Month: March 2018

Dbq – Farmers

During the period 1876-1900, there were many different changes to American agriculture. Prior to the American Civil War, the United States started a systematic policy of territorial expansion across the continental United States. During this process of expansion, land was gained from the Native Americans and the Mexicans through different wars and treaties. However, the changes that technology, government policy, and economic conditions caused shall be explained. The Industrial Age accentuated class divisions because of different government policies.

In 1860, 50% of all American workers were self-employed; by 1900, two out of three workers depended upon wages. Nonetheless, there was a problem with this: the workers were at the mercy of their bosses. In Doc. E, the sharecroppers are robbed of their fair deserved earnings. Their boss takes more than half of the money they earn for him, and as the document states, he pays them “their half of the net proceeds”, indicating that they barely get any of their earnings for the rigorous work they do.

The Industrial Age was a booming and exciting time for America, but it was also a devastating time for the Native Americans and the farmers. The Native Americans were hurt the most by the railroads because the railroads could bring people, diseases, and troops. The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 was an attempt by the government at forcer assimilation to “civilize” Indians, and also to give each head of the family 160 acres of land to farm, but sadly this dissolved many tribes as legal entities.

The Dawes Severalty Act ruined Indian culture and way of life. The farmers in Nevada, Colorado, Montana, and Idaho, likewise, were having a tough time while silver and gold were being discovered. The rain-scarce Great Plains brought them little to no farming. Therefore, change can be a good and positive thing to one group of people, but it can also be a negative thing to another.

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A Hand Test: Genetic, Psychological and Social Analysis of Being Left-Handed

A Hand Test: Genetical, Psychological and Social Analysis to Being Left-Handed The preferred usage of one hand over the other is called handedness. Approximately 90 percent of the world’s populations are right-handed and these were passed on from one generation to other, although learning and culture could be the other possibilities to these phenomena (Lexicon University Encyclopedia, 1988). According to the New Encyclopedia Britannica (1993), laterality is the development of specialized functions in each of the hemisphere in our brain or the side of our body it controls.

Handedness is the most obvious example of laterality, which uses one hand to perform activities over the other. It can be classified as right-handed, left-handed or ambidextrous. In anatomy, our hands are mirror images. The vast majority of the right-handers use their right hands exclusively for tasks requiring dexterity and mastery (Hockenbury, 1997). This also goes the same for the people who use their left hands or the so-called “left-handers. ” Left-handers are the people who use their left hands in writing or most of their usual activities rather than their right hands.

One person in ten is a left-hander. Anywhere you look, left-handedness is something of a rarity (de Kay, 1979). Almost ten percent (somewhat more among males, somewhat less among females) of the human population is left-handed. Judging from the cave drawings and the tools of the prehistoric humans, this veer to the right occurred a long way back in the development of our species (Myers, 1986). Men are twice as many as women who were left-handed. They believe that this is due to the fact that males are exposed to higher testosterone levels during pregnancy (Hockenbury, 1997).

For most left-handers, living in a right-handed world may sometimes difficult for them. Most tools used in our daily lives are designed primarily for the right-handers. For left-handers, handwriting shows an obstacle. Adapting specifically to right-handed tools for music, business education and physical education should be done and mastered for some left-handers (Lance, 2006). The physical environment we are living today are specifically designed for the right-handers, but this should not be linked to a small percentage of left-handed elderly in our society. Most tools, quipments and machines in school and workplaces are designed for the convenience and safety of the right-handers. And these inconveniences are hazardous to health and safety of the left-handers. This can only be prevented if the machines, tools and equipments are to be made “user-friendly,” meaning ideally suited for both left-handers and right-handers (Kassin, 1989). Researchers hypothesized that a gene in a person’s DNA might confer to his handedness, specifically right-handedness. They theorized that people who lack this gene might display a random handedness, one-half being right-handed and the other half being left-handed.

The problem with this theory that the other studies show that there is 30%-40% chance of having a left-handed child, when both parents are left-handed. Further studies are conducting to full gene map to this single gene theory (Jansen, 1998). But just recently, the scientists from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics at Oxford University have lately discovered the gene LRRTM1, which they believe that increases the person’s chances to become left-handed. Over 40 scientists from 20 research centers revealed that this gene, the LRRTM1, is the first to be discovered which has an effect on handedness.

Although little is known about LRRTM1, the Oxford team suspects that it modifies the development of asymmetry in the human brain. They also discovered that LRRTM1 might the risk to become schizophrenic, a brain disorder which results to impaired perception and thoughts. Yet, Dr. Clyde Franck, the leader of the Oxford team said that,” people really should not be concerned by this result. There were many factors which make individuals more likely to develop schizophrenic and the vast majority of left-handers will never develop a problem. We do not yet know the precise role of this gene. Further research is still being conducted for the information with regard to this gene (Science Daily, 2007). Handedness is due to environmental influences, but genes also play a part. Only about one in every 50 left-handed children has parents who are both right-handed. And only about one out of six left-handed child parents who is a right hander and a left-hander. And one in every two left-handed child has a parent who are both left-handed (Hockenbury, 1997). As Jansen (1998) stated that, Left-handed parents are most likely to have left-handed children.

It has been demonstrated that handedness runs in the families, but of course environmental pressure must also be considered, for parents may purposefully or incidentally teach their children to be right-handed or left-handed. Adoption studies suggest that handedness is under genetic control as the results indicate the handedness of adopted children is more likely to follow that of their birth parents that their adopted parents. If both parents are left-handed, 50 percent of the kids will be left-handed too. But if both parents are right-handed, only two percent of the kids will be left-handed (de Kay, 1979).

There is a 30 percent case of left-handedness in a family pattern. When both parents are left-handed, there is a greater chance of having a left-handed child, but still, this does not follow a pattern (Myers, 1986). Older mothers are more likely to produce left-handed children than younger mother (de Kay, 1979). In a research made by Chris McManus, a professor of psychology, he stated that as women ages and bears a child, there will be a high percentage or probability to having a left-handed child, for a reason that older women are more likely to have left-handed child (Dewey, 1966).

There is also a high percentage of left-handedness in twins, but it is rare to find both left-handed (de Kay, 1979). Among identical twins, one would likely be a left-hander and the other one is right-hander. A slight displacement of internal parts of developing egg might be the reason for this (Myers, 1986). Just in the case of the Olsen twins from the Hollywood, Mary Kate is a left-hander while her identical twin, Ashley is a right-hander. Virtually all pediatricians will agree that if a child has a preference for the left hand, it will show up by age of five (de Kay, 1979).

But some experts claim that they can spot a left-hander during infancy. The whorl of their hair, it said, will twist counter-clockwise (de Kay, 1979). Half of the counter-clockwise whorl prefer left hand. Asymmetrical organization of the brain may also link to handedness and whorl of hair (Dewey, 1966). Aside from genetic involvement, even before birth, hand preference has already been demonstrated. Peter G. Hopper, together with other psychologists, observed 200 developing fetuses with the use of ultrasound, 95 percent sucked their right thumb while the other five percent sucked their left thumb.

This figure is very close to the population number of the left and right-handed people today (Munn, 1951). While according to George Michel (1981), for the first two days after birth, they observed that in 150 babies, almost two-thirds preferred to lie with their heads turned to their right. At the age of five months “head right” babies reached for things with their right hands, while “head left” babies reached them with their left hands. With these studies, he conducted that handedness is genetically influenced (Myers, 1986). James de Kay (1979) stated that, “the brain is made up of two very different hemispheres.

We need both, but for different reasons, since each has its own functions, its own personality, its own specialties, and most significantly, in reference to the subject under consideration, its own hands. “ Aside from the genetics and the hereditary basis to left-handedness, psychologists also claim that the dominant hemisphere of the brain may be responsible to the handedness of a person. Laterality in physiological psychology explains these phenomena. The left-handedness of a person might be caused by the brain and the asymmetry of the organs, the scientists and psychologists believes.

Any left-handers or anything on their left side was controlled by the right brain. The hands were controlled by the motor central of the brain; in the case of the left-handers, dominant motor centers are in their right brain. Researchers hypothesized that left-handedness is due to brain abnormality in the left hemisphere of the brain. They assume that the early damage in the left hemisphere causes the shift of dominance to the right hemisphere of the brain; so does the premature brain, prolonged birth labor, breech birth and the tendency to become left-handed (Dewey, 1966).

But many psychologists believe that the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body in a person, and therefore, it is said to be the dominant part of the brain. But it is unclear to them whether dominance is hereditary or just through use, but there are evidences that cerebral dominance is at least in part of the matter use (Huffman, 1990). During the Medieval Period, left-handers are said to be descendants of demons or Satan. They believe that left-handers are bewitched and most likely to cause chaos.

Some left-handers, like the witches, were burned to death and suffered from great torture. “That long ago bias against left-handers is still with us,” stated de Kay (1979) in his book The Natural Superiority of the Left-Hander. He also stated that, Actually, it was the Romans who made up all the rules against left-handers. They were the most militantly right-handed people in the world. The Romans invented the right-handed handshake, the fascist salute and the left to right alphabet that still causes a lot of trouble: The Roman word for “right” was “Dexter,” while their word for “left” was “Sinister. In the Dark Ages, after the Roman Empire have collapsed, a lot of people gave up reading, writing, shaking hands and saluting, and went back to being left-handed. Once again, the tools invented in this period reflect a general ambidexterity. But by the Middle Ages left-handers were out in the cold. Even suits of armor were invariably right-handed. During the 18th and 19th centuries, experts cited that there is a severe discrimination against left-handers. They have suggested that this might be the cause of dropping in number or population of the “gibble-fist. But during the latter 20th century, the numbers picked up once again as the discrimination or social indifference faded. Yet, during the 1960’s, schoolchildren’s left hands were tied to force or ensure that they write on their right hands (The Sunday Times, 2007). Forcing a left-hander child to use their right hand could cause confusion and disturbance to his brain. It is frustrating for a child, and if put in under emergency circumstances, the nature will work its way and left hand will suddenly emerge to solve the problem (Myers, 1986). Forcing handedness may later develop into speech disorders.

The reason is that it disturbs the natural dominance of the right cerebral cortex, which is the normal for him. But this could be cured by deliberately switching back to the left hand which may take a longer time (Huffman, 1990). Left-handers have experienced discrimination and social indifference in countries like India, Indonesia, China and even America. Humans tend to use their non-natural hand when faced in cultural pressure, perform manual labor and after an accident (Dewey, 1966). Even the fossils of Paleolithic stone tools and weapons also showed that they were made for the right.

The tracings or drawings of the Cro-Magnon, who were believed to be left-handed, were drawn by the right hand. And the sketches of men and women in Egyptian tombs also depict right hand usage. Yet, this symmetry was not considered to be part of their culture (Kassin, 1989). But these were contradictory to what de Kay (1979) have written in his book, As far as human beings are concerned, as we know from cave drawings, in the early days there were plenty of right-handers, but there were plenty of left-handers, too. If Neanderthal men were exclusively right-handed, they would have invented right-handed tools, correct?

Instead, they invented ambidextrous tools suited for either hand. Throughout much of ancient history, the left-handers had equal rights, and these were even true in writing. The Egyptians did not feel they had to write left to right. They wrote up, down, left or right, depending on whim. The Greeks wrote BOUSTRO-PHEDON style, with each line alternating down the page, first line left to right, next line right to left, then another left to right, etc. The Chinese, even to this day, write in vertical columns from right to left, which would indicate slightly left-handed preferences.

In a Biblical note, the Israelites were twice defeated by a Benjaminite army of “700 picked men who were left-handed. ” Left-handers are believed to have shorter life span compared to right-handers. And there are a low percentage of left-handers who have reached the age of 85. These were clarified in the Psychology book written by Saul Kassin (1989), which stated that, “Psychologists may disagree about why there are relatively few left-handers in the elderly population, but all of them agree that the physical environment is designed more for the comfort and safety of the right-handers. It only means that the man-made environment that we are living today is more “friendly” to right-handers compared to left-handers. And these may be hazardous to the safety of the left-handers. In the general population, there are twice as many left-handed artists, musicians, mathematicians and engineers compared to right-handers (Hockenbury, 1997). MichaelAngelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, Jimi Hendrix, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, Ludwig van Beethoven, Sting, Annie Lenox, Celine Dion, George Michael and Phil Collins are a few of left-handers who excel in the arts and the music industry.

