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Managing Communication, Knowledge and Information

Bradford College of Management Unit 16: Managing Communications, Knowledge and Information Candidate Name:…………………………………………………………………. Candidate ID:………………… Date of Issues: 23rd May 2011 Date of Submission: 07 July 2011 Receiver signature:………………………………………………………….. date:……………………………………. ————————————————-

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Assessor Grade: pass/Refer Internal Verifier Grade: Pass/Refer External Verifier Comments:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Important Note : * Candidates attempting to gain unfair advantages or colluding in any way whatsoever are liable to be disqualified. * Authors ‘work which is used in your assignment and not referenced is plagiarism. Plagiarism is an offence. * Always reference your work correctly as it is vital part of your assignment and you may lose grade points for incorrect referencing. Bradford College of Management Unit 3: Strategic Change Management Assignment Questions Introduction

The course is assessed by a single assignment which aims to provide candidates the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of Managing Communications, Knowledge and Information. In this assignment you are required to demonstrate a sufficient level of knowledge and continue your research for further details if necessary. It covers both theoretical and practical aspects of this unit and deals with all learning outcomes and their assessment criteria as given below. Learning Outcomes | Assessment Criteria to be covered | 1 Assess information andknowledge needs internallyand externally to improvedecision making and taking| 1. identify the range of decisions to be taken1. 2 review information and knowledge needed to ensureeffective decision taking1. 3assess internal and external sources of informationand understanding1. 4 make recommendations for improvement| 2 Create strategies to increasepersonal to networkingwiden involvement in thedecision-making process| 2. 1 identify personnel including customers, otherstakeholders and other experts2. 2 make contact with those identified and developbusiness relationships2. 3involve those identified in decision making asappropriate2. 4 suggest strategies for improvement| 3 Develop ommunicationprocesses to improve thegathering and disseminationof information andorganisational knowledge| 3. 1 evaluate existing processes of communication in anorganisation and look to ensure and improve appropriateness3. 2 implement and justify improvements to ensuregreater integration of systems of communication inthat organisation3. 3 on a personal level, identify weaknesses and developa personal plan to improve communication skills| 4 Design and improveappropriate systems for thecollection, storage anddissemination of and access tothe information andknowledge gathered| 4. evaluate existing approaches to the collection,formatting, storage, disseminating information and knowledge4. 2 implement and justify appropriate changes toimprove the collection, formatting, storage,disseminating information and knowledge4. 3 implement a strategy to improve access to systems of information and knowledge to others as appropriate| Achievements Pass | Your assignment must reflect a clear understanding of the assessment criteria. Merit | This assignment offers you the opportunity to achieve two Merit descriptors if your work demonstrate that you have: a) Made effective judgements based on your study and research, b) Used a range of sources of information , and c) Presented your assignments logically and coherently| Distinction | You have an opportunity to achieve Distinction descriptor if your work demonstrate that you have: a) Analysed information critically on the basis of theoretical knowledge and made a justified valid conclusion b) Applied convergent and lateral thinking supported by literature c) Demonstrated some independent thoughts generated through logical discussion supported by literature| Assignment Tasks Case Study

A great deal of management’s current concern for employee productivity and the need to empower people has revolved around the use of effective communication systems to improve productivity and create cohesion within the organization in order to address this concern, the management of General Electric Co. and Cypress Semi conductor Corporation have observed that to improve productivity, communication concerns needed to be dealt with to solve the main problem of the lack of communication and cooperation among different components of a business which has impacted negatively on the organisation productivity. In this perspective, the CEO of the Electric Co. and Cypress Semi conductor Corporation has recognised the need to develop appropriate communication strategies to address the lack of communication within the organisation.

Furthermore, the CEO think that communicating is extremely important to the success of their business, but since the company was established communication systems have been so weak and therefore affected the growth of the business. The CEO has directed the Human Resource Department to hire a specialist with sufficient knowledge and experience in the design, advice, and expertise in the area of communication. Following the CEO request, you have been employed to put in place communication strategies which will contribute to the organisation business growth. You are expected to complete all tasks by providing comprehensive answers with appropriate illustration wherever required. Task 1

Considering the above scenario, you are required to assess information and knowledge needs internally and externally to improve decision making and taking processes within the General Electric Co. and Cypress Semi conductor Corporation . Your answer should: 1. 1. Identify the range of decisions to be taken 1. 2. Review information and knowledge needed to ensure effective decision taking 1. 3. Assess internal and external sources of information and understanding of these sources 1. 4 makes recommendations for improvement Task 2: As part of the organisation vision, you are required to create strategies to increase personal networking in order to widen involvement in the decision-making process suitable to the General Electric Co. nd Cypress Semi conductor Corporation. Your answer should: 2. 1. Identify personnel including customers, other stakeholders and other experts 2. 2. Make contact with those identified and develop business relationships 2. 3. Involve those identified in decision making as appropriate 2. 4. Suggest strategies for improvement Task 3: In the above scenario case, the organisation strategic objective is to develop communication processes in order to improve the gathering and dissemination of information and organisational knowledge. Your answer should: 3. 1. Evaluate existing processes of communication in an organisation and look to ensure and improve appropriateness 3. 2.

