guide, conference papers (symposium, workshop and conference articles), contributed and published articles, process documents, multimedia library, technical reference manuals and brochures. The semiconductor industry is growing exponentially with strong demands for a variety of chips catering the electronic and computer industry.

The need for sleek, light, and portable products that are cost-effective has led to the development of SoC devices. Chip manufacturers are designing complex SoC devices to meet the global demand. Despite the rapidly increasing popularity of SoC, the complexity of having tens of a million gates, multiple IP cores, and complex on-chip buses and protocols makes quality documentation important to both the vendors of SoC and the organizations that purchases them.

The complex information must be documented in a simple and comprehensive manner for the end users, which necessitates the assistance of technical documentation specialists in the development of these documents. ¦ Economic Business Research ¦ Industry Analysis ¦ Market Opportunity Analysis ¦ Competitive Business Analysis ¦ Company & Prospect Profiling ¦ Reporting Solutions ¦ Assessment of Unmet Market Needs ¦ Status and Potential of Technologies ¦ Benchmarking of Strategies Vs Competition ¦ Forecasting ¦ Sales Force Effectiveness ¦ Market Assessments ¦ Competitive Intelligence Opinion Leadership ¦ Emerging Markets – evaluation and research ¦ Document Management Solutions ¦ Record Management Storage and Retrieval Records Management ¦ Software Translation Services ¦ Document Translation Services ¦ Localization (L10N) Testing ¦ Internationalization (I18N) Testing Translation and Localization Services Deployment and Support Qualitative Analytics for Decision Support ¦ Workflows ¦ Standard Operating Procedures ¦ ISO Documentation ¦ CMM Documentation ¦ Installation and Configuration Guides ¦ Operations Manual Process Documentation ¦ Web 2. 0 development ¦ Web content Web applications Web site Development ¦ Graphic Designing ¦ Info graphics ¦ 2D & 3D animation ¦ Line drawings and illustrations Illustrations ¦ Single Sourcing ¦ File Version Control ¦ Document Naming Conventions ¦ Consistent Document Formatting ¦ Data Transformation Content Management Business Documentation ¦ Short Reports ¦ Proposals ¦ Case Studies ¦ Lab Reports ¦ Memos ¦ Progress/Interim Reports ¦ Writing for Electronic Media Business Communication ¦ Copy Editing and Proof Reading ¦ Managing Writing ¦ Editing Services ¦ Layout and Design ¦ Creating SLAs Documentation Quality Management Datasheets ¦ Administrator’s Guide ¦ API Document ¦ Configuration Guide ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Installation Manual ¦ Interface Document ¦ Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) ¦ Maintenance Manual ¦ Online Help ¦ Operation Manual ¦ Product Demo ¦ Product Specifications Document ¦ Product Overview Document ¦ Quick Reference Guide ¦ Release Notes ¦ Requirement Analysis Document ¦ SDK Document ¦ Troubleshooting Manual ¦ User Manual ¦ Open Source Documentation ¦ Programmers Guides ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Use Cases ¦ Online Help /Context Sensitive Help Troubleshooting Guides ¦ Technical Product Documentation Technical Marketing Solutions ¦ Datasheets ¦ Cheat sheets ¦ Solution Briefs/Solution Brochures ¦ Presentations – Products/Corporate Profile ¦ Brochures and marketing collateral ¦ Web content ¦ Audio and video scripts ¦ Press releases ¦ Direct mail ¦ Newsletter design copy ¦ Sales catalogues ¦ Sales sheets TWB is India’s leader in technical communication outsourcing and education. TWB offers a complete suite of services that allows our customers to effectively publish their technical knowledge with their people and processes.