For the theater and movies, Marilyn Monroe, Charlie Choplin, Julia Roberts, Bruce Willis, Tom Cruise, Val Kilmer, Jim Henson, Robert DeNiro, Morgan Freeman, Tim Allen, Henry Ford, Glen Campbell, Angelina Jolie, and Judy Garland are all left-handed. In the field of sports, there are also numbers of left-handers who excel in their chosen fields. These are Manny Pacquiao and Oscar de la Hoya (boxing), Mark Spitz (swimming), Dorothy Hamill (figure skating), Rafael Nadal (lawn tennis), and Babe Ruth (baseball) to name a few.

Historical and influential leaders like Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolf Hitler, Joan of Arc, Julius Caesar, Queen Victoria, Alexander the Great, Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Estrada, Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, Ronald Raegan, Harry Truman, Al Gore, Prince William, Prince Charles, John McCain and Barack Obama are all left-handers. The genius Albert Einstein, Nobel Peace Prize winner Marie Curie and Al Gore, the astronaut Buzz Aldrin are also left-handed; so as Bill Gates of the Microsoft Company and Oprah Winfrey, the first black American woman hailed as one of the multimillionaires in United States by Forbes Magazine.

Left-handers, according to psychologists, have right-brain dominance; so as the right-handers who have left-brain dominance. Differences between the functions of the right brain and the left brain have already been well-defined. Left hemisphere handles language, while the right hemisphere is more specialized in spatial recognition (Science Daily, 2008). To understand more on these hemispheres specialization, let us compare the function of these hemispheres in tabular form (Plotnik, 1996). Left HemisphereRight Hemisphere Verbal (language related skill)Nonverbal understanding simple sentences and read simple words) Mathematical (generally for advance mathematics skill)Spatial (solving spatial problems, such as arranging geometric designed blocks) Analytic (analyzing each information separately)Holistic (information processing by combining parts into a whole) The left hemisphere is specialized for language functions (Morris, 1990), such as: •Speaking •Reading •Understanding languages •Writing •Analytical functions (such as math) While the right hemisphere is for nonverbal abilities (Morris, 1990), such as: •Musical abilities Perceptual and “spatio-manipulative” skills According to de Kay (1979), Generally speaking, people with a dominant “thinking” brain become right-handed, while those dominant “feeling” brain become left-handed. You might expect a right-hander to be verbal, analytical, and good at math, and a left-hander to be intuitive, and mystical, with a strong visual sense. In politics, maybe this is why cold, heartless conservatives are called “right-wingers,” and why dreamy, bleeding heart liberals are called “left-wingers. A lot of hard evidences show that most left-handers­ because they are dominated by a different kind of brain­ are a distinctly kind of people. They literally think differently, even when solving the same problem as a right-hander. Right-handers adapt comfortably to abstraction. But left-handers tend to translate everything into visual imagery. Right-handers tend to think lineally, linking their ideas in logical order. Left-handers are more apt to think holistically, skipping over the details. Statistically, intelligence between left-handers and right-handers has no clear differences.

Left-handers are twice as many to right-handers who have special talents in art, music and mathematics. They suggested that unusual hormones behavior before birth; the dominant part of the language is the right hemisphere of the brain. Left-handed individual who are right hemisphere dominant become exceptional in the nonverbal field (Myers, 1986). Left-handers are labeled to as more feeling oriented and talented in the arts than the right-handers. But, this should not be interpreted or concluded that left-handers uses their so-called “right brain dominance or attributes” in this sense.

Some studies also showed that left-handers and right-handers are both widely diverse. Behavior and intelligence are both broad and complex to be able to associate or explain it by handedness (Jansen, 1998). LIST OF REFERENCES A. Books de Kay, J. T. (1979). The Natural Superiority of the Left-Hander. United Kingdom: Angus& Robertson Publishers. Hockenbury, D. H. (1997). Psychology. New York: Worth Pub. Huffman, K. (1990). Psychology in Action. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Jansen, E. (1998). Teaching with the Brain in Mind.

Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Kassin, S. (1989). Psychology, 3rd Ed. Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall Left-Handers on Roll as Numbers Triple. (2007, September 16). The Sunday Times. pp. B-3 Lexicon University Encyclopedia. (1988). New York: Lexicon Publication McMahon, F. B. (1986). Psychology: The Hybrid Science. Chicago, Illinois: The Dewey Press. Morris, C. (1990). Psychology: An Introduction. Englewood, Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall. Munn, N. L. (1951). Psychology: The Fundamentals of Human Adjustment. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.

Myers, D. G. (1986). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers, Inc. The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (1993). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Oxford University. (2007, August 6). Gene for Left-Handedness Identified. Science Daily. Plotnik, R. (1996). Introduction to Psychology I. Boston: Brooks/Cole. Ruch, F. L. (1971). Psychology and Life. Chicago: Scott, Foreman and Company. B. Internet Source Lance, W. (2006). Left-Handed Children in a Right-Handed World. Retrieved January 10, 2009, from iCHED. org Website: http://www. iched. org/cms/script/page. php

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Re-entry: Prison and Reentry Programs

Many criminals are sent to jail on a day to day basis. Once they have completed their sentence they are faced with many problems once they are “free”. These problems can be but are not limited to housing, employment, and substance abuse. The prisoner, once they are released, has a tendency to go back to their old ways and to continue the life of crime they were a part of prior to prison. To avoid this, while a prisoner is in prison, the staff creates a reentry program for the prisoner. The reentry program takes affect once the prisoner leaves prison.

These programs are created within the community to help the offender from committing new crimes and to integrate them back into society. These programs are also created to help with recidivism. Recidivism is the re-arrest, re-conviction, or re-incarceration of an offender after leaving prison. To reduce this high rate of recidivism, many communities are establishing reentry programs to assist former prisoners seeking employment, housing, and coping with alcohol and substance abuse addictions and other mental health issues. Helping ex-cons with housing is a major issue.

The ex-offender is faced with the problem of trying to find a place to live. Sure many can live with family, but what about those offenders who maybe don’t get along with their family? What about the offenders whose families have “given up” on them and don’t want them around? This is where reentry comes into play. Reentry is a program where the offender may be placed in a half-way house. This is to ensure that the offender has a safe place to stay. Offenders staying in half-way houses are sometimes required to pay rent. This slowly integrates them back into society.

They may have rules to abide by such as being back at the half-way house by a certain time. Many half-way houses have rules such as requiring the offender to attend a twelve-step program. They are required to sign out when leaving the premises and are required to sign back in when they return. All leaves must be authorized by the house manager in advance. They are also required to work full time while in the half-way house. The employment must also be authorized and is checked periodically to make sure the offender is actually working.

Many jobs such as bars or clubs are not allowed because they sell alcohol. Visitors are usually not allowed on the premises and if they are they must first get authorization. Rules may vary from house to house, but the rules are instilled to not hurt the offender, but to help them. These rules are put in place so the offender knows what he or she can and can not do. They are also put in place for the community’s safety so each and every offender can be accounted for and the house manager is aware of where they are who they are with and what they are doing every day.

The offenders are also subject to random drug and alcohol testing. Any medications that the offender might be on, over the counter or not, must be locked away by the house manager and are given according to the instructions on the bottle. Basically the offender is one step away from jail, but also another step away from total freedom. Rules and regulations are put in place so the offender knows their boundaries and what is expected of them. If they do not follow the rules it can be grounds for discharge.

Half-way houses are a great idea, because even though the offender is not locked up anymore, they are still given rules to abide by in order to slowly re-integrate them into society. Another part of reentry might be a drug and or alcohol treatment program. A variety of scientifically based approaches to drug addiction treatment exist. Drug addiction treatment can include behavioral therapy (such as counseling, cognitive therapy, or psychotherapy), medications, or their combination. Short-Term Residential Programs provide intensive but relatively brief residential treatment based on a modified 12-step approach.

These programs were originally designed to treat alcohol problems, but during the cocaine epidemic of the mid-1980’s, many began to treat illicit drug abuse and addiction. The original residential treatment model consisted of a 3 to 6 week hospital-based inpatient treatment phase followed by extended outpatient therapy and participation in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. Reduced health care coverage for substance abuse treatment has resulted in a diminished number of these programs, and the average length of stay under managed care review is much shorter than in early programs.

Often, drug/alcohol abusers come into contact with the criminal justice system earlier than other health or social systems, and intervention by the criminal justice system to engage the individual in treatment may help interrupt and shorten a career of drug use. Treatment for the criminal justice-involved drug abuser or drug addict may be delivered prior to, during, after, or in lieu of incarceration. Employment is always an issue when it comes to an ex-offender. Not only is it hard for the everyday person in society to find employment due to a poor economy, but it is much harder for an ex-offender.

While in prison, prisoners are usually made to work. Unlike other programs such as counseling, prison work programs can be justified for reasons other than rehabilitation of the individual offender. From the perspective of the policy maker in the criminal justice system, they can help manage the population by occupying the time of the prisoners, aid in the operation of the prison, create revenue (maybe), and provide a way for prisoners to “pay back” their debt to society. As a result, virtually every prison has some type of work program for at least some of the inmates in the prison.

While these goals need not be antithetical to the goal of rehabilitation, they are also not necessarily complementary. It is not clear, for example, how preparing lunch for other inmates inherently prepares an inmate for work outside of prison. The multi-faceted nature of work programs is therefore a two-edged sword. On the one hand, jobs in prison, either on-site jobs, or work programs in the community, have been and remain very common. Ex-prisoners face numerous obstacles on their quest to obtain employment.

Post-incarcerated individuals’ struggles arise in large part due to their imperfect criminal record; even an arrest for a felony not resulting in a conviction remains on one’s criminal record and may cause problems in obtaining certain jobs. As such, most people attempting to enter the job market after successfully serving their felony sentence are constantly being re-punished. By law, employers are not required to make individual determinations and inquiries; employers may deny a potential applicant based solely on his or her criminal record.

There are at least three reasons why employers perform background checks. First, there are certain professions that are closed to individuals with a felony conviction through statutory prohibitions. For example, if the profession requires licensing, individuals with a felony conviction may be disqualified from obtaining the license and consequently turned down for employment. Some examples of professions requiring licensing are: accountants, ambulance drivers, attorneys, barbers, contractors, nurses, physicians, pharmacists, real estate agents, and teachers.

Further, individuals with a felony record may be barred from entering the Armed Forces. Lastly, more and more employers carry a common misconception that a lack of a criminal record equates to good moral character. With these reasons in mind, it is no surprise that for many, the likelihood of obtaining employment depends on whether or not the employer performs a criminal background check. Fortunately, the process of expungement offers a way overcome hiring discrimination. Expungement is the sealing or obliterating of a rehabilitated individual’s criminal record.

A person seeking an expungement carries the burden to demonstrate, by clear and convincing evidence, that he or she is ready to re-enter and be a beneficial member society. Expungement gives hope to people who suffer discrimination based upon their criminal past because once a criminal record is expunged, it is sealed from the public. Most states authorize the person who has had his record expunged to deny that his criminal record ever existed. Expungement typically extends to all agencies that have a record of the incident: the court, the Bureau of Criminal Investigations, the Sheriff’s Office, and the Police Department.

Another problem, when is comes to employment that an ex-offender is faced with is that while they were in prison, they lose many job skills and are given little opportunity to gain useful work experience. Moreover, the availability of job-training programs in prison has declined in recent years. A large proportion of former prisoners have low levels of educational attainment and work experience, health problems, and other personal characteristics that make them hard to employ. Another problem that an ex-prisoner may have with finding employment after prison is if they obtain tattoos while in prison.

Many employers are reluctant to hire someone with visible tattoos especially ones that may be on the person’s face. While in prison, it’s the “cool” thing to do, but once the prisoner is released back into society things change. Employers may find a tattoo obtained in prison to be offensive. They may also find it to be distracting. Employers don’t want to hire someone who is covered in gang signs and tear drops because they might even scare potential customers away. It will take time for the negative associations on tattoos to be cleared.

For as long as there are still people using tattoos to show off their crimes or negative behaviors, the stigma that it has now will still remain. Those people having tattoos might still be branded as people of questionable character when in truth they just wanted to express themselves. Another problem that some prisoners may face is if they are struggling with a mental illness. Many prisoners, who were once “normal” when they were in society, are prone to getting a mental illness while in prison.