Implement and justify improvements to ensure greater integration of systems of communication in that organisation 3. 3. On a personal level, identify weaknesses and develop a personal plan to improve communication skills Task 4 As a specialist in the domain of communication strategies, you are required to design and improve appropriate systems for the collection, storage and dissemination of and access to the information and knowledge gathered. Your answer should: 4. 1. Evaluate existing approaches to the collection, formatting, storage, disseminating information and knowledge 4. 2. Implement and justify appropriate changes to improve the collection, formatting, storage, disseminating information and knowledge 4. . Implement a strategy to improve access to systems of information and knowledge to others as appropriate. Submission Guidelines: You must: * Complete, sign and submit statement of authenticity. * Submit your work in a single word processed document of 2500 to 3000 words. This word limit is only for guidance and is not applied on grading. * Produce clear specific reasoning and argument in support of your answer. * Make appropriate reference to relevant concepts, techniques and theories. * Appropriately cite all information sources (in the text and bibliography). (Consult with your tutor if you are uncertain about any aspect of the assignment)

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Social Institution – Educatuion

Education Andre Meade SOC 101 Professor Rachael Horn August 1, 2011 Education Throughout the world, education has become a vast and complex social institution that prepares citizens for their roles demanded by other social institutions, such as family, government, and the economy. The functionalist, conflict and interactionism perspectives offer distinctive views of education as a social institution. Besides being a major industry in the United States, education is the social institution that formally socializes members of our society.

In the last few decades, increasing proportions of people have obtained high school diploma, college degrees, and advance professional degrees. In the United States, from the age of five through sixteen, we are required to attend school full time. Some people further their education by attending a college or university after high school. Many people do well in education, but unfortunately others do not. When a person furthers their education by going on to a college or university, this confirms that they have Functionalism is what is known as a structural theory.

Functionalists see society as being structured like a human body with many interrelated parts that function together to maintain a healthy whole. Functionalists argue that for a healthy society, individuals must obey society’s norms and values. We are socialized into these ‘normative behaviors’ that are the core of the social structure. Society needs to transmit social solidarity and value consensus, and education plays a vital role in this for instance: What contributions does the education system make to the keeping of the value consensus? And, what are the functional relationships between education and its assistance to society as a whole?

To understand the education system we must consider how it contributes to the healthy maintenance of the whole social system. French sociologist Emile Durkheim, who expressed a functionalist view in his theories, argued that the main function of education is the diffusion of society’s norms and values in certain areas (Durkheim, 1895). One of these areas focuses on social rules. In school, children must learn to interact with others with a fixed set of rules that include learning promptness, respect for authority, cooperation and sharing, and other requirements.

School is a miniature society since it stresses that individuals follow rules of conduct so that the organization or school can continue to function and to carry out its responsibilities. For example, in a kindergarten setting, children have playtime; they learn to share toys and take turns. Functionalists argue that education prepares children for their future role in the economy. It does this through their qualifications. This is the function of selection. Education selects the most talented children (Davis and Moore). It operates on a meritocratic basis.

Children are then allocated to their future work roles on the basis of these qualifications. Moreover, Durkheim portrayed the division of labor in his functionalist theory. Education teaches individual skills necessary for future occupations. People take this education and it in turn gives them roles in society that they are to perform. Education conveys general values necessary for homogeneity, the quality of being uniform throughout society in an individual’s role. Furthermore, specific skills provide necessary diversity for social cooperation, as people need to work together to be the source of goods in society.

With functionalism, society works together as a system. Our next view of society is characterized by conflict rather than consensus. This is called the conflict theory, where norms and values are not equally distributed or accepted among members of society. Karl Marx is one of the sociologists who have adopted this theory of social conflict or also known as Marxism. Marx believes that there is a tenuous relationship within groups and that society has structures of domination. These structures form hierarchy of groups.

An example of hierarchy in the education system would be the different groups of workers that are within a public high school. First there is the board of education on the hierarchy. They have control over the entire school district and determine what the students should be learning. Next, there is the superintendent who supervises the principal administration. Following is the principal. He has an influence and an authority over the students and even the teachers. The conflict theory sees the purpose of education as maintaining social inequality and preserving the power of those who dominate society.

Conflict theorists examine the same functions of education as functionalists. Functionalists see education as a beneficial contribution to an ordered society; however, conflict theorists see the educational system as perpetuating the status quo by dulling the lower classes into being obedient workers. In contrast, the conflict perspective views education as an instrument of elite domination. Conflict theorist point out the sharp inequalities that exist in the educational opportunities available to different racial and ethnic groups.

Both functionalists and conflict theorists agree that the educational system practices sorting, but they disagree about how it enacts that sorting. Functionalists claim that schools sort based upon merit; conflict theorists argue that schools sort along distinct class and ethnic lines. According to conflict theorists, schools train those in the working classes to accept their position as a lower-class member of society. Conflict theorists call this role of education the “hidden curriculum. ” Conflict theorists point to several key factors in defending their position.

First, property taxes fund most schools; therefore, schools in affluent districts have more money. Such areas are predominantly white. They can afford to pay higher salaries, attract better teachers, and purchase newer texts and more technology. Students who attend these schools gain substantial advantages in getting into the best colleges and being tracked into higher-paying professions. Students in less affluent neighborhoods that do not enjoy these advantages are less likely to go to college and are more likely to be tracked into vocational or technical training. They also represent far higher numbers of minority students. The interactionism theory, symbolizes the interactions of the students and the teachers, and limit their analysis of education to what they directly observe happening in the classroom. They focus on how teacher expectations influence student performance, perceptions, and attitudes. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson conducted the landmark study for this approach in 1968. First, they examined a group of students with standard IQ tests. The researchers then identified a number of students who they said would likely show a sharp increase in abilities over the coming year.

They informed the teachers of the results, and asked them to watch and see if this increase did occur. When the researchers repeated the IQ tests at the end of the year, the students identified by the researchers did indeed show higher IQ scores. The significance of this study lies in the fact that the researchers had randomly selected a number of average students. The researchers found that when the teachers expected a particular performance or growth, it occurred. This phenomenon, where a false assumption actually occurs because someone predicted it, is called a self-fulfilling prophesy.