TWB’s customers range from Global 500 – including Cisco, Accenture, McAfee, LG, Samsung, Citrix, SAP, Siemens, AOL, Intel; Indian technology majors – including Infosys, Wipro; Global defense majors – Pratt & Whitney, Honeywell, DRDO, HAL; and exciting technology startups. TWB’s expertise in technical communication ranges from IT Products and Outsourcing, ITES, Banking, Financial, Aerospace, Defense, Ship Building to Hi-tech Manufacturing, and Discrete and Process Manufacturing. TWB’s services include: ¦ SCORM 1. 2 / 2004 ¦ AICC ¦ W3C ¦ Section 508 ¦ QTI XML Standards ¦ Microsoft Visio ¦ iGrafx ¦ EDraw ¦ RFFlow ¦ Flowbreeze Smart Draw Flowcharting ¦ Sharepoint® ¦ Moodle ¦ Joomla, ¦ WordPress ¦ Media Wiki ¦ CMS Builder ¦ Author-it (formerly AuthorIT) ¦ Alfresco ¦ XMetal® ¦ Microsoft Word 2003®, ¦ Microsoft Word 2007® CMS/ LMS XML ¦ Microsoft Access ¦ Microsoft SQL Server Databases ¦ JavaHelp ¦ Adobe RoboHelp 7. 0 ¦ HelpScribble ¦ WebWorks Publisher ¦ PowerCHM ¦ Doc-To-Help ¦ WinCHM ¦ HelpSmith 2. 1. 1(Windows) ¦ Fast-Help ¦ MadCap Flare ¦ Help-Server ¦ NVU Help Online Help ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Flex® ¦ Adobe AIR® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Adobe Acrobat® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Authorware® ¦ Adobe Director® ¦ Adobe Captivate® Trivantis Lectora® ¦ ASP. NET ¦ JSP ¦ JAVA Multimedia/Authoring/ Supporting tools Graphics/Animation ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Illustrator® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Microsoft FrontPage® ¦ Adobe Captivate® Multimedia/Authoring ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® Macromedia Captivate Graphics/Animations ¦ Adobe Flash CS4 Professional ¦ Adobe Illustrator CS3 ¦ CorelDRAW ¦ Microsoft-Expression Graphic Designer ¦ Xara Xtreme (Windows & Linux) ¦ CuteDraw ¦ Publisher3D(for animation) ¦ Sketsa SVG Editor (for vector graphics) Techsmith Camtasia ¦ Arbortext IsoDraw (technical illustrations for 2D and 3D) Illustrations ¦ XSLT/XSL ¦ EDD Development and Publishing tools ¦ Epic ¦ FrameMaker+SGML ¦ X-Metal® XML Structured Editors ¦ Microsoft Word® ¦ Adobe FrameMaker® ¦ Adobe InDesign® ¦ QuarkXPress® ¦ Adobe PageMaker® ¦ TWB has been the preferred technical documentation outsourcing company for: ¦ ITES/ KPO/ BPO ¦ Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology ¦ Process Manufacturing and Allied Industries ¦ Steel, Ship Building, Construction and Aviation ¦ Telecom and Digital Communications The TWB Building No: 4062, 19th Main Road, HAL 2nd Stage,

Bangalore – 560008 India. Landmark: Behind Carlton Towers [pic] Telephone: +91. 80. 40741400 / +91. 80. 41256367 Corporate Enquiries: [email protected] in Unstructured Content Development Telephone: +1. 512. 586. 8357 Our technical proficiency in software and authoring tools includes: ¦ Banking, Insurance and Financial Services ¦ Consulting and Business Services ¦ Defense, Aerospace and Hi-Tech Manufacturing ¦ Education and Learning ¦ IT, ITES TWB services a wide range of technology and knowledge-driven industries, helping them meet their markets better. These include: ———————– The Writers Blockwww. twb. in1

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Unit 3: Enabling Learning and Assessment

City and Guilds, DTLLS, 7305, Level 4 Assignment Unit 3: Enabling Learning and Assessment Karen Dennison, 295607 May 2011 There are many reasons why students are assessed and this first section summarises some of the key benefits to students, institutions and teachers as suggested by Race et al (2005) Your Homework Will Be Sent To You Promptly! – check this link right here now  . In order to gain qualifications or complete a course, students will be required to prove their competence, knowledge or exposition of a skill, usually through the use of assessments to demonstrate that learning has taken place.

Students may find assessment useful as it provides information regarding their progress, or identify areas for further development. Comparisons can be made against other students and this can help to give students a sense of how they are getting on compared to their peers. Although assessment may be motivating to some students who are progressing well it may also be demoralising for students who are struggling, or become a block to learning for others who are anxious about the assessment process.

Therefore it is important that assessment is appropriate to the course and level of student and differs according to the psychomotor, cognitive and affective learning domains and this will be discussed in detail later in this essay (Race et al 2005). From the institution and teacher perspective assessment can provide statistical information to monitor the overall performance of the college and indeed individual teachers. Providing information on the number of students who pass or fail courses, in particular the percentage of students who pass.