One major illness that some prisoners face is depression. Major depression is when a person has five or more symptoms of depression for at least 2 weeks. These symptoms include feeling sad, hopeless, worthless, or pessimistic. In addition, people with major depression often have behavior changes, such as new eating and sleeping patterns. If not treated, prisoners are susceptible to suicide. Suicide in correctional facilities is more prevalent than in the general population, and constitutes the leading cause of death for those in custody.

There are several factors that have been found to be correlates of prison suicides, including the security of the facility, the crime committed that caused the inmate’s incarceration, and the phase of imprisonment the inmate is in. Due to the fact that many of the inmates who commit suicide have feelings of depression and hopelessness, have been diagnosed with a mental disorder, or have expressed suicidal thoughts or behaviors in the past, efforts at adequate intervention and treatment need to be improved.

Researchers have devised theoretical profiles of “typical” inmate suicidal behavior, but a profile alone is unable to provide corrections staff with a reliable method of distinguishing between suicidal and non-suicidal inmates. The communication and reporting of information needs to be improved, to allow for a more accurate picture of the effects of personal characteristics and of the institution on suicidal behaviors. Risk factors exist that enhance suicidal intentions, and these factors are related to the circumstances of imprisonment or to the personal history of the inmate.

Some examples of these factors include one’s view of incarceration, the effects of incarceration, the conditions in the correctional facility, one’s history, current family or life situation, the circumstances surrounding one’s incarceration, or one’s race. Primary prevention efforts and secondary prevention efforts are both ways that correctional facilities have tried to reduce the rate of suicide. Even though efforts are made to reduce the suicide rate in prisons, the task of suicide prevention remains a low priority for correctional institutions. Correctional settings also try to come up with intervention programs.

The key to intervention programs lies in the accurate communication of relevant information regarding the past or recent behavior of suicidal inmates. The individual facts of each case, suggests which method of intervention is most appropriate for the individual inmate. Suicide treatment programs have been ineffective because they are based on the view that suicide is strictly a problem for doctors and medication to solve, but it is being recognized that greater significance needs to be given to the environment and to the importance of providing activities to relieve stress.

The issue of suicide must be recognized as a joint responsibility between staff, medical and psychiatric personnel, family and friends, and other inmates. Few jails and prisons have so far succeeded in consistently and effectively detecting and intervening in incidents of inmate suicidal behavior. While there is more that can be done, the fact is that prison and jail are brutally harsh environments that some simply are not able to cope with. After we have done all the prevention and intervention possible with the environmental constraints, will we then step back and look at prison itself?

Perhaps the solution to inmate suicide lies in more discriminate and appropriate use of incarceration, keeping less serious offenders in the community and making better use of mental health facilities for inmates with mental health concerns. When reentering society, ex-prisoners are faced with their mental illness, if they have been diagnosed with one. When they are released back into society, most prisoners do not have health insurance. They are faced with the problem of treating their illness on their own. While in prison, prisoners are evaluated by health professionals at little to no cost at all.

They may be on a specific medication for their mental illness that they now no longer have access to due to the fact that they are out of prison. Also, another problem they are faced with is when they do return to society, people are scared of them or people are not willing to help them. Mental illness is stigmatized across every culture, every gender, and every geographic region of America. These individuals are feared and avoided as perpetrators of violence, an undeserved reputation. People need to realize that psychological disorders are a disease.

They can be diagnosed and treated as such with high rates of success. Living with mental illness is a terrifying experience. It can be a confusing and disorienting time of their lives. On their own, those with mental illness often end up jobless and on the street. They need our help to set them on the path to mental health. We cannot morally afford to toss them back into the prison system, to hide them in a dark corner of the American conscious. Out of sight, out of mind. “Our rate of imprisonment continues to grow. There are now 1. million individuals in our country’s prisons and jails, about one in 150 Americans. One consequence of this level of imprisonment is that a growing number of Americans are returning to their neighborhoods after serving a prison term. Each year, nearly 500,000 individuals leave state prison and return to communities across the country. For some offenders, the process of reintegration will follow a smooth path–their families accept them back, jobs await them, supportive networks stand ready to keep them on the right side of the law and to encourage restoration of their status as residents of their communities.

For others, perhaps for most, the process of reintegration will follow a rocky path–their families may not be willing to accept them back, finding jobs will be difficult, and individuals in their old peer groups will be ready to support the resumption of criminal habits, as well as drug or alcohol abuse. Such circumstances often contribute to an offender’s return to criminal behavior and subsequent recidivism”(Reentry Courts). Reentry can also be very costly. NIJ has funded five long-term evaluations and four short-term studies since 2003 to expand knowledge and improve reentry initiatives and policies. The largest ongoing study is a multisite evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI). SVORI is a collaborative Federal effort to improve reentry outcomes along the following dimensions: (1) Criminal Justice, (2) Employment, (3) Education, (4) Health, and (5) Housing. Sixty-nine sites have received a total of more than $100 million to develop or expand programs that offer integrated supervision and services to offenders.

The objective of SVORI is to promote productive social roles for released offenders, and to reduce the likelihood of their return to crime and imprisonment. The initiative requires a multiagency strategy for successfully moving prisoners from correctional control to the community. To assess SVORI’s overall effectiveness, NIJ awarded a grant to Research Triangle Institute International (RTI) and its subcontractor, the Urban Institute, to conduct an evaluation of SVORI across 69 grantee sites.

The evaluation includes an implementation assessment in all 69 sites, an impact evaluation in approximately 15 sites, and an economic analysis. The initial project period (May 1, 2003, to April 30, 2004) was the first phase of the project and was devoted to developing and implementing the evaluation design. NIJ awarded a grant for Phase 2 that began on June 1, 2004, and will conclude in May 2008. Phase 2 is devoted to conducting the implementation assessment, impact evaluation, and economic analysis, and reporting the results of the analyses” (NIJ Evalutaion). We find that under a variety of conditions, jail-based reentry programs would have to reduce recidivism by less than two percent to offset the cost of jail-based programming. Put another way, we find that reentry programs for jail-based inmates produce benefits large enough to offset the cost of the investment with only a modest reduction in crime. However, policymakers should not necessarily expect to see the benefits of reduced recidivism in their local jail budgets. In general, small reductions in crime yield large benefits to the public.

Public agencies also see benefits from reduced crime, but the benefits are smaller than the benefits to the public”(Roman, John 2006). Planning and supporting a successful return to community living for individuals who have been incarcerated can be a complex process. Certainly, successful transition involves more than corrections agencies. Many public and private agencies have responsibility for parts of it, yet no agency has responsibility for all of it. In fact, the successful reintegration of prison inmates into the community requires the efforts of multiple state and local agencies.

No single agency can accomplish this goal. Evaluations of reentry programs provide evidence that some programs reduce recidivism and improve offenders’ success in transitioning back to the community. For example, vocational training and work programs appear to reduce recidivism by improving job skills, and drug rehabilitation and halfway house programs can help to ease the transition from prison to the community. The lives of many who cycle in and out of jail are unstable at best.

Substance addiction, job and housing instability, mental illness, and a host of health problems are part of the day-today realities for a significant share of this population. Jails don’t really have the time nor the resources to deal with offenders who may only be staying for a short period of time. Moreover, no single organization or political leader in the community is responsible—or held accountable—for improving reentry outcomes. A decade ago, jail administrators could plead ignorance or might respond “not my job” if asked how they assist inmates’ transition from confinement to community.

Care, custody, and control were their operational directives and providing timely and accurate intakes, transports, and discharge of inmates were their chief priorities. In the intervening years, with increasing awareness about the effects of reentry on public safety and community wellbeing, many of the field’s leading practitioners have begun to consider jail reentry programs and strategies as essential to the mission of jails. And they recognize they cannot do it alone; many jails are collaborating with community-based organizations that have the expertise, commitment, and capacity to work effectively with this population.

In recent years, policy makers and practitioners have become aware of the importance of research in determining “what works” in correctional programming. They have begun to use information regarding “evidence based” practices to make decisions about the programs that they should implement. Thus, the likelihood that research may actually be the basis for criminal justice practice has never been greater. This attention to developing correctional programs based on sound principles and rigorous evaluation is long overdue. In Dan Diego, a program called Family TIES, was created to help with the reentering process. Family TIES is a project of the San Diego County Sheriff’s Department, implemented in 2003 in collaboration with three community-based organizations, that provides life skills development services to male and females detained locally who are expected to be released to the community. Key program components include the provision of pre-employment skills, substance abuse intervention, parenting and healthy relations, domestic violence treatment, and an enrichment class in building literacy and reading skills”(Family TIES). “The project aimed to provide in-custody services to nearly 1,000 inmates from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2006.

The Criminal Justice Research Division received approximately $120,000 to conduct a process and impact evaluation of the Family TIES project. SANDAG conducted a process evaluation to determine if the project was implemented as designed and an impact evaluation to determine whether or not the expected positive effects of the project are realized. Data were collected from client and program staff interviews, standardized assessments, knowledge tests, criminal histories, case studies, and follow-up interviews with clients. ”(Sandag). I believe there should be more programs like this in every community.

The benefit of this is greater than the cost. The benefit of a program like this is to teach people how to behave in society and how to become a productive member of society. There is a plethora of information and resources for ex-criminals available in a program like this. Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the minds and lives of voters. However, with every passing year the importance of this topic becomes more evident. Since the eighties, every passing year has brought more pressure for harsher and longer imprisonment and more streamlined mandatory sentencing rules.

This has not only resulted in an exploding prison population, but also in a drastic increase in the number of prisoners re-released into communities. Additionally, the push towards more punitive measures has decreased educational opportunities in prisons and the availability of rehabilitation programs. This means that released prisoners are increasingly unable to reintegrate into their communities, increasingly prone to recidivism, and increasingly violent in each release and re-capture cycle. However, merely making government money available to private, religious, or state-based programs is not enough.

Prisoners whose communities and systems do not already take measures to help their rehabilitation will not be seeing any increase in re-entry programs or preparation. A nationwide set of standards is needed to assure that every prisoner eligible for re-release into the community will be inoculated against recidivism and prepared to become a useful part of the society in which they will reside. There are millions of people in the prison system and the number is growing. These individuals are faced with many challenges when reintegrating themselves back into society.

This is a very difficult time for them and often times things do not go as everyone planed. This time period is filled with disappointments, whether it be to the parole officers, their families or themselves. Leaving prison to reenter the world can cause a lot of confusion and emotions for the ex-offender. Being free leaves the responsibility up to them to make sure that they succeed in life and do not make the same mistakes twice. The first thing they need to do is develop a plan. Ex-prisoners come home and have lots of goals and hopes that they believe they can fulfill.

They may want to start the business that they always dreamed of. They may remember the times when they wanted to graduate from school. Maybe they want to reconnect with their family and friends. Often times the prison setting generates a sense of urgency in those people. Short term goals are often better to begin with as long term goals may be more difficult to accomplish and may end in frustration. If they feel the need to get help achieving these goals there are many programs out there to assist them. There is mentoring programs, colleges, business development programs and other non-profit organizations .

Going down the wrong path and ending back up where they started is controlled by the prisoner. It is then their responsibility to take control of their own actions. Parole and probation officers are their to guide them when they are trying to get a new start, they are not there to give them a hard time, just to help them adjust and do the right thing. Their freedom is completely under their control. The reintegration of prisoners back into “normal” everyday living is a difficult and seemingly impossible task. The challenges offenders on probation or parole face are great in number and size.

Each criminal faces different hurdles based on their demographic, gender, length of stay, individual background, racial background, offense history, and the strength of their support system upon release. I believe that reentry is a realistic expectation; however, we must consider each case and focus on the support provided the offender as they enter back into a society that has shunned them. I believe that reintegration is possible and that the rate of successful reentry will improve with more attention paid to the support system provided those attempting life on the outside.

Also, probation and parole officers must take into account all the differing factors of each case. For instance, the length of the offenders stays in prison or jail – the longer an offender spends behind bars, the more difficult it may be for them to reintegrate successfully. Challenges presented by reentry, along with concerns regarding ex-offenders returning to their former communities, range from the released individual posing a danger to their former victims to extra expenses related to a crime being committed to the ex-offender not being reestablished and committing another crime.