For example, the stock market may be stable with rising values. If investors become afraid that the market will crash, however, they may suddenly sell their stocks, which cause the market to crash. The crash occurred simply because investors feared it would do so. Ray Rist conducted research similar to the Rosenthal-Jacobson study in 1970. In a kindergarten classroom where both students and teacher were African American, the teacher assigned students to tables based on ability; the “better” students sat at a table closer to her, the “average” students sat at the next table, and the “weakest” students sat at the farthest table.

Rist discovered that the teacher assigned the students to a table based on the teacher’s perception of the students’ skill levels on the eighth day of class, without any form of testing to verify the placement. Rist also found that the students the teacher perceived as “better” learners came from higher social classes, while the “weak” students were from lower social classes. Monitoring the students through the year, Rist found that the students closer to the teacher received the most attention and performed better.

The farther from the teacher a student sat, the weaker that student performed. Rist continued the study through the next several years and found that the labels assigned to the students on the eighth day of kindergarten followed them throughout their schooling. Sociologists can document this process; they have yet to define the exact process of how teachers form their expectations or how students may communicate subtle messages to teachers about intelligence, skill, and so forth. The educational system depends solely on the teachers.

Whether they serve as instructors of preschoolers or graduate students, teachers are the employees of formal organizations with bureaucratic structures and are considered the life line to the educational system. A teacher undergoes many stresses every day, while their academic assignments have become more specialized, the demands on their time remain diverse and contradictory. Conflicts arise from serving as an instructor, a disciplinarian, and an employee of a school district at the same time and sometimes have to deal with violence.

It has been known that about a quarter and a third of new teachers quit within the first three years, and as many as half leave poor urban schools in their first five years. (Wallis 2008). Given these difficulties, does teaching remain an attractive profession in the United States? How stable is our educational system? Many teachers have become disappointed and frustrated and have left the educational world for careers in other professions.

This is because of the level of formal schooling required for teaching remains high, and the public has begun to call for new competency examinations, and the fact that teachers’ salaries are significantly lower than those of many professionals and skilled workers. Reference Ashford online library: (Proquest) Miller, Seumas, “Social Institutions”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed. ), Schaefer, R. T. (2009) Sociology: A brief introduction (8th ed. ) New York, NY: McGraw Hill W. W. Norton and Company: Everyday Sociology, (since 1923)

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Organizational Structure and Culture

Organizational structure can be defined as the establishment of authority and responsibilities between different positions in the company. It can be either horizontal or vertical. Organization structure also facilitates transparency in the organization (Luthans, 1998). My organization is Saint Joseph’s Hospital, which is a leading magnet facility here in Atlanta Georgia. Saint Joseph’s was the first hospital in the Southeast to perform open heart surgery, the first to develop a cardiac cath lab and the first to perform balloon angioplasty.

The hospital was also the first to open a pace maker clinic and the first in Georgia to implant an artificial heart. Saint Joseph’s is also regarded as one of Georgia’s early pioneers in vascular surgery. Saint Joseph’s is a true innovator and attracts some of the nation’s finest physicians, nurses and medical support personnel http://www. stjosephsatlanta. org. Patient ratings of Saint Joseph’s nurses are among the highest reported year after year. Therefore, organizational structure and culture is of utmost importance to our leadership.

Executives, directors, managers and supervisors have the responsibility to promote a culture that supports compassion, honesty, respect, responsibility, integrity, teamwork and stewardship among employees and physicians. This requires the promotion of open communication; zero tolerance of fraud, abuse and waste; encouragement of educational and training sessions; and cooperation with requests for information on a timely basis. Each member of the management team is accountable for setting an example that supports the hospital’s culture and structure.

Our facility is structured using a team-based type of structure to create an environment of ownership among the stakeholders. This structure supports our organization’s plan because it relies strongly upon collaboration, shared goals, common assessments, and other aspects of cooperation to achieve its various plans and missions. It is also a structured system of tasks, workflows, reporting relationships, and communication channels that link the diverse parts of an organization. Team-based approaches benefit from the collective and shared decision-making, planning, goal setting, and overall collaborative nature.

On the other hand, some negatives are that this approach is often arduous, time consuming, and even cumbersome since it takes a long time to reach consensuses. Any structure should both allocate tasks and provide for the coordination of performance results. Unfortunately, it is easier to talk about good structures than it is to actually create them. This is why you often read about restructuring, the process of changing an organization’s structure in an attempt to improve performance.

Activities of an organization are the combination of some functions like planning, organizing, directing, controlling, etc. All these functions have an impact on the structure of the organization. Planning is a very important function for an organization. It is a determination of the future course of actions for the company. Planning includes determination of specific objectives, programs, policies and strategies. Structure is designed according to the plans of the organization. Any change in the plan causes a change in the structure of the organization.

Organizing is the process of dividing the tasks and duties to different groups, and departments. Organizing function increases the efficiency of the organization. All authorities and responsibilities are divided in such a manner that goals of the organization can be achieved. Organizational structure is designed and changed according to the task divided among the employees. Directing is a process of communicating to the subordinates by the superiors. Each employee of the organization is directed by his superiors.

Superiors give continuous guidance to the subordinates. Changes in the duties and responsibilities of the superiors and subordinates also affect the structure of the organization because directing process also includes communicating, leading and motivating process. Controlling is the process in which a manager compares the actual results from the predetermined objectives. If any variation is found, some corrective actions are taken by the manager. Corrective actions include changes in the policy, plans or any strategy of the organization.

All these changes also affect the structure of the organization. Structure is changed according to new plans and policies of the organization (Prasad, 2008). During this project I discovered that the organizational chart at my facility has undergone significant change. We no longer have the traditional organizational chart which is best illustrated by the shape of a pyramid with board of trustees on top, CEO, CFO, COO then upper management, followed by middle management, then front line people and at the bottom with the argest area, the customers. It shows that top management has the power over those situated below it. Now we have a modern customer-oriented organizational chart, that is an inverted pyramid where the customers are on top occupying the largest area followed by the front line people, middle management and at the bottom, the top management with the smallest area. There are arrows pointing upwards showing that customers are now the primary focus of the organization hence, it is customer-oriented.