This can be useful to recruit potential students if results are positive as it may demonstrate quality and excellence. Information following assessment can be useful to identify areas of strength and weakness within course materials, teaching or the organisation. Teachers also benefit from assessment as it can provide a tool to ensure students are directed to the right course or identify whether students have any additional needs and this can be identified as part of initial assessment (Race et al 2005).

It helps to establish whether learning has taken place and can therefore be a measure of the effectiveness of the teaching. It can also be used to monitor progress of students, identify areas for development and provide evidence that students have met the required learning outcomes. The next section considers the stages of assessment and the purpose of each stage linking to Maslow’s self-actualisation model. This will be followed by an analysis of how assessment differs within each of the three main domains of learning as outlined by Bloom. Assessment can take place in many different forms and times during a course.

Formative or continuous assessment takes place during the course and can provide valuable information about how students are progressing in a fairly informal and non-intrusive way, although it may feel to the student that they are continually being assessed (Wilson 2009). This is also supported by Kolb’s learning cycle (1984) where he suggests reflective practice is a key element in developing practice. Boud (1995) also links self-assessment and reflection to effective learning. In contrast, summative assessment occurs at the end of a module or course and is most commonly a formal exam.

Students are tested on their knowledge and awarded a certificate accordingly. This can cause pressure and anxiety for students particularly when grades are required for further learning. Concepts of assessment as outlined by Wilson (2009) include norm referencing where students are assessed and measured against other students. Ipsative assessment involves students assessing themselves against set criteria and Criterion referencing requires competency to be measured against a set of set criteria and awarded a pass if the student meets the required standard.

Assessment can be an effective teaching tool to demonstrate learning that has taken place during a session and also to provide a measure against criteria for the courses as a whole. There are many different ways that students can be assessed and this may depend on the type of subject being taught and the level of student. The Syllabus Standards are set by the awarding body and this will influence the learning outcomes within the class. Assessment can be used at various stages of the learning cycle. As part of the initial assessment process it provides teachers with diagnostic knowledge about their students and identifies any additional needs.

Formative assessment provides on-going information about the student’s progress and summative assessment is a formal exam or test to measure cognitive knowledge at the end of a course or module. Different assessment methods will suit students within the different learning domains as outlined by Blooms taxonomy (1956 – 1967). Bloom suggests multiple choice questions will suit low order cognitive skill, whereas, high order cognitive skill and affective domain skills will suit essays, short answer questions. Students within the psychomotor domain will suit assessment in the form of observations.

Differentiating assessment methods and embedding these into everyday teaching is therefore essential for teachers as this provides valuable feedback whether or not learning has been effective. Assessments should be balanced and varied and include a range of inclusive, relevant and inspirational assessment activities. Formative assessments generally offer more flexibility, whereas the summative assessment is often set by an examination board and therefore differentiation is more difficult to achieve, although this could be in the form of different levels of exam papers (Wilson 2009).

This section of this essay critically evaluates the use of two different assessment activities used to check the learning of students. This will be done by considering the key strengths and weakness of each type of assessment will also be considered, as well as, the Validity; Reliability; Sufficiency; Authenticity and Relevance of each assessment method. The first assessment method is a short answer question paper session delivered to level 3 students on an access health studies course. This was an informal formative type of assessment designed to assess previous learning and help the students to recap on what has been learned to date.

The second assessment students were asked to prepare and deliver a 15 minute oral presentation to demonstrate knowledge gained during the module. This was an individual presentation which provided a formal summative assessment that counted toward their degree programme. Students were required to assess their own performance and they were also peer assessed by two other students within the group. This feedback and self-evaluation included aspects that worked well and areas for development. Tutor feedback was more detailed and included content, delivery and marked against the learning outcomes from the module.

A graded criteria was awarded for this module. These assessment methods use the criterion referencing tool which enables all students to be measured against a set of criteria rather than being compared to another student. Validity is concerned with whether the assessment activity measures what it sets out to measure. Atherton (2011) suggests that to ensure validity a range of assessment methods and approaches should be used. The first assessment activity was intended as a recap and was supported by group discussion so it provided a measure for the students as to their progress, and to me as a tutor regarding areas for development.

A further evaluation is shown in appendix . The second task relates directly to the learning outcomes of the module as set by the awarding body. It is therefore a highly valid. This assessment was summative and provided evidence that students had met the required criteria at the end of a health and safety module. Learners know what is expected as it is outlined in their handbook which they were given a the beginning of the course. Reliability is concerned with whether assessments provide an accurate record for the students.