As most offenders eventually return to their home communities, however, counters that contribute to an ex-prisoner becoming a positive part of society need to be assessed and addressed. We know from long experience that if they [ex-offenders] can’t find work, or a home, or help, they are much more likely to commit crime and return to prison. Prisoner reentry has become a lens through which to view the numerous issues related to the process of a prisoner’s release from incarceration and his or her reintegration into communities and society at large.

It seeks to encourage the coordination of programs, services, and human resources–both inside and outside prison walls–in order to ensure the successful assimilation of prisoners into new lives, roles, jobs, families and communities. Resources Family TIES. The Effectiveness of a Re-entry Program for Returning Probationers. http://www. allacademic. com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/2/6/9/2/p126921_index. html NIJ’s Evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative. National Institute of Justice. November 2, 2007. http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/nij/topics/corrections/reentry/evaluation-svori. tm Reentry Courts: Managing the Transition From Prison to the Community. Office of Jusitce Programs. September, 2009. http://docs. google. com/gview? a=v&q=cache:zS1FcNxOp2MJ:www. ncjrs. gov/pdffiles1/ojp/sl000389. pdf+paper+on+reentry+from+prison&hl=en&gl=us&sig=AFQjCNEXUhLQ7ZIuYLi-q8TJ-9CnZfWKNw Roman, John. Jail Reentry Roundtable Initiative. Does is Pay to Invest in Reentry Programs for Jail Inmates? June 27, 2006. http://www. urban. org/projects/reentry-roundtable/upload/roman_chalfin. pdf SANDAG. Public Safety: Family TIES. http://www. sandag. org/index. asp? projectid=269&fuseaction=projects. detail

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Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict

On The Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict Part 1 Thomas F. Homer-Dixon Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Toronto International Security, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Fall 1991), pp. 76-116 {draw:rect} We can narrow the scope of this research problem by focusing on how environmental change affects conflict, rather than security, but still the topic is too vast. Environmental change may contribute to conflicts as diverse as war, terrorism, or diplomatic and trade disputes.

Furthermore, it may have different causal roles: in some cases, it may be a proximate and powerful cause; in others, it may only be a minor and distant player in a tangled story that involves many political, economic, and physical factors. In this article, I accept the premise that environmental change may play a variety of roles as a cause of conflict, but I bound my analysis by focusing on acute national and international conflict, which I define as conflict involving a substantial probability of violence.

How might environmental change lead to acute conflict? Some experts propose that environmental change may shift the balance of power between states either regionally or globally, producing instabilities that could lead to war. 3 Or, as global environmental damage increases the disparity between the North and the South, poor nations may militarily confront the rich for a greater share of the world’s wealth. 4 Warmer temperatures could lead to contention over new ice-free sea-lanes in the Arctic or more accessible resources in the Antarctic. Bulging populations and land stress may produce waves of environmental refugees6 that spill across borders with destabilizing effects on the recipient’s domestic order and on international stability. Countries may fight over dwindling supplies of water and the effects of upstream pollution. 7 In developing countries, a sharp drop in food crop production could lead to internal strife across urban-rural and nomadic-sedentary cleavages. 8 If environmental degradation makes food supplies increasingly tight, exporters may be tempted to use food as a weapon. Environmental change could ultimately cause the gradual impoverishment of societies in both the North and South, which could aggravate class and ethnic cleavages, undermine liberal regimes, and spawn insurgencies. 10 Finally, many scholars indicate that environmental degradation will “ratchet up” the level of stress within national and international society, thus increasing the likelihood of many different kinds of conflict and impeding the development of cooperative solutions. 1 Which of these scenarios are most plausible and why? In the following pages, I review some reasons for the current salience of environmental issues, and I note several examples of good research on links between environmental change and acute conflict. I then suggest a preliminary analytical framework that lays out a research agenda for exploring the issue. Using this framework, and drawing on the literature of conflict theory, I suggest hypotheses about the likely links between environmental change and acute conflict.

I propose that poor countries will in general be more vulnerable to environmental change than rich ones; therefore, environmentally induced conflicts are likely to arise first in the developing world. In these countries, a range of atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic environmental pressures will in time probably produce, either singly or in combination, four main, causally interrelated social effects: reduced agricultural production, economic decline, population displacement, and disruption of regular and legitimized social relations.

These social effects, in turn, may cause several specific types of acute conflict, including scarcity disputes between countries, clashes between ethnic groups, and civil strife and insurgency, each with potentially serious repercussions for the security interests of the developed world. I do not hypothesize that the causal links between these variables will be tight or deterministic. As anti-Malthusians have argued for nearly two centuries, numerous intervening factors–physical, technological, economic, and social–often permit great resilience, variability, and adaptability in human-environmental systems. 2 I identify a number of these factors in this article; in particular, I examine whether free-market mechanisms may permit developing countries to minimize the negative impacts of environmental degradation. But I suggest that, as the human population grows and environmental damage progresses, policymakers will have less and less capacity to intervene to keep this damage from producing serious social disruption, including conflict. These hypotheses should be thoroughly tested using both historical and contemporary data at the regional and societal levels.

There is great need for empirical research by students of security affairs. The Recent Salience of Environmental Issues A paradigm-shattering example of such nonlinear or “threshold” effects in complex environmental systems was the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in the mid-1980s. 16 The hole was startling evidence of the instability of the environmental system in response to human inputs, of the capacity of humankind to significantly affect the ecosystem on a global scale, and of our inability to predict exactly how the system will change.

This altered perception of the nature of the environmental system has percolated out of the scientific community into the policymaking community. 17 It may also be influencing the broader public’s view of environmental problems. Scientists, policymakers, and laypeople are beginning to interpret data about environmental change in a new light: progressive, incremental degradation of environmental systems is not as tolerable as it once was, because we now realize that we do not know where and when we might cross a threshold and move to a radically different and perhaps highly undesirable system.

As compared to the first two factors accounting for the renewed salience of environmental issues, this one is not at all circumstantial; it is rooted in a maturing understanding of natural systems and the global damage humans are inflicting on these systems. This understanding is likely to endure, as will strong concern about the environment. Over the next fifty years there will be no shortage of increasingly ominous environmental data to interpret through this new paradigm.

Even if there are no dramatic, nonlinear shifts in the ecosystem (though their probability may be quite high), environmental problems will remain prominent on our scientific, policy, and public agendas. Recent Research on Environmental Change and Conflict Although there is an old and rich body of thought on the social impacts of environmental change,18 the literature on the specific connections between environmental change and acute conflict is surprisingly thin. Here I briefly review several important studies.

Angus MacKay examines the relationship between climate change and civil violence in the kingdom of Castile (much of modern-day Spain). 19 During the fifteenth century, there were numerous well-documented episodes of popular unrest in Castile, and some seem to have been produced directly by climate-induced food shortages. In March of 1462, for instance, rioters rampaged through Seville after floods forced the price of bread beyond the means of the poor. Usually, however, the causal connections were more complex.

An important intervening factor was the fabric of religious and social beliefs held by the people and promoted by preachers, especially those beliefs attributing weather fluctuations to the sin of someone in the community. 20 MacKay thus argues against a simplistic “stimulus-response” model of environment-conflict linkages and instead for one that allows for “culturally mediated” behavior. Addressing a modern conflict, William Durham has analyzed the demographic and environmental pressures behind the 1969 “Soccer War” between El Salvador and Honduras. 1 Because of the prominence in this conflict of previous migration from El Salvador to Honduras, and because of the striking evidence of population growth and land stress in the two countries (most notably in El Salvador), a number of analysts have asserted that the Soccer War is a first-class example of an ecologically driven conflict. 22 A simple Malthusian interpretation does seem to have credibility when one looks at the aggregate data. 23 But Durham shows that changes in agricultural practice and land distribution–to the detriment of poor farmers–were more powerful inducements to migration than sheer population growth.

Land scarcity developed not because there was too little to go around, but because of “a process of competitive exclusion by which the small farmers [were] increasingly squeezed off the land” by large land owners. 24 Durham thus contends that ecologists cannot directly apply to human societies the simple, density-dependent models of resource competition they commonly use to study asocial animals: a distributional component must be added, because human behavior is powerfully constrained by social structure and the resource access it entails. 5 While these studies are commendable, a review of all of the recent work on environmental change and conflict reveals a number of difficulties, some methodological and some conceptual. First, researchers often emphasize human-induced climate change and ozone depletion to the neglect of severe terrestrial and aquatic environmental problems such as deforestation, soil degradation, and fisheries depletion. Second, much of the recent writing on the links between environmental change and conflict is anecdotal. These pieces do not clearly separate the “how” question (how will environmental change lead to conflict? from the “where” question (where will such conflict occur? ). I address the “how” question in the following sections of this article. Third, environmental-social systems are hard to analyze. They are characterized by multiple causes and effects and by a host of intervening variables, often linked by interactive, synergistic, and nonlinear causal relations. Empirical data about these variables and relations are rarely abundant. Although the underlying influence of environmental factors on conflict may be great, the complex and indirect causation in these systems means that the scanty evidence available is always open to many interpretations.

Furthermore, understanding environmental-social systems involves specifying links across levels of analysis usually regarded as quite independent. 29 Fourth, the prevailing “naturalistic” epistemology and ontology of social science may hinder accurate understanding of the links between physical and social variables within environmental-social systems. 30 In particular, it may be a mistake to conjoin, in causal generalizations, types of physical event with types of intentional social action. 1 Fifth, researchers must acquire detailed knowledge of a daunting range of disciplines, from atmospheric science and agricultural hydrology to energy economics and international relations theory. Sixth and finally, the modern realist perspective that is often used to understand security problems is largely inadequate for identifying and explaining the links between environmental change and conflict. Realism focuses on states as rational maximizers of power in an anarchic system; state behavior is mainly a function of the structure of power relations in the system. 2 But this emphasis on states means that theorists tend to see the world as divided into territorially distinct, mutually exclusive countries, not broader environmental regions or systems. Realism thus encourages scholars to deemphasize transboundary environmental problems, because such problems often cannot be linked to a particular country, and do not have any easily conceptualized impact on the structure of economic and military power relations between states. Realism induces scholars to squeeze environmental issues into a structure of concepts including “state,” “sovereignty,” “territory,” national interest,” and “balance of power. ” The fit is bad, which may lead theorists to ignore, distort, and misunderstand important aspects of global environmental problems. Mapping Causes and Effects This article proposes a research agenda to guide the study of environmental change and acute conflict. Before we can formulate plausible hypotheses, however, we need a clear analytical framework, such as suggested by Figure 1. This and subsequent figures in this article provide the basis for a detailed causal-path analysis of the links between environmental change and conflict.

Such an analysis can help bring some order into the profusion of predictions concerning these issues, and it can also help researchers address several of the impediments to research mentioned above. 33 {draw:rect} {draw:frame} {draw:rect} Figure 1 suggests that the total effect of human activity on the environment in a particular ecological region is mainly a function of two variables: first, the product of total population in the region and physical activity per capita, and second, the vulnerability of the ecosystem in that region to those particular activities.

Activity per capita, in turn, is a function of available physical resources (which include nonrenewable resources such as minerals, and renewable resources such as water, forests, and agricultural land) and ideational factors, including institutions, social relations, preferences, and beliefs. 34 The figure also shows that environmental effects may cause social effects that in turn could lead to conflict. For example, the degradation of agricultural land might produce large-scale migration, which could create ethnic conflicts as migratory groups clash with indigenous populations.

There are important feedback loops from social effects and conflict to the ideational factors and thence back to activity per capita and population. Thus, ethnic clashes arising from migration could alter the operation of a society’s markets and thereby its economic activity. 35 To clarify the research agenda, we can divide the “how” question (how will environmental change lead to conflict? ) into two independent questions. First, what are the important social effects of environmental change? Second, what types of acute conflict, if any, are most likely to result from these social effects?

The first question asks about the nature of the arrow in Figure 1 between “environmental effects” and “social effects,” while the second asks about the arrow between “social effects” and “conflict. ” Figure 1 clarifies these aspects of our research agenda. If we wish to understand a society’s capacity to prevent severe social disruption (where the preventive action could be either mitigation of, or adaptation to, the environmental stress), we need to understand the arrows between the ideational factors at the top of the figure and “population,” “activity per capita,” and “social effects” along the main spine of the figure.

If we wish to understand a society’s propensity toward conflict (given certain social effects due to the environmental stress), we need to understand the arrow between the ideational factors and “conflict. ” When sufficiently advanced, this research should help identify key intervention points where policymakers might be able to alter the causal processes linking human activity, environmental degradation, and conflict. These interventions will fall into two general categories: those that seek to prevent negative social effects and those that seek to prevent the conflict that could result from these social effects.