I have learned that an organizational chart for our unit shows us the division of work via positions and titles which show how work responsibilities are assigned. Supervisory relations with levels of management, let staff members know who reports to whom. Communication channels direct the formal reporting process through the chain of command. Whenever someone speaks of “the way we do things here,” for example, they are talking about the organizational culture. Although culture is not the sole determinant of what happens in organizations, it is an importance influence on what the members accomplish and how.

Therefore, internal and generational differences have the potential to shape attitudes, reinforce common beliefs, direct behavior, establish performance expectations, and create the motivation to fulfill them. In my facility the younger nurses have varied beliefs whereas the older generation pride themselves on their core beliefs about the right way to do things. They have different ways of looking at things based on their traditions and values. They dress differently and express themselves in different ways.

I enjoy the cultural differences of my workplace environment but I’ve come to discover that I’m managing the diverse needs of our employees, not their cultural differences. Diverse, yet very common needs, such as child care, flextime, working at home, leave to take care of elderly parents, paternity leave as well as maternity leave. Those needs are in the workplace, and it has nothing to do with a person’s cultural difference. Collectively these differences and similarities all influence the organizational culture of the workplace. In conclusion, the potential advantages of team structures begin with better ommunication across all disciplines. Teams are the building blocks of the new and more horizontal organizations. Our organizational structure formally designates and uses permanent and temporary teams extensively to accomplish tasks. References http://www. stjosephsatlanta. org/ Luthans, F. (1998). Organizational Behavior, (8th Ed. ). New York: Irwin McGraw-Hill. Prasad, L. M (2008), Organizational Behavior (3rd Ed. ), New Delhi: Sultan Chand and Sons. Sullivan, E. J.. & Decker, P. J. (2009). Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing (7th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Computer.

In our present life everything is connected with computer technology. We use computers at home, work and we are often assisted by them in shops, banks, offices and many other places. People often do not see any disadvantages of having computers; I will try to show you good and bad sides of using them. In the first place, a computer is a really comfortable, convenient and helpful thing; it often makes lots of work for us which normally consumes plenty of time.

Another useful thing is that computers now are often small and we can take them wherever we want. We can use them f. ex. in planes, restaurants or in same waiting rooms. An additional advantage of using the computer is that we can develop our computer skills and we can learn in this way. Now, there are many programs for learning, especially languages. On the other hand, computers have disadvantages too; the most important one is about destroying our eyesight. Computers do harm to our eyes, if we use them too much.

As a result, we can lose our sight and become blind. Although we can keep in touch with many people by computer it is possible to become a bad thing. People need to see others, we like being in groups and talking face to face. By communicators we cannot feel, touch and see our interlocutor. Summing up, computers are really comfortable and useful for us, but we must remember to use them in a reasonably way. Now, our world is so modern and we have to become friends with new technology even if we don? t want to.

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Fundamental Principles of Adult Education

Fundamental Principles of Adult Education University of Phoenix AET 505 August 15, 2011 Abstract Part of being a good, quality educator is to learn the learning styles of the students and adapt to those forms of learning. Adult learning is growing, more and more are going to college at later stages in life. Out of the 35 people, there will be many different learning styles. Malcom Knowles is known for defining characteristics of adult learning. Malcom Knowles Malcom Knowles studied in the field of adult learning. His main goal was to develop a theory about andragogy, which is a theory specifically for adult learning.

Knowles notes that adults are self-directed and are expected to take responsibility for decisions. Adult learning methods must accommodate this important aspect. Knowles notes six characteristics for adult learning: ·Adults are independent ·Have life experiences like family and work ·Adults have goals they want to achieve ·Adults want things to be relevant ·Adults are practical and find ways to apply information to their work or life ·They want to be shown respect Due to the characteristics of learning there have been developments of different teaching styles and theories.

Theories about adult education have been categorized into four main models. These models would be biological, psychological, sociocultural, and cognitive. Biological Growing old is a part of life, and unfortunately with age comes changes. These changes affect how we learn and take in new information. Our hearing decreases, our eyesight becomes poorer, and the brain becomes slower at absorbing and retaining new information. To accommodate to the more mature adults in the classroom, I would make sure the older adults were closer to me to hear me speak.

I would make sure any handouts, homework, or textbooks have a decent sized font that they could read. Perhaps having frequent quizzes will help find out how well the older members of the classroom are retaining the information. Psychological Psychology is behaviors and mental processes. To learn is obviously a mental process, but how a person learns needs to be determined. Some people have a more hands on approach to learning, while others are visual learners. An example would be someone who had dyslexia and sees things backwards; they need different instructions to take in the information.

Also, people act differently. An example would be myself, I have ADHD. I do not like to sit for long periods of time because I just can’t keep my concentration. Keeping the attention of such an age span could pose problems. Keeping lectures short, mixing things up, taking a break could all be ways to make sure everyone’s able to pay attention and get the most out of the teachings. Sociocultural The world that we live in shapes the people we are, how we do things, and how we live. Cultures dictate a lot of learning, as does family status. People that have families live busy lives.

A traditional family today now has two working parents, along with kids. If they are taking classes in addition to their hectic schedule they don’t have time to waste, are focused and determined. Whereas, a twenty year old with no wife and no children is more likely the one to put less effort into the homework, more likely to miss class, and more likely to do the minimal amount of work to get by. Teaching methods must encourage all ages, cultures, and races. Cognitive Cognitive learning is how the brain processes information. All ages learn by experiencing, touching, and listening.