To improve reliability assessments need to be checked for ambiguities and for teachers to double mark assessments independently, to check scores and grading criteria, this can help to improve reliability of results and reduce the number of false positives (QCA 2009). The first assessment activity was marked by students and then discussed as a group. The discussion helped students to share knowledge. The second task has a marking guide which has detailed criteria for presentation skills and the learning outcomes. Tutor feedback is supported by self evaluation from the student as well as peer feedback, thus providing double loop learning.

This was internally verified by an independent tutor to check for ambiguities. Sufficiency considers whether the syllabus is covered entirely or as part of a group of assessments. The first task students answered questions relating to two modules and so covered part of their overall course. The second assessment covered aspects of a module. The results will form part of an overall grade towards their degree programme. Although all students had to present orally, they also had to prepare handouts, power-point, or group activities.

Students had flexibility within their presentation and this would help meet the different learning needs. Once verified marks were given out during face to face tutorials. Authenticity is important as it provides evidence that the students work is their own. The first assessment activity encouraged students to self-assess their progress, their papers weren’t marked but the answers discussed as a class. Students were then encouraged to write additional comments which they could use for revision. In the second assessment the students were required to sign a declaration of authenticity to provide evidence that it was their own work.

Relevance relates to how the assessment fits in with the programme of work (Wilson, 2009). The first assessment provided students with an example of how the exam would work and was directly related to the topics they had been studying so I think it was highly relevant to their module. The second assessment activity required students to present orally their links from theory to practice and therefore not only highly relevant to meeting the learning outcomes of the module but also to their practice and improved professional practice.

This section relates to an evaluation on a session plan (appendix 1) where I reflect on how feedback from others has informed my own professional practice. I teach a level 3 access course on two consecutive days to different groups of students. Although there are differences between the groups in terms of the dynamics and needs of the students, this does provide me with an opportunity to reflect on my organisation and the session as well as feedback from students and make amendments to timing and order during the second session. I changed the programme around on the second day.

This involved changing the order of the activities around so that a shorter ice breaker activity would commence the session, followed by a short answer paper that again was broken so the students were asked to answer 5 questions, then discussed as a group and then the next 5 questions, rather than answering all 20 as a first activity. This seemed to work much better as it gave the students an opportunity for them to reflect on what they had learned during the module and the short activities broken up with group discussion were more effective than one long reading activity.

Feedback from observations has also improved my practice as it has given me aspects that I need to consider for development. It has also been motivating for me to have positive feedback from my peers noted. This has also improved my self confidence in my teaching ability and this in turn has encouraged me to try new things and I can feel that I am more motivated. I have attached two observations and highlighted areas regarding assessment activities. In conclusion, assessment plays a vital part of the teaching toolkit and has many benefits for students, teachers and organisations.

There are many different ways that assessment can be used and it is essential that a variety of methods are implemented so that all students have the opportunity to demonstrate whether they meet the criteria or standards. After analysing two assessment methods within my own teaching practice as well as considering feedback from others as well as the impact on my students I feel that I have developed both in my ability to be a reflective practitioner as well as. Word count: 1997 References Boud, D. (1964) ‘Enhancing learning through self assessment’, London, Kogan Page. Gravels, A. , ‘Principle and practice in assessment’ Kolb, D. , (1984) ‘Experiential learning: experience as a source of learning and development’ Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall. Petty, G. , (1998) ‘A practical guide; teaching today’ 2nd eds, London, Nelson Thornes. Race, P. , Broan, S. , and Smith, B. , (2005) ‘500 tips on assessment’ 2nd eds, Oxon, Routeledge Rogers, A. , and Horrocks, N. , (2010) ‘Teaching adults’ 4th eds, Berkshire, Open University Press. Wilson, L. (2009) ‘Practical teaching A guide to PTLLS & DTLLS’ Hampshire, Delmar Cengage Learning. Websites: Atherton J S (2011) Teaching and Learning; The Problem of Assessment [On-line: UK] retrieved 2 May 2011 from http://www. learningandteaching. info/teaching/assess_problem. htm Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2009) ‘Review of teacher assessment: evidence of what works best and issues for development’, On-line: retrieved 2nd May 2011 from; http://orderline. qcda. gov. uk/gempdf/1445907461/OUCEA_-_Review_of_teacher_assessment_March09. pdf

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