In the following pages I refer to these as “first-stage” and “second-stage” interventions. The Range of Environmental Problems Developing countries are likely to be affected sooner and more severely by environmental change than rich countries. By definition, they do not have the financial, material, or intellectual resources of the developed world; furthermore, their social and political institutions tend to be fragile and riven with discord. It is probable, therefore, that developing societies will be less able to apprehend or respond to environmental disruption. 9 Seven major environmental problems (the “environmental effects” in Figure 1) might plausibly contribute to conflict within and among developing countries: greenhouse warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid deposition, deforestation, degradation of agricultural land, overuse and pollution of water supplies, and depletion of fish stocks. 40 These problems can all be crudely characterized as large-scale human-induced problems, with long-term and often irreversible consequences, which is why they are often grouped together under the rubric “global change. 41 However, they vary greatly in spatial scale: the first two involve genuinely global physical processes, while the last five involve regional physical processes, although they may appear in locales all over the planet. These seven problems also vary in time scale: for example, while a region can be deforested in only a few years, and severe ecological and social effects may be noticeable almost immediately, human-induced greenhouse warming will probably develop over many decades42 and may not have truly serious implications for humankind for half a century or more after the signal is first detected.

In addition, some of these problems (for instance, deforestation and degradation of water supplies) are much more advanced than others (such as greenhouse warming and ozone depletion) and are already producing serious social disruption. This variance in tangible evidence for these problems contributes to great differences in our certainty about their ultimate severity. The uncertainties surrounding greenhouse warming, for example, are thus far greater than those concerning deforestation. 3 Finally, when we consider the social effects of environmental change, especially of climate change, we should be especially aware of changes in the incidence of “extreme” environmental events. Social impacts result “not so much from slow fluctuations in the mean, but from the tails of the distribution, from extreme events. ” While a two-to-three degree celsius mean global warming might not seem too significant for agricultural production, it may produce a large increase in crop-devastating droughts, floods, heat waves, and storms. 46

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Thesis About High School Sororities

The Psychological and Social effects of sorority affiliations among High School Students from Imus Institute Introduction -Fraternities/Sororities come from a long history of brotherhood and sisterhood. It was present as early as 1776 in the North American region the expanded globally with different names derived from Greek alphabets. Fraternities in the Philippines was deeply influenced by freemasonry fraternity and odd fellows fraternity, both are ancient fraternal organizations that originated in England on or before the year 1700’s.

Ancient masonry reached the Philippines during the Spanish era, however, most of its members were only the elite. American Odd fellows, on the other hand, reached the Philippines in the year 1872 during the Spanish-American war and was largely responsible for the petty insurrection the following year. A number of Filipino soldiers who are allies of the Americans became members.. Later, college fraternities began to form especially when American Education (philosophy) reached our shores.

State Universities where the first to enjoy Greek Life – UP – in which was the birth of the first original Filipino Greek Letter Fraternity, Upsilon Sigma Phi (1918). Fraternities and sororities comes from the Latin words frater and soror, meaning “brother” and “sister” respectively are fraternal social organizations for undergraduate students. In English, the term refers mainly to such organizations at colleges and universities in North America, although it is also applied to analogous European groups also known as corporations.

Similar, but less common, organizations also exist for secondary school students. In modern usage, the term “Greek letter organization” is often synonymous with the terms “fraternity” and “sorority”. Early fraternal societies were very competitive for members, for academic honors, and for any other benefit or gain. Some of this competition was seen as divisive on college campuses. Today there is still competition, but that competition is intended to be within limits, and for nobler purposes, such as charitable fundraising. Often, organizations compete in various sporting events.

There is also a greater emphasis on inter-fraternity cooperation or helping one another to achieve a common goal. For almost one hundred years, Fraternities, Sororities here in our country continued to expand when it comes to numbers. At present we already had 300 different fraternities starting as early as 1940’s. Before, only college students can join and become a member of fraternities/sororities to help in his/her studies in different courses; but things get really different as for now some fraternities and sororities accepted minors and high school students.

During the survey done by Political Science Senior students of U. P. Diliman it shows that more than 80% of the 5000 high school student’s population in Metro Manila knows something about Fraternities and astonishingly, 50% of the said respondents claimed that they are a member of a certain fraternity/sorority. Statement of the Problem “The effects of hazing psychologically and physically to a minor” -Initiation rights or ritual become a major issue in joining a Sorority because it deals with hazing or inflicting damage to a “neophyte” or a new recruit in the sorority.

Hazing is the harassment of new members as a rite of passage, by giving them meaningless, difficult, dangerous or humiliating tasks to perform, inflicting physical and psychological damage to them, exposing them to ridicule, or playing practical jokes on them. It is a crime in 44 states, and most educational institutions have their own definitions of, and prohibitions against hazing. -According to a research done by some Political Science students of U. P. Diliman. Fifty hospitals claimed the average death per year due to hazing has gone from 12 to 22 from 2007-2009 in terms of hazing. from which had average age of 15-17 from high school institutions four from it were females. Purpose -The goal of this study is to understand the causes and effects of the affiliation of some female high students to a sorority. Significance of the Study -Studying about the effects of joining in a sorority will let us understand how sororities affect the minds of individuals specially the minors. We can also know the causes or the reasons that influence them to join in the group even though there is a risky process to take.

From hazing to inflicting physical injuries through paddling and other source of physical injury it is very interesting to know what were the forces that pushes them to go to this kind of process. -Joining in a certain group while your in the minor age is legal but joining in a sorority while your still a minor is considered a big issue here in our country due to the initiation rights that is given to a neophyte. Studying the sorority and the members themselves will help us understand the essence of giving initiation thus will give us a better view and more knowledge about sorority groups.

It will also help us to know what maybe the causes and the effects in affiliating in the sorority groups. Definition Of terms Hazing- It is at term used to describe various ritual and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group. Paddle/Lolo- It is a wooden instrument with a long, flat face and narrow neck, existing in various sizes and dimensions, used to administer corporal punishment to the buttocks.

It is also used in initiation rights inside the fraternity/sorority Neophyte- a Newbie Sorority- Comes from the Greek word Soro which means “sister” or sisterhood. Ninong/Ninang¬- It is a term used for a co-sorority who will share the initiation rights to a neophyte. Foundress – A jargon used in the Philippines that represents a female leader. Kamayan- A term used to symbolize a secret symbol, or handshake to co-members of the sorority. Conceptual Framework Chapter II Review of related Literatures http://en. wikipedia. rg/wiki/Hazing http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/sorority In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the Challenge of the Black Sorority Movement by Paula Giddings Black Greek 101: The Culture, Customs, and Challenges of Black Fraternities and Soroities by Walter M. Kimbrough Inside Greek U. : Fraternities, Sororities, and the Pursuit of Pleasure, Power, and Prestige by Alan D. DeSantis Be My Sorority Sister-Under Pressure ~ Dorrie Williams-Wheeler Girls Just Want To Have Fun: A new book snoops on sororities. By Matt Feeney

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Student Profile

Student Profile and Reflective Paper Lennette Lawless EDLE 6583 Impact of College Dr. Carlson December 5, 2009 Student Profile and Reflective Paper Section I: Student’s Story My name is FathiyaWaithera. I am from Kenya and living in the United States to study nursing at a community college. I received a scholarship from the Nurses for Africa program which requires me to return to Africa to provide health care after graduation (Dain, 2009). The rules about arriving in the U. S. are very strict. The scholarship advisors provided a list of the documents I would need and what was expected of me on arrival.

I had to remember where to report and had to make sure I had my documents with me at all times. When I arrived, I presented my passport, the I-20 form, the I-94 Arrival-Departure form, and a customs declaration form. The officer inspected all my documents and asked me to state the reason I wished to enter the country. I remembered to tell the officer that I plan to be a student andprovided the name of the college and where it is located. After the inspection the officer stamped the I-20 form and the Arrival –Departure form (F/M/J Nonimmigrants).

An International Student Services (ISS) staff member from the collegepicked me up at the airport and drove me to the campus. She stayed to help me find my room in the dormitories. After she left, Iunpacked and waited to meet my room mate. She was from Denmark and I supposed we were placed together because she was also an international student. She spoke English and I spoke English but it didn’t seem like the same language to me. We tried to make the best of it, but it was almost impossible to communicate. The weekend before classes began, the dormitory staff held orientation events for the students.

There was a cook out, some social activitiesand a band. I couldn’t understand the language, the food was inedible and I was too embarrassed about my English to take part in the activities. I came to the U. S. believing I was very good at English. I made good grades in this subject and was surprised to find that I couldn’t communicate in the U. S. The other students used so many slang words that it took a long time for me to gather a general meaning and then I couldn’t put together a response. By the time classes began, I was tired, scared, and hungry. The classroom was confusing to me.

Some students came to class late and interrupted the professor; others were noisy and kept up their conversations after the professor arrived. The professor reviewed a syllabus and spoke at length about academic integrity. I was unable to understand much of what she said. They all spoke so fast, spoke at the same time and used terms I was unfamiliar with. After attending a full day of classes, I returned to my room. I was tired and hungry but the thought of eating something from the cafeteria made me feel sick. The food looked, smelled and tasted horrible.

I would have done anything to eat something prepared by my mother. I hadn’t been able to sleep since arriving in the U. S. The dormitory was noisy and although I was used to a lot of people and a lot of noise at home, this was a different type of noise and I couldn’t shut it out. My roommate seemed like a nice person but it was so difficult to communicate that we didn’t really try. I was homesick and lonely. My classes were very hard at first. I wasn’t used to speaking up in class or asking questions. The other students were so casual and seemed disrespectful when addressing the professors.

Many of the assignments required me to work in groups. I was embarrassed about my English when I had to ask someone to repeat what they said or explain what they meant. I had to explain how my name is pronounced over and over. Most of the time, the other students were kind and patient with me, but I knew I made the assignment more difficult for the group. Keeping my grades up, learning the course content, and attending class were my highest priorities. To maintain my visa status, I was required to be a full-time student each semester. That meant that I couldn’t drop a class even if I wasn’t doing well.

It also meant that I had to attend class, no matter how I felt and I didn’t feel well. I had lost some weight because I couldn’t eat the food and still wasn’t sleeping well. My life was made up of studying, going to class, studying, and more class. I wrote letters to my family and indulged in an occasional phone call, but it was important that my family believe that I was successful and doing well at school to about how miserable I felt. A research paper was required in one of my classes. Because I was not familiar with this type of project, I tried to find someone to tutor me in this area.

I looked in the resource package I received at the orientation but couldn’t find anything about tutoring or anythingabout the library. I asked the professor and she said to go to the LRC. I didn’t know what the LRC was and was too embarrassed to tell her. I couldn’t find the LRC and was feeling nervous about completing the project on time. I finally went to see the International Student advisor. He told me that the LRC is actually the library and showed me where to find it. When the professor returned my paper there were questions about resources and citations but my grade was still a B, so I assumed that I was doing fine.

For the next paper, I followed the same process. I found something related to the topic, read about it and wrote a paper. This time, when I received my graded paper, this time a C, the professor again wrote questions and comments about resources and citations and also wrote about academic integrity. I understood that academic integrity was about being dishonest and could be about cheating but I didn’t see the connection between hercomments and my paper. When I received the third graded paper, the professor gave me a failing grade and said that I should meet with her to discuss plagiarism.

I was ashamed and afraid that I would lose my scholarship. I went to see the International Student Services advisor to show him my papers and the professor’s comments. He said would he ask the professor if he could go to the meeting with me andrecommended a tutor for me so I could learn how to write a research paper. I was grateful to have the help butalso humiliated. I had been a top student and had always received praise for my work. The professor approved my advisor’s request to attend the meeting. He told my professor about my academic historyand how classes are conducted in Kenya.

He told her that in Kenya the professor lectured,the students took notes and either passed or failed an exam. They did not ask questions or work in groups outside of class. He explained that I had no experience with writing research papers or independent study but I was a good student and prepared to learn to study in an U. S. classroom. The professor tried to explain what was wrong with the papers I turned in. I still didn’t truly understand and still didn’t understand why the first paper received the grade B, if the problems were so serious. My advisor introduced me to a tutor from the FACET Center.