In fact many species of animals learn by the same way. In the example of someone with dyslexia, their brain processes information backwards, so they have to retrain their brain and find a way they can process the information appropriately. With myself having ADHD, I don’t have the patience to sit through class lectures, which is why I do online learning. I can read a while, and then stop. I can work on my assignment for ten minutes, and then go do something else. As an instructor is important to find out how everyone processes their information nd work with them to retain it, otherwise the learning and teachings are pointless. Conclusion Life dictates who we are as individuals. Education is a choice, but it’s important as an educator to maximize the learning experience for every person that chooses to sit in a classroom or attend online. Adapt to the fact no two people will be alike on how they learn and absorb the information taught in class. Myself, as a teach and a student want to achieve the best possible results and put forth all the effort I can to make sure my students are taught appropriately, and that I’m being taught appropriately.

References Imel, Susan (2001) Adult Development No. 22 Knowles, M. (1975). Self-Directed Learning. Chicago: Follet. Knowles, M. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd Ed. ). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing. Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Andragogy and Malcolm S. Knowles (1913-1997) Unknown Author, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on August 12, 2011 http://www. thinkquest. org/pls/html/think. library

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Continuum of Long-Term Care

The Continuum of Long-Term Health Care Lisa Lewis HCS/310 August 9, 2010 John Dean The Continuum of Long-Term Health Care Health care is a fascinating industry. So many types of care are included within the industry. Health care can be very broad or very specific. Health care is also comprised of different types of health care. One specific sector is long-term health care. Long-term care plays a huge role in the health care continuum.

This paper will define long-term care and a continuum as well as discuss the services provided and how these services fit in the continuum of care, the resources that go along with long-term care and how it contributes to overall health care resources, and how long-term care services will be impacted in the future. Long-term health care tends to many types of people. “Long-term care (LTC) typically refers to settings in which individuals reside for ongoing care.

Long-term care also refers to health care needs or supervision that an individual may require for undetermined time, or even lifelong” (Long-Term Care, para. 1). Long-term care is not specific to a certain age group, and long-term care can be given in various settings. “Long-term care can be acquired in one’s home or more typically in sheltered care or independence-supporting settings described continuing care retirement communities” (Long-Term Care, para. 1). To make sure long-term care is provided at the optimum level, it must be a part of a continuum of health care. A continuum of aging services is a comprehensive and integrated network of services that guides and tracks patients/clients over time and includes acute, transitional, long-term, and preventative care” (Clapp, 1993, General Definition, para. 1). A continuum in the long-term care field will help ensure quality care because more resources are involved to make sure the patient is being taken care of properly. “An integrated continuum requires active collaboration among local providers in two general groups.

The first includes hospitals, nursing homes, retirement communities, physicians, and home health services” (Clapp, 1993, General Definition, para. 1). According to Clapp, even though the typical “continuum” is incomplete, not all pieces have to be a part of the continuum to serve the patients and their families (Clapp, 1993, General Definition, para. 2). “What is critical to understand is that linking with other community services to provide a continuum which benefits patients, payers and providers will be the design of the future” (Clapp, 1993, General Definition, para. ). “Collaboration is what holds a successfully implemented continuum together” (Clapp, 1993, General Definition, para. 4). By connecting different aspects of the continuum through the services provided, long-term care can be beneficial to its patients. Many services are provided through long-term care. “Long-term health care includes many different types of services, not just institutional care provided in a nursing home or a hospital when a person has a mental or physical disability.

In short, it includes a variety of services to maintain healthy living and quality of life, such as shelter, transportation, housekeeping services, therapeutic services, home health nursing care, and nutritional and social support programs” (Hussain, 2009, p. 72-73). These services help patients in a number of ways. For example, the transportation aspect allows patients to get around for various activities such as going to a doctor’s appointment or going to the grocery store. The housekeeping services help the patients maintain a clean living space to instill a healthy environment. Most long-term care is to assist people with support services such as activities of daily living like dressing, bathing, and using the bathroom” (Medicare. gov, What is Long-Term Care, para. 1). All of the services provided are to help meet the medical and personal needs of the patients. To acquire the best outcome, all of the services within long-term care need to be part of a continuum. If all of the services are linked to each other in one way or another, the patient can be taken care of in the best way.

Each factor of the continuum helps transition the patient from one level of service to the next. The doctor referral for future treatment in a hospital, or the doctor overseeing treatment in an LTC facility can help the patient transition better and have a better quality of life. Each part of the continuum plays a part in the future health of the patient. Another part of the continuum is health care resources available to the patients. Long-term care does contribute to the management of these resources. Without LTC, these resources would not be in such high demand. According to Medicare. ov, there are many resources that go along with long-term care that need to be used, such as drug and health plans, doctors, hospitals, formulary finder, long-term planning, home health agencies, nursing homes, medical equipment suppliers, dialysis facilities, forms, and publications (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). These resources will help the patients and their families find the best collaboration of services to meet their needs. Drug and health plans are major resources to long-term care. Medicare does not cover most of long-term care services, but it may pay a portion depending on selected coverage.

Medicaid may step in and help pay as well. “The Medicare Plan Finder tool provides one central point to view and compare all available drug and health plan choices, including Medigap policies in your area” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). The formulary finder is a resource that ties in with the drug and health plan section. “The Formulary Finder for Prescription Drug Plans tool will allow you to find plans in your state that match your required drug list” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). The directory for doctors is a tool that can be very helpful when deciding the next course of action in long-term care. You can use the Physician and Other Healthcare Professional Directory tool to search for basic information about physicians and many other types of healthcare professionals including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, social workers, psychologists, and physical therapists” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). This tool will also show with what hospital each doctor is affiliated. “On the Hospital Compare tool you will find information on how well hospitals care for patients and results from a survey of patients about the quality of care they received during a recent hospital stay” (Medicare. ov, Resource Locator). Finding a drug and health plan along with an appropriate doctor and good hospital will lead into making a long-term health care plan. “The Long-Term Care Planning tool is to help you understand: what long-term care services are available, how much you can expect to pay for long-term care, and what financing options are available to support your long-term care costs” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). The LTC tool is the most helpful to see which LTC facility would be most beneficial. Providing LTC at home can be difficult. The Home Health Compare tool gives detailed information about Medicare-certified home health agencies. This tool will assist you in selecting a Home Health Agency; provide Home Health Agency information; Home Health Quality Measures and how to use the quality measures to compare home health agencies” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). If another type of LTC facility is used, the nursing home tool is helpful. “The Nursing Home compare tool has detailed information about every Medicare and Medicaid-certified nursing home in the country.

This tool enables you to compare the quality of the nursing homes you’re considering using Five-Star Quality Ratings, health inspection results, nursing home staff data, quality measures, and fire safety inspection results” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). Other than the facilities needed to provide LTC, there are other services that may be needed. Other services may include medical supplies or even dialysis. “The Medical Equipment Suppliers tool provides names, addresses, and contact information for suppliers that provide services or products under the Medicare program.

This tool lists suppliers of the following services and products; Durable Medical Equipment, Prostheses & Prosthetic Devices, Orthotics and Supplies” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). “You can use Dialysis Facility Compare to find addresses and phone numbers for each facility and compare information about the services and quality of care provided at dialysis facilities in any state” (Medicare. gov, Resource Locator). All of these services are easily accessible through the Internet. Forms and publications are accessible online that can be used to help facilitate the process.

If managed properly, these resources can help patients find the right collaboration of care. With so many changes in health care, strategic management is needed more than ever. “Health care organizations cannot be all things to all people. Organizations have to develop a ‘stop doing’ list to include those services that are least profitable and must be eliminated. Doing away with any service is very hard in health care because no one wants to eliminate a service that is helping people even if it is very expensive” (Swayne, et al. , 2005, p. 8).

Some resources for LTC may be of higher cost, but the resources are needed to maintain an effective health care continuum. The fact still remains that the increase in health care costs may reduce the number of resources that will be available. The current trends in health care will impact the future of LTC. “The key factors that will substantially increase the need for long-term care services and financing in the future are reduction of informal care, increased demands of institutional care, high turnover rates of health care workers, and advances in technology” (Hussain, 2009, p. 3). The future of financing LTC is largely dependent on the future economy of the health care industry. As costs continue to rise, patients will not be able to afford LTC. “Population statistics suggest that as the present ‘baby boomer’ generation ages, health care services must cover the entire spectrum-from wellness programs, to meet the needs of healthier individuals, to skilled nursing and rehabilitative care for individuals with chronic illness and functional limitations.

Currently, 5% of the elderly population live in LTC facilities; however, an increase of this population by even a few percentage points could strain resources both in terms of available facilities and available funding” (Long-Term Care, para. 8). According to Dicken (2005), national spending on LTC totaled $183 billion in 2003, and nearly half of that was paid for by the Medicaid program, and private insurance paid a small amount of long-term care expenditures-about $16 billion or 9% in 2003 (p. 1). The average cost for a private room in a nursing home is $74,208 a year, or $203 a day, according to Genworth Financial’s 2009 cost-of-care survey. If these figures continue to rise at the current rate (more than 4% per year), a year in a nursing home could cost more than $270,000 in 30 years” (Galloway, et al. , 2009, para. 1). Home health care is not going to be the alternative as far as cost is concerned. “The Genworth survey found that the average state-licensed home health aide charges $18. 50 per hour, which tops $220 per day if you need 12 hours or more of daily care” (Galloway, et al. 2009, para. 1). Something needs to be done to control costs now so there will be LTC available. Policymakers want to reduce spending on LTC. “With the aging of the baby boomer generation, long-term care expenditures are anticipated to increase sharply in coming decades. The projected spending on long-term care presents a looming fiscal challenge for federal and state governments. As a result, some policymakers are looking for ways to reduce the proportion of long-term spending financed by Medicaid and promote private insurance as a larger funding source” (Dicken, 2005, p. ). A program is in place for four states called the Long-Term Care Partnership Program. Policymakers are hoping that the results from this program will lead to a nation-wide enrollment program. “The Long-Term Care Partnership Program is a public-private partnership designed to encourage persons with moderate income to purchase long-term care insurance to fund their long-term care needs rather than relying on Medicaid” (Dicken, 2005, p. 8). According to Dicken (2005), the goal of this program is to reduce or eliminate the need for Medicaid to finance long-term care (p. ). No matter what the situation is, the current trend of high costs will ultimately lead to a reduction in services. With a rise in the population and the aging baby boomers, there is more of a need for long-term care than there has ever been. With costs rising the way they have, the people in need of long-term care will not have access. Purchasing long-term care insurance seems to be the best way to cover future costs. The more private insurance covers, the more likely that the current resources will remain in place.

The continuum of long-term care needs to have all the pieces work together to ensure that long-term care will be accessible to more people. References Clapp, R. (1993). Health Care Continuum. (cover story). Nursing Homes: Long-Term Care Management, 42(9), 6. Retrieved August 6, 2010, from MasterFILE Premier database. Dicken, J. (2005). Overview of the Long-Term Care Partnership: GAO-05-1021. GAO Reports, 1. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from MasterFILE Premier database. Galloway, D. , Ambalam, T. , M. , L. , & S. , L. , (2009). Long-Term-Care Scare. Kiplinger’s Personal Finance, 63(7), 65.