I had seen the name, FACET, in the resource documents but didn’t understand that it had some association with tutoring. Why wasn’t it called the Tutoring Center? This tutor worked with several international students and suggested that we create a study group. Our group consisted of me, two women from Malaysia and three menfrom Korea. At first, the tutoring sessions were difficult due to the language barriers and the subject matter. Later we began to feel morecomfortable with each other and we all liked the tutor. He not only helped us with our homework, but explained things about the U.

S. , American Englishand the college. Each time we met, I felt more confident about asking questions. The tutor kept encouraging us to join the International Student Support Coalition. He said it was a student organization that would help us get to know other students and feel more comfortablein college and in the U. S. The tutor said that he thought it might be easier for a person speaking English as a new language to take math classes because mathematics are universal and quick mental calculations can be done in a person’s native language.

He said that for international students, a class like psychology or history slows them down because they have to receive the information, transfer it to the brain, calculate the answer,transfer it back to English and then speak. It felt great to have someone from the U. S. understand what I was going through. He recommended that we enroll in math for the next semester to build confidence in our academic abilities. I thought this was a good idea because I had been good at math in secondary school so I planned to focus on math in my second semester. The International Student Services Offices sent us a monthly newsletter.

The newsletter contained information about immigration, SEVIS requirements, and theInternational Student Support Coalition (ISSC) and transfer trips to area universities. Each time I saw the ISSC students, I wanted to be a part of what they were doing but didn’t know how to go about it. My ISS advisor had asked me several times if I was interested but each time I said that my studies were so demanding that I wouldn’t have time to participate. Later in my first semester, my advisor asked me if I would assist him with a presentation for ISSC about African international students.

I was flattered and although I agreed to assist, I doubted my ability to offer something of value to these students who seemed so confident. I worked with my ISS advisor to develop the presentation. I told him about my home and family and he looked up information about Kenya to support my story and we both contributed pictures. When the day came to present, I was very nervous and only followed through because I didn’t want to let my advisor down. During the first ISSC meeting I attended, the group presented their goals as a college student organization.

They asked for help to work for the success of all college international students in ddeveloping scholarship/funding ideas, becoming recognized for efforts and achievements college-wide, and creating a social support network. The organization president said that one of their visions is to serve not only as a resource for international students, but also as a resource to the college in general. He said that he believes an international person can open up a lot of different mindsets in thinking about issues.

I was surprised to see how confident they felt about the importance of their place in this environment. Getting involved in a club for international students has been a good way to start learning about resources and creating a network of support. I met a lot of other students and my English has improved. I learned about a conversation club through ISSC and joined. People in the community host the clubs in their homes. Each person brings a dish, usually something from their home country. The group has dinner together and spendsthe meeting time conversing in English.

I’m starting to make friends and although I’m still homesick, I don’t feel as lonely. My ISS advisor told me that he is expecting two women from Africa next semester. Both will be studying in the U. S. as part of the Nurses for Africa program. Although they are not from Kenya, one is from Ghana and one is from Nigeria, I will try to help them adjust to life in the U. S. by inviting them to be a part of ISSC, and providing information even if they don’t’ ask. I will tell them what the FACET Center is and that the LRC is really the library and to take a math class first!

Section II – Understandings and Perspectives She may have experienced a more positive adjustment if the following supports had been in place: reassurance and support for the her personal self-esteem, time needed to adjust, information about adjustment patterns and the symptoms of culture shock, the understanding that success at home does not guarantee a successful adjustment in a new culture, and information about the U. S. (Pederson, 1991). Individual approaches, personal characteristics and skill level influence theability to successfully adjust.

The ability to successfully communicate, organize, manage stress, exercise patience, tolerance, courtesy and flexibility are conduciveto adjustment. Perfectionism, inflexibility, obstinacy, ethnocentrism, dependent anxiety and self-centered behavior are traits that are related negatively to adjustment (Hannigan, 1990). One’s cultures of origin (or cultural backgrounds) mediate the importance attached to attending college and earning a college degree. Knowledge of a student’s cultures of origin and the cultures of immersion is needed to understand a student’s ability to successfully negotiate the institution’s milieu.

The probability of persistence is inversely related to the cultural distance between a student’s culture(s of origin and cultures of immersion. Students who traverse a long cultural distance must be acclimated to dominant cultures of immersion or join one or more enclaves. The amount of time a student spends in one’s cultures of origin after matriculating is positively related to cultural stress and reduces the chances they will persist. The likelihood a student will persist is related to the extensity and intensity of one’s sociocultural connections to the academic program and to affinity groups.

Students who belong to one or more enclaves in the cultures of immersion are more likely to persist, especially if group members value achievement and persistence. Fathiya’s commitment to her goals, the importance her family attached to her education, the importance of the vocation she would bring back to Kenyasupport proposals one and two. Her interaction with the International Student Support Coalition and the conversation club relate to proposals three, five and eight. Welcoming new international nursing students relate to proposal seven.

I did not successfully complete my initial college experience and I can see how the cultural propositions relate. I did not have academic and career goals so I wasn’t invested in college. My parents did not have a strong commitment to my college education. My experience relates to proposals one and two. Lack of involvement in a degree program relates to proposals seven and eight. Section III Educatefaculty and staff about the need to learn about a student’s culture of origin. References Dain, A. “Nurses for Africa. ” Medill Reports (2009). ttp://www. medill. northwestern. edu/medill. Web. Oct. 2009. Hannigan, T. P. (1990). Traits, attitudes, and skills that are related to intercultural effectiveness and their implications for cross-cultural training: A review of literature. International Journal of Intercultural relations, 14, 89-111. http://online. culturegrams. com/world/world_country. php? contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=85&cn=Kenya Seidman, A. , (Ed. ) (2005). College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, Westport, CT: Praeger Series on Higher Education.

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Harvard Reference

32 Harvard Referencing 2006 Note: this page is only an introduction to the Harvard referencing system. Curtin Library & Information Service provides a modified version of the author-date system presented in: Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual: For authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, n. p. For referencing electronic sources, refer to the American Psychological Association’s Publication manual: American Psychological Association 2001, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edn, APA, Washington, DC.

Note: A modified APA style is used for electronic sources to fit in with the Harvard referencing style provided by Curtin Library & Information Service as the Style manual does not cover this area fully. The information and examples contained on this page are chiefly derived from the above publications. It is very important that you check your department or school’s assignment guide as some details, eg. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school’s requirements. What is Referencing?

Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced. There are many acceptable forms of referencing. This information sheet provides a brief guide to the Harvard referencing style. Within the text of the assignment the author’s name is given first, followed by the publication date.

A reference list at the end of the assignment contains the full details of all the in-text citations. Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments. Steps Involved in Referencing 1. Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL). 2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document (see examples below). 3.

Provide a reference list at the end of the document (see examples below). In-Text Citations Use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment. Where authors of different references have the same family name, include the author’s initials in the in-text citation i. e. (Hamilton, CL 1994) or CL Hamilton (1994). If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon e. g. (Brown 1991; Smith 2003).

They are presented alphabetically by author. When directly quoting from another source, the relevant page number must be given and quotation marks placed around the quote. When paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another source which is a book or lengthy text, include the relevant page number, as this might be useful to the reader. In general, page numbers should be included in all in-text citations, as many schools insist on this practice. How to Create a Reference List A reference list only includes books, articles etc that are cited in the text.

A bibliography is a list containing the sources used in developing a publication and other sources the author considers might be of use or interest to the reader. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. Where an item has no author it is cited by its title, and ordered in the reference list or bibliography alphabetically by the first significant word of the title. The Harvard style requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented, as shown in the examples below, to highlight the alphabetical order 2 of 11 Semester 1 2006

Examples of referencing: Books Single author In-Text Example ‘The theory was first propounded in 1993’ (Comfort 1997, p. 58) OR ‘Comfort (1997, p. 58) claimed that…’ Reference List Example Comfort, A 1997, A good age, Mitchell Beazley, London. EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Book 2 or 3 authors (Madden & Hogan 1997, p. 45) OR Madden and Hogan (1997, p. 45) discuss this idea… Madden, R & Hogan, T 1997, The definition of disability in Australia: moving towards national consistency, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra. Book 4 or more authors (Leeder et al. 1996, p. 69)

Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Mathews, PS, Williams, DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide. Book No author ‘This was apparently not the case before about 1995’ (Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, p. 14)… OR ‘In Advertising in the Western Cape (1990, p. 14) it was claimed that…’ Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, ABC Publishers, Cape Town. Book Multiple works by same author ‘University research (Brown 1982, 1988) has indicated that…’ Brown, P 1982, Corals in the Capricorn group, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.

Brown, P 1988, The effects of anchor on corals, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Order chronologically in the reference list. Book 3 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Multiple works published in the same year by the same author ‘In recent reports (Napier 1993a, 1993b)…’ Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year. Napier, A 1993a, Fatal storm, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Napier, A 1993b, Survival at sea, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list. Book Editor (Kastenbaum 1993, p. 78) Kastenbaum, R (ed. 1993, Encyclopedia of adult development, Oryx Press, Phoenix. Edited Book Different Editions Renton (2004, p. 5) suggests that… Renton, N 2004, Compendium of good writing, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton. An edition number is placed after the title of the work – this is not necessary for a first edition. Book Encyclopedia or Dictionary The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (1980, p. 85) defined it as… As discussed by Blaxter (1976, p. 101)… Sadie, S (ed. ) 1980, The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, 6th edn, Macmillan, London.

Blaxter, M 1976, ‘Social class and health inequalities’, in C Carter & J Peel (eds), Equalities and inequalities in health, Academic Press, London, pp. 120-135. ‘Solving the Y2K problem’ 1997, in D Bowd (ed. ), Technology today and tomorrow, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 27. Edited Book Article or chapter in a book Book Section Article or chapter in a book – no author (Solving the Y2K problem 1997, p. 23). Book Section You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. Book You will need to type [Brochure] manually after the title. Brochure (Research and Training Centre 1993, p. 2)

Research and Training Centre on Independent Living 1993, Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities [Brochure], 4th edn, Research and Training Centre, Lawrence, KS. The publisher’s name may be abbreviated if it is also the author. 4 of 11 Semester 1 2006 E-book (Pettinger 2002) Pettinger, R 2002, Global organizations, Capstone Publishing, Oxford. Retrieved September 28, 2004, from NetLibrary database. Electronic Book (put September 28, 2004 in the Date Accessed field, NetLibrary in Name of Database) Thesis (put PhD in Thesis Type, December 21, 2005 in Access Date, Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses in URL. Conference Proceeding (put The National trust into the new millennium in Title, Proceedings of the ninth meeting of the International National Trust in Conference Name, Australian Council of National Trusts in Publisher, Alice Springs, NT in Conference Location , January 20, 2006 in Access Date, Informit Online in Name of Database. ) Report Thesis (Jones 1998, p. 89) Jones, F 1998, ‘The mechanism of Bayer residue flocculation’, PhD Thesis, Curtin University of Technology. Retrieved December 21, 2005, from Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses. Conference Proceeding (Debono 2000)

Debono, C 2000, ‘The National Trust into the new millennium’, Proceedings of the ninth meeting of the International National Trust, Australian Council of National Trusts, Alice Springs, NT, pp. 44-6. Retrieved January 20, 2006, from Informit Online database. Annual report of an organisation (Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001) OR Billabong’s annual report (2005) Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001, Annual report 2001-2002, Canberra. OR Billabong International Ltd. 2005, Annual report 2005 – brands. Retrieved January 27, 2006, from Connect4 database.

Image in a book The poster ‘Buy Australian Apples’ (Cowle & Walker 2005, p. 65) In-Text Example As mentioned by Wharton (1996, p. 8)… Cowle, C & Walker, D 2005, The art of apple branding, Apples from Oz, Hobart. Reference List Example Wharton, N 1996, ‘Health and safety in outdoor activity centres’, Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 8-9. Book Print Journals Article EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Journal Article 5 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Article – no author ‘It’s a growing problem in the U. K. ’ (Anorexia nervosa 1969, p. 530)… Anorexia nervosa’ 1969, British Medical Journal, vol. 1, pp. 529-30. Journal Article You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. Newspaper/Magazine article Newspaper article – no author (Towers 2000) Towers, K 2000, ‘Doctor not at fault: coroner’, Australian, 18 January, p. 3. Provide all the details in the in-text citation – no need for an entry in the reference list. Newspaper Article ….. in the Sydney Morning Herald (24 January 2000, p. 12) Press release (Watersmith 2000) Watersmith, C 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, BHP Limited, Melbourne, 1 March.

Report (put media release in the Accession Number field, BHP Limited in Institution, 1 March in Report Number) Electronic Journals Full text from an electronic database In-Text Example (Madden 2002) Reference List Example Madden, G 2002, ‘Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective’, Economic Record, vol. 78, no. 242, pp. 343-58. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from ABI/INFORM Global database. EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, ABI/INFORM database in Name of Database. Full text from an electronic database – no author The internet has had a huge impact on the Australian economy’ (Internet economics and policy 2002, p. 350) ‘Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective’ 2002, Economic Record, vol. 78, no. 242, pp. 343-58. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from ABI/INFORM Global database. Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, ABI/INFORM Global database in Name of Database) You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. 6 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Full text newspaper, newswire or magazine from an electronic database – no author (WA packed with overseas appeal 2004) WA packed with overseas appeal’ 2004, West Australian, 12 November, p. 47. Retrieved November 13, 2004, from Factiva database. Newspaper Article (put November 13, 2004 in the Access Date field, Factiva database in Name of Database) You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics Full text from the internet It was proposed by Byrne (2004) that… Byrne, A 2004, ‘The end of history: censorship and libraries’, The Australian Library Journal, vol. 53, no. 2. Retrieved November 16, 2004, from http://www. alia. org. au/publishing/alj/53. 2/full. text/ byrne. html

Journal Article (put November 16, 2004 in the Access Date field, http://www. alia. org. au/publishing/alj/53. 2/f ull. text/byrne. html in Database) Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, Curtin University Library & Information Service E-Reserve in Database) Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc in Name of Database) EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Article from Curtin EReserve (Davidhizar & Dowd 1997, p. 29) Davidhizar, R & Dowd, SB 1997, ‘The art of giving an effective presentation’, Health Care Supervisor, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 5-31. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from Curtin University Library & Information Service E-Reserve. Article from database on CD-ROM (BPO) (La Rosa 1992, p. 58) La Rosa, SM 1992, ‘Marketing slays the downsizing dragon’, Information Today, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 589. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc database. Reference List Example Thibodeau, GA & Patton, KT (eds. ) 2002. The human body in health and disease, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo. Record the book that you actually sourced. Secondary Sources Book In-Text Example ‘Including neuralgia’ (Carini and Hogan, cited in Thibodeau & Patton 2002, p. 5) OR Carini and Hogan (cited in Thibodeau & Patton 2002, p. 45)… Book You will need to type Carini and Hogan manually in the in-text citation. 7 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Journal Article ‘…origins of neuralgia’ (Carini and Hogan, cited in Patton 2002, p. 2154) OR Carini and Hogan (cited in Patton 2002) Patton, KT 2002, ‘Neuralgia and headaches’, Science, vol. 4, pp. 2153-55. Record the journal that you actually sourced. Journal Article You will need to type Carini and Hogan manually in the in-text citation. World Wide Web Document on WWW In-Text Example ‘It’s essential you learn how to reference’ (Dawson et al. 2002).

Reference List Example Dawson, J, Smith, L, Deubert, K & Grey-Smith, S 2002, ‘S’ Trek 6: referencing, not plagiarism. Retrieved October 31, 2002, from http://studytrekk. lis. curtin. edu. au/ EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Electronic Source (use Access Date & URL for retrieved statement. ) Document on WWW – No author (Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons 2001) Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons 2001. Retrieved November 13, 2002, from http://www. windspeed. net. au/~jenny/seadragons/ Electronic Source (use Access Date & URL for retrieved statement. ) Document on WWW – No date (Royal Institute of British Architects n. d. )

Royal Institute of British Architects n. d. , Shaping the future: careers in architecture. Retrieved May 31, 2005, from http://www. careersinarchitecture. net/ Electronic Source (put Royal Institute of British Architects in the Author field, n. d. in Year, use Access Date & URL for retrieved statement. ) Image on the web The image of the bleached coral (Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events 2002) Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events [Image] 2002. Retrieved September 2, 2005 from http://www. gbrmpa. gov. au/corp_site/info_services/scie nce/bleaching Electronic Source (type [Image] manually after the title of the image) of 11 Semester 1 2006 Government Publications Act of Parliament In-Text Example The Commonwealth’s Copyright Act 1968… [future references do not include date] Reference List Example Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading ‘Legislation’. Essential elements: Short title Date (Jurisdiction) eg. Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth). If legislation is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles.

EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Enter in-text citation manually. Cases The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54 Legal authorities are included in a list of references only if they are important to an understanding of the work. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading ‘Legal Authorities’. Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999, Disability, ageing and carers: summary of findings, cat. no. 4430. 0, ABS, Canberra. Case You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics and add the case abbreviation Report (put cat. o. 4430. 0 in the Accession Number field, ABS in Institution) Report (put cat. no. 4430. 0 in the Accession Number field, October 14, 2002 in Access Date, AusStats in Name of Database. ) Report (use Access Date & Name of Database for retrieved statement. ) Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999) Australian Bureau of Statistics from AusStats (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999) Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999, Disability, ageing and carers: summary of findings, cat. no. 4430. 0, ABS, Canberra. Retrieved October 14, 2002, from AusStats database.

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, Census of population and housing: B01 selected characteristics (First release processing) postal area 6050. Retrieved November 20, 2002, from AusStats database. Census Information (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001) Government Report (Resource Assessment Commission 1991) Resource Assessment Commission 1991, Forest and timber inquiry: draft report, vol. 1, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. Report (put vol. 1 in the Accession Number field, Australian Government Publishing Service in Institution. ) Semester 1 2006 9 of 11 Patent U. S. Patent No. 554399 (1985) Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, U. S. Patent 4554399. Standards Australia 1997, Size coding scheme for infants’ and children’s clothing – underwear and outerwear, AS 1182-1997. Retrieved January 10, 2006, from Standards Australia Online database. Patent (put Cookson, AH in Inventor, U. S. Patent 4554399 in Patent Number. ) Report (put AS 1182-1997 in the Accession Number field, January 10, 2006 in Access Date, Standards Australia Online in Name of Database. ) EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Enter in-text citation manually.

Standard (Standards Australia 1997) Other Sources Personal communication, e-mail and discussion lists with no web archive. In-Text Example ‘It was confirmed that an outbreak occurred in London’ (S Savieri 1999, pers. comm. , 24 April). Reference List Example Not included in reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader. Films and videorecordings, (Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992) Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, videorecording, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. Any special information may be noted after the citation.

Film or Broadcast (put videorecording in the Format field, Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra in Credits. ) Television and radio programmes (What are we going to do with the money? 1997) What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television programme, SBS Television, Sydney, 8 August. Film or Broadcast (put television programme in the Format Field, SBS Television in Distributor, Sydney in Country. ) Film or Broadcast (put podcast radio programme in the Format field, ABC Radio National in Distributor, Sydney in Country, 10 September in Date Released, September 28, 2005 in Access Date, http://www. bc. net. au/podcast/default. htm #mind in URL. ) Semester 1 2006 Podcasts (The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and anxiety 2005) The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and anxiety 2005, podcast radio programme, ABC Radio National, Sydney, 10 September. Retrieved September 16, 2005, from http://www. abc. net. au/podcast/default. htm#mind 10 of 11 CD-ROMS (Dr Brain thinking games 1998) Dr Brain thinking games 1998, CD-ROM, Knowledge Adventure Inc. , Torrance, California. Computer Program ERIC document (microfiche)

Davis and Lombardi (1996) put forward the proposal that… Davis, RK & Lombardi, TP 1996, ‘The quality of life of rural high school special education graduates’, in Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work. ERIC Document No. 394765, microfiche. Generic (put Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work in the Secondary Title field, ERIC Document No. ED394765 in Publisher, microfiche in Type of Work) Newspaper Article (put Little, L in the Reporter field, ECPOLICY in Newspaper, discussion list in Section, November 13, 2002 in Notes, http://www. askeric. rg/ VirtualListserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002 /Apr_2002/Msg00003. html in Type of Article) E-mail discussion list – web archive (Little 2002) Little, L 2002, ‘Two new policy briefs’, ECPOLICY discussion list, 16 April. Retrieved November 13, 2002 from http://www. askeric. org/Virtual Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Ms g00003. html It is very important that you check your department’s or school’s assignment guide as some details, e. g. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school’s requirements. 11 of 11 Semester 1 2006

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Bba Paper 1 Smester

Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1 BB0001– Marketing – 2 Credits (Book ID: B0078) Assignment Set- 1 (30 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q. 1 Give an example of any organization that practices the Societal Marketing Concept. Briefly describe its marketing strategy and explain why it is successful. [10 Marks] Q. 2 Imagine that you purchased a car recently. Describe the different stages that you went through in the process of buying the car. [10 Marks] Q. Explain how channels of distribution for a product like automotive tyres are different from channels of distribution for a product like cigarettes. [10 Marks] Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1 BB0001 – Marketing – 2 Credits (Book ID: B0078) Assignment Set- 2 (30 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q. 1 What are the essential differences between Sales Promotion & Advertising? What are their relative advantages and disadvantages? [10 Marks] Q. Select any organization of your choice in the service sector and briefly explain its marketing strategy in terms of the three additional “Ps” of the services marketing mix. [10 Marks] Q. 3 In which stage of the product life cycle is the product category of cell phones? Why? What are some of the strategies being used by Indian marketers? [10 Marks] Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1 BB0002– Organization Behaviour – 2 Credits (Book ID: B0077) Assignment Set- 1 (30 Marks) Answer all the questions. Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1

BB0002– Organization Behaviour – 2 Credits (Book ID: B0077) Assignment Set- 2 (30 Marks) Answer all the questions. Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1 Subject Code – BB 0003 (Book ID: B0088) Assignment Set- 1 (30 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q. 2) write short note on any two of the following: [10 Marks] a) European Monetary Institute (EMI) b) ECB Instruments Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1 Subject Code – BB 0003 Subject Name -Organization, Competition and environment- 2 Credits (Book ID: B0088)

Assignment Set- 2 (30 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q. 2 write short note on any two of the following: [10 Marks] a) The council of ministers b) The Multiple Exchange rates c) Free float Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1 BB0004– Communication Skills in English – 2 Credits (Book ID: B0010) Assignment Set- 1 (30 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Name 4 different ways in which you think reading skills would be useful in a managerial environment, explaining how. (10 marks).

Select an article of around 500 words in length from a business publication and write a precis, condensing the article to one fourth its size. Keep in mind the principles of precis writing. Attach the original article with your precis. (10 marks). Write a cover letter to a prospective employer of your choice, applying for a specific advertised position, along with your one page resume. ( 10 marks). Bachelor of Business Administration-BBA Semester 1 BB0004– Communication Skills in English – 2 Credits (Book ID: B0010) Assignment Set- 2 (30 Marks)

Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Imagine that you have to make a presentation to graduating management students on “Career Prospects for MBA Students”. Explain how you will use Engleberg’s 7P approach to prepare an outline of your presentation. (10 marks). As a Sales Manager, write a one page memo to the Vice President Sales of your company, requesting that the size of the sales force be increased for a particular product. (10 marks). You have learnt about the relative advantages and disadvantages of oral and written communication.

For each of oral and written communication, describe two different situations in the workplace when it would be more appropriate, explaining why. (10 marks). ASSIGNMENTS BBA- BB0005- SEM 1 Computer Fundamentals (4 credits) Set I Marks 60 Each question carries 10 marks What is Information Technology? What is Data? Describe different types of Information Computing Models. Discuss about the followings – E-mail World Wide Web Web Browser File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Chat What is Number system? Convert (234)10 to octal system What are the characteristics of a computer?

How many types of computers? What do you understand by primary memory as well as secondary memory? What are the functions of the primary memory? What are the difference between primary memory and secondary memory? Describe the security features available in Windows XP. ASSIGNMENTS *BBA- Sem* 1 BB0005 Computer Fundamentals (4 credits) Set II Marks 60 Each question carries 10 marks What do you understand by competitive information? What do you understand by internal information? What are the different levels of information? Describe them. Convert the following: What are the applications of computers?