Retrieved August 9, 2010, from MasterFILE Premier database. Hussain, A. , & Rivers, P. (2009) Confronting the challenged of long-term health care crisis in the United States. Journal of Health Care Finance, 36(2), 71-82. Retrieved August 6, 2010, from MEDLINE with Full Text database. (n. d). Long-Term Care. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from XRefer XML database. Medicare. gov. (n. d). Long-term care. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from www. medicare. gov Swayne, L. , Duncan, W. , & Ginter, P. (2006). Strategic management of health care organizations. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

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Sample Questionnaire

We are from University of Dhaka. As a part of our BBA program we are conducting this survey to understand the Bangladesh Paint Industry. All information will be used in academic purpose only Customer/Consumer Survey 1) Can you remember any brand of paint? a) Asian paints b) Al Karim c) Aqua paints d) Berger paints e) Elite paintsf) RAK paints g) Roxy paintsh) Romana paints i) Ujala paints 2) Why you choose this brand? a) Brand name b) Quality c) Other facility. 3) Do you have any experience about painting? ( Yes ( No ) How many times you have used this brand? 1—2—3—4—5—6—7—8—9—10—11––12 5) Which brand you used last time? ………………………………………………………. 6) Did you face any problem with this brand? ( Yes ( No(if YES, then Question 7) 7) What types of problems you faced during your last experience? a) Durability b) Reservation c) Mixingd) Availabilitye) Quality 8) How you come to know about this brand? a) Painter b) Advertising c) Reference d) Others 9) Which brand is most effective? a) Asian paints b) Al Karim c) Aqua paints ) Berger paints e) Elite paintsf) RAK paints g) Roxy paintsh) Romana paints i) Ujala paints 10) Which facilities did you get? a) Creditb) Transportation c) Discount d) Bonus e) Others 11) How do you take the decision for purchasing Paints? a) Priceb) Qualityc) Previous Experience d) Reference e) Self Judgmentf) Available assortment 12) Which one attribute you prefer most? a) Quality b) Cost/Pricec) Availability 13) Do you know about color bank system? ( Yes ( No. 14) Do you have any experience of this system? Yes ( No Name ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Address: …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Age: ………………………………………… Occupation: ………………………………………… Site description:…………………………………………………………………. Sex: ( Male ( Female Date: Mobile: Thanking you for your kind cooperation We are from University of Dhaka.

As a part of our BBA program we are conducting this survey to understand Bangladesh Paint Industry. All information will be used in academic purpose only Paints Dealer Survey 1) For how many years have you been conducting your business? ………………………………………………………………………………………. 2) How many brands of paints are available in your store? 1—2—3—4—5—6—7—8—9—10—11––12 3) Which brands are available in your store? a) Asian paints b) Al Karim c) Aqua paints d) Berger paints e) Elite paintsf) RAK paints ) Roxy paintsh) Romana paints i) Ujala paints 4) Which brand is highly available in your store? a) Asian paints b) Al Karim c) Aqua paints d) Berger paints e) Elite paintsf) RAK paints g) Roxy paintsh) Romana paints i) Ujala paints 5) Why this brand is most available in your store? a) Customer demand b) More convenient c) Less costly d) Easy to handle e) Smooth delivery 6) Which company facilitates you most? a) Asian paints b) Al Karim c) Aqua paints d) Berger paints e) Elite paintsf) RAK paints g) Roxy paintsh) Romana paints i) Ujala paints ) What types of facilities do you get from the company? * a) Credit b) Transportationc) Commission d) discount e) Others 8) Which brands is highly preferable by customers in your store? a) Asian paints b) Al Karim c) Aqua paints d) Berger paints e) Elite paintsf) RAK paints g) Roxy paintsh) Romana paints i) Ujala paints 9) Which benefits attract you most? a) Credit b) Smooth Deliveryc) Commission d) Capability of Producte) Other 10) What is the discount structure that you get from the different companies? |company |invoice |Payment |TOC |Sp. Comm. scheme |Others | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 11) What are the sources of your customer attraction? a) Directly/Floatingb) Advertising by Companyc) Media (Painters) 12) If third party (Painters & others), which facilities do you give to them? ) Credit b) Installment c) Commission d) Discount e) Bonusf) Others 13) Do you keep good interactions with the painters? ( Yes ( No 14) What are your main offerings to customers except the core product? a) Well behave b) Transportationc) Greetings d) Occasional offering e) Discounts 15) What is your pricing system? a) MRPb) Competitivec) Floating 16) How much commission you consider to customers from your earnings from respective company? a) Full discount b) 80/20 c) 50/50 d) 90/10 17) Which brand is profitable to you? a) Asian paints b) Al Karim c) Aqua paints d) Berger paints e) Elite paintsf) RAK paints ) Roxy paintsh) Romana paints i) Ujala paints 18) Do you use color bank technology? ( Yes ( No 19) Do you get any benefit by using this technology? ( Yes ( No 20) Do you help customers to decide Paints? ( Yes ( No 21) What are the new products in the market? ………………………………………………………… Name: ……………………………………………………………………….. Address: …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Age: ………………………………………… Occupation: ………………………………………..