Describe them in details. Describe about three different secondary storage devices in details. What do you understand by translator? Describe. What do you understand by Operating Systems? What are the facilities offered by an OS? What are the components of an OS? Compare & Contrast between Windows XP Professional as Windows Home Edition. BBA – I Semester BB0006- Financial Accounting – 4 Credits (Book ID: B0429) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Note: Answer all the questions. Under cash basis of accounting, revenue and expense recognition would occur when cash is received and disbursed.

Contrast cash basis of accounting with accrual basis. Give suitable examples. (10 Marks) Compliance with GAAP helps maintain creditability with creditors and stockholders because it reassures outsiders that the firms’ financial reports accurately portray its financial position. In this context explain what is GAAPand what is the structure of GAAP? (10 Marks) Rajaramquit his job and started Woodcraft Company (service firm). The transactions of the business for September are as follows: (20 Marks) 20XX

Sept 1 Began business by investing cash Rs10000 in exchange for 1,000 shares 4 Paid two months’ rent in advance for a shop Rs. 2,000 5 Bought equipment for cash Rs. 1,200 7 Bought supplies on credit Rs. 700 10 Received for remodelling a kitchen Rs. 8,600 (revenue from services) 14 Paid for an advertisement that appeared in the local newspaper Rs. 1,400 17 Received for furnishing an office room Rs. 11,200 (revenue from services) 23 Billed customers for work done other than on cash terms Rs13,100 25 Paid wages to assistant Rs. 1,500 28 Paid electricity charges Rs. 40 29 Received part payment from customers billed on Sept 23, Rs. 4,800 30 Declared and paid a dividend Rs. 2,500 Required: Prepare journal entries for the above transactions Post the journal entries to the ledger Prepare trial balance There are various reasons why bank balance as per the cash book does not tally with the bank statement. Elaborate the reasons for difference. (10 Marks) Distinguish between the term ‘dishonour’ & ‘discounting’ of Bills of Exchange (10 Marks) BBA – I Semester BB0006-Financial Accounting – 4 Credits (Book ID: B0429)

Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks) Note: Answer all the questions Bill of Exchange is a written order for payment issued by the creditor to his debtor. Explain the parties to a Bill of Exchangeand what is meant by acceptance of a bill. . (10 Marks) Write short notes on: (10 Marks) Intangible assets Fictitious assets and Wasting assets From the following information of Jansons Ltd on 31stMarch 2003, you are required to prepare the Trading, Profit and Loss a/c and Balance Sheet: (20 Marks) Rs Rs Opening Stock 5,000 Capital 89,500 Bills Receivable 22,500 Commission (Cr. 2,000 Wages 14,000 Trade expenses 1,000 Insurance 5,500 Office Fixtures 5,000 Sundry Debtors 1,50,000 Cash in Hand 2,500 Carriage Inwards 4,000 Cash at Bank 23,750 Commission (Dr) 4,000 Rent and Rates 5,500 Creditors 98,250 Sales 2,50,000 Stationery 2,250 Bill Payable 15,000 Return Inward 6,500 Closing Stock 12,500 On 1st June 2007, Mr. Ram drew a bill of exchange for 2 months for Rs 2,00,000 on Mr. Rahim. After acceptance the bill was endorsed over to Mr. Xavier. On the date, the bill was met. Show the journal entries in the books of all the parties. (10 Marks)

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Apollo Hospital of India (a)

1 Apollo’s greatest strength is the first mover advantage. They were among the pioneers in setting up quality private hospitals in India. Since they were able to provide world class medical service at affordable rates, this became a value for customers. Government also helped them eventually by getting rid of many financial and regulatory obstacles. Liberalization of private sector was a boon. Apollo were good pay masters as far India was concerned and this enabled them to attract talent. Doctors who wanted to come back to their country of origin were more than happy to join Apollo.

The hospital imported latest equipments and had a good success rate. By using sound marketing, they were able to build a brand name very quickly. The successful surgery of Vice-President of India was a major break through for them in brand building. India’s growing middle class were the target segment for Apollo Hospitals. The patients were ready to pay for quality treatment and this segment was growing at more than 8%. Also they had little or no competition in Chennai especially from the poorly managed Government hospitals. Apollo was started by a visionary and entrepreneur.

The management had a very good leadership team and this was also an advantage for the group. 2 One of the key reasons for Apollo’s growth was the five star philosophy, a concept which was nurtured by the founder. Apollo hired top quality doctors and provided them with the training and technology. This right environment was essential for the success of the hospital. Employees and Staff were also as important as the doctors. Above all, Apollo made sure that they deliver value to the customer. Patients were given the hospitality they expected from a premium hospital. There were major reasons for the slow development of Hyderabad facility compared to Chennai. Chennai was started by the founder and the expectations were low. There was little or no competition and there they were able to get the required talent of doctors and consultants. But with the case of Hyderabad it was different. Even though Apollo enjoyed a good brand in Chennai, they had to develop it again in Hyderabad and that too with a new team of managers. The facility was far from the city as compared to Chennai which was extremely accessible.

Hyderabad facility also lacked some key equipment like MRI scanners initially. So major operations were not possible and patients were not confident with the new system. Probably the referrals were also low due to this. 4 Some of the problems Apollo faced in general was lack of talent pool especially due to brain drain to developed countries. Apollo is planning to expand and they are in a dilemma as to whether to start their own chain of subsidiary hospitals or whether to license the brand name. Cost of capital ie land and equipment was very high and it took them 2-3 years to break even with each equipment.

Quality of non-medical operations were deteriorating. Cleanliness and sanitation was a major problem. 5 The benefits of licensing are faster expansion and faster break even. The hospital will have to strategically ally with partners and make sure that the partners can also deliver the same quality of service. If they mess up, Apollo’s brand will get affected. Another advantage of licensing is faster visibility and brand building. Having partners will make the administration process easier but Apollo will not be completely control the partner hospitals.

Long term profits will be sacrificed for short term gains. The partnering hospitals might be themselves a brand in a city. In such a case, a cultural conflict can arise if Apollo license their expertise and brand name to these hospitals or doctors. Apollo cannot afford to have de-centralized operations, where the core values of the company are lost. So special care has to be taken in inculcating a standard across the hospitals. 6 In the case of subsidiaries, the Apollo culture will be maintained but the capital expenditure is very high and break even will take longer.

Apollo will have tough time getting the initial capital from investors because it will take 3-4 years on an average to break-even in any city. Moreover managing multiple sites with the same standard and quality will a challenge. Apollo can utilize its expertise in layout designing, infrastructure and technology if they build their own hospitals but the process will take time and might hamper their expansion plans. Also the proposition is more riskier compared to licensing. Cost of acquiring land in accessible locations is also a major hurdle.

But eventually Apollo can expect higher long term returns and better control over the hospitals if they go for own subsidiaries. 7 By leveraging on both licensing and subsidiaries, Apollo can have very good strategy for their expansion. The short-term cash generated via licensing can be ploughed back into the construction of more subsidiary hospitals. Managing the system will be tough but weighing the advantages, the plan can give them a faster growth and visibility. Initially Apollo can target the major Indian cities like Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore etc. Later they can even expand to international territory. 8 9

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Contrato Colectivo Del Trabajo

I. Antecedentes En el ano de 1917, se vive en el pais una de las etapas mas criticas tanto social, como politica y juridicamente. Esto impacta directamente en el sistema juridico de corte liberal practicado con base en la Constitucion de 1857.

Los problemas sociales se debian a que la minoria de la sociedad (casi en su totalidad de origen espanol) se aduenaba de la riqueza del pais; en lo politico, Porfirio Diaz pierde las elecciones y como consecuente, la lucha por el poder; y por otro lado, en lo juridico, se significaba la ausencia de una ley especifica que regulara las relaciones de trabajo, pues aun no se reconocia propiamente al derecho al trabajo como un derecho de una clase social.

Dos anos antes de esta dificil situacion, en 1915, politicos de todas las entidades federativas se reunieron para discutir y aprobar el proyecto de una nueva Constitucion, asi mismo, se reunio una comision especial para elaborar un proyecto sobre lo que debian contener especificamente las leyes del trabajo, para asegurar una mejor garantia de los derechos que se trataban de establecer.

De esta manera, Mexico fue el primer pais que agrego en su Constitucion, los derechos de los trabajadores al elaborar leyes de trabajo y seguridad social; que a su vez, fue la culminacion del “Derecho del Trabajo”, lo que mas adelante se convertiria en una Ley Federal del Trabajo. Antes de 1917 no habia en realidad un Derecho del Trabajo, ya que solamente existian algunas leyes estatales.

El autor Cavazos (1984) menciono que la primera verdadera etapa laboral se inicio con el articulo 123 de la Constitucion de 1917, la segunda etapa la considero de 1917 a 1931 cuando surge la primera Ley Federal del Trabajo. La tercera etapa es de 1962 a 1970, cuando se reformo la Ley de 1931 debido a la preocupacion de otorgar mejores condiciones laborales (esta etapa se considera muy importante ya que Mexico tuvo el honor de poder exportar a otros paises la legislacion de los trabajadores ya elaborada).

La ultima etapa laboral ocurre en 1980. II. Generalidades y caracteristicas generales. Guillermo Cabanellas (1959), dijo: “…el trabajo es un contrato de sociedad, pero pierden de vista que el derecho del trabajo no es un derecho economico sino, basicamente, un instrumento juridico que contempla al hombre como tal e intenta protegerlo en su vida, en su dignidad y en su salud…”. El trabajo ebe estar basado en reglas que aseguren los beneficios circunstanciales a la libertad mediante la justicia social, mediante normas juridicas que establezcan las relaciones entre el patron y el trabajador y asi mismo, producir un equilibrio para la igualdad de las personas. El Contrato colectivo de trabajo, surge principalmente debido a la disparidad de poderes entre los contratantes, se considera como una forma parcial de tutela para proteger las partes debiles.

En otras palabras, el contrato colectivo del trabajo es todo acuerdo escrito relativo a las condiciones de trabajo y de empleo que deben de cumplirse y respetarse. III. Ventajas y desventajas. Las ventajas del Contrato colectivo del trabajo son varias, pero principalmente se encuentra la de establecer un acuerdo entre ambas partes. Asi mismo representa para los trabajadores algunas otras ventajas como lo son: la mejora de las condiciones de trabajo, se lleva a cabo el principio de la igualdad y ademas, favorece la creacion y organizacion de servicios sociales en beneficio de los trabajadores.

Por otro lado, el contrato colectivo de trabajo tambien tiene ventajas importantes que favorecen al patron, como por ejemplo: El patron podra tener paz dentro de su empresa, pues el contrato se celebra para abarcar determinado periodo, dentro del cual se garantiza que no surgiran conflictos, ademas, debido a que se establece igualdad mediante el contrato, ningun empleado podra exigir al patron mejores condiciones. Por otro lado, existe una desventaja que se le hace al Contrato Colectivo de Trabajo, la cual se refiere a las condiciones de aplicacion del principio de igualdad, pues no estimula a los trabajadores mas capacitados.

IV. Contenido del Contrato El Art 275 CT. Establece: “Todo Contrato Colectivo de Trabajo debe contener lo siguiente”: a) Lugar y fecha de su otorgamiento b) Nombres completos y generales de quienes lo suscriben y expresion de calidad en que actuan. c) La fecha en que entrara en vigor y duracion del contrato. d) Las condiciones generales de trabajo que regiran los contratos individuales celebrados o por celebrarse en la empresa o establecimiento. e) Clausula que determinen los derechos y obligaciones de las partes contratantes. ) Clausulas que garanticen su ejecucion o eficacia. g) Las demas estipulaciones en que convengan las partes. V. Elementos que integran el Contrato Colectivo de Trabajo. Es indispensable que el contrato incluya los siguientes elementos: a) Envoltura. – Se integra con las clausulas que regulan la vida del contrato colectivo de trabajo como lo son: duracion del contrato, revision, modificacion y terminacion de este. b) Elemento normativo. – Este elemento constituye en el conjunto de clausulas relativas a las condiciones de trabajo. ) Elemento obligatorio. – Se integra con todas aquellas disposiciones que fijan las obligaciones contraidas por las partes. d) Elementos accidentales. – Se integran con aquellas clausulas que preven situaciones especificas tales como la creacion de comisiones mixtas para el cumplimiento de funciones economico sociales y cuyas resoluciones podran ser ejecutadas por la autoridad de trabajo en los terminos del art. 392 de la Ley Federal del Trabajo, normas para dirimir controversias en el ambito conciliatorio y otras.

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