Sex: ( Male ( Female Date: Mobile: Thanking you for your kind cooperation We are from University of Dhaka. As a part of our BBA program we are conducting this survey to understand Bangladesh Paint Industry. All information will be used in academic purpose only Painter Survey 1) For how many years have you been doing the job? ………………………………………………………………………. 2) Which brand you prefer most currently? a) Asian paints b) Al karimc) Aqua paints d) Berger paintse) Elite paintsf) RAK paints g) Roxy paints h) Romana paints i) Ujala paints 3) Why you choose this brand? ) Quality b) Brand image c) Customers demand d) Incentive from dealer e) Incentives from company 4) Do you get any benefit from Dealer? ( Yes ( No 5) What is the main benefit that you get from a dealer? a) Credit b) Installment c) discountd) Commission e) Others 6) Do you enjoy any type of benefit from different paint company? ( Yes ( No 7) What types of benefit you get from different company? …………………………………………………… 8) Which facility attracts you most in a dealer store? a) Credit b) Installment c) discountd) Commission e) Others 9) What are the new types of inventions currently available in paints industry? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10) From which dealer did you buy most in last six month? ……………………………………………………………………………. 11) What are the problems you face with different paints? a) Applicationb) Material c) Reservingd) Others 12) Do you have got any product application training from companies? ( Yes ( No If YES, please specify when & where………………………… 13) Do you prefer color bank paints? ( Yes ( No 14) Why you choose or not choose the color bank? ……………………………………………….. Name:

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Federal Funds, a Short Term Loan

5. Federal Funds Federal Funds represent the asset to lending bank and liability to borrowing bank. The loan in Federal funds is short-term loan. Usually, the loans are for one to seven days. These funds help the bank to correct short-tem fund imbalances. Federal funds rate is interest rate charged in the federal funds. It is same for all banks borrowing in federal funds market. Federal funds market more active on Wednesday because that is final day of each particular settlement period for which each bank must maintain a specified volume of reserves required by Fed. 6. Federal Funds Market

Banks have to meet reserve requirements. Each Wednesday is the final day of each particular settlement period for which each bank must maintain a specified volume of reserves required by the Fed. When the bank does not meet the requirement, they have to borrow before settlement period ends. They can borrow in federal funds market. 7. Borrowing from Federal Reserve Rate is charged is primary credit lending rate. It is set at a level above the federal funds rate at any point in time, so bank will only borrow from Federal Reserve as last resort 10. Use of Funds Banks invest in securities because of the liquidity of securities.

They can convert securities immediately Moreover, Investing in securities is easier. Managing in Financial Markets Summary and analyze 1. The bank has traditionally focused on CDs 2. It offers checking accounts & money market deposit accounts (MMDAs) but it has not advertised these account: The bank does not have much short-term deposit. They cannot use short-term deposit to meet reserve requirement. 3. It pays about 3% points more on its CDs than on its MMDAs: obtaining CDs costs more than MMDAs, but the bank knows when the deposited fund is withdraw. Use of loans: Bank loans to build shopping malls and apartment complexes.

The demand for real estate is low, so the probability of defaulted loan increases. a. Bank should continue to focus on attracting funds by offering CDs, it also push the other types of deposits such as MMDAs. The Bank should make push the MMDAs, because it is cheaper source of fund. Besides MMDAs, and CDs, bank can obtain fund from another source. The main fund sources of banks are deposit account (Transaction deposits, Saving deposit, time deposits, MMDAc), borrowed funds (Federal funds purchased, borrowing from the federal reserve banks, Repurchase agreements, Eurodollar borrowing) Long-term sources of funds (Bonds, bank capital) . Bank should not focus on real estate loans because it put bank in the riskier position. The real estate market is going down, so the probability of defaulted real estate loan will increase. The bank should diversify their using of fund to reduce the risk. The bank can make loan to small business or different industry firms to diversify its borrowers. The common uses of funds by banks can be: * Reserving as Cash, bank holds cash to meet the reserve requirement. * Loaning, the loan is tailored to the borrower’s need. Investing in securities, which enable cash out the securities whenever they want. * Selling Federal funds, The bank can lend their extra fund to other banks in federal fund market * Setting up repurchase agreements, the bank can lend their money by purchasing a corporation’s holding of treasury securities with agreement selling back at a later date. * Making Eurodollar loans, the bank can loan their dollar in foreign market for corporations who need U. S dollar for their transaction. * Investing in Fixed Asset, Bank has to maintain some amount of fixed assets as requirement. . The potential return on the bank’s use of funds will increase under my restructuring of asset portfolio if the small business and the different industry firms can do well and the increase in value of securities such as mortgage backed securities The cost of funds will be increase under restructuring. First, to generate more funds, the administrative and advertising expense will increase. Second, The cost of each source is different. If the bank obtains more MMDAs, it can reduce the cost of fund. However if it generate money by issuing bond, the cost of fund will be greater.

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Dangers of Fast Food

We all fall victim to the fast food drive-thu, some more than others, eating it every day. But do people really know how bad fast food is for them? Everyone has different reasons for eating fast food, some because of the convenience, some actually crave it, but few people truly realize just how unhealthy this food is for them. The article “Why You Should Avoid Fast Food at All Costs” written by Richard Stossel gives very eye-opening details as to where our food comes from and how it gets to our plates.

Richard Stossel has written many articles, such as Overcoming arthritis naturally, Chi: The basis of True Health, Nutrition Secrets “They” Don’t Want You to Know, and The dangers of microwave radiation cannot be ignored. He has also extensively studied Chinese martial arts, nutrition, Chinese medicine, chi theory, and physics. Richard is very passionate about health and helping others to develop healthier lifestyles. He uses his research and studies to write very informative articles on issues he finds very important.

The author establishes logos by using shocking facts and statistics such as “Twenty years ago the standard number of cattle processed per hour in a typical meat packing plant was 175”, “Today the workers at many plants are required to kill up to 400 cattle per hour” (Stossel, 2009). Stossel is trying to make a point that these slaughter factories are working to fast, and to long of house, sometimes making mistakes, even getting body parts caught in the machinery, or workers even falling into the grinders.

Also because of the long hours the factory workers are required to work they make mistakes such as cutting the wrong parts of the animals, such as the bowels causing E-coli outbreaks. “Every day in the United States, roughly 200,000 people are sickened by a food borne disease, 900 are hospitalized and fourteen die”. According to the CDC. If roughly 200,000 people get sick every day, that’s about 1,400,000 every week that are sickened by some type of food borne illness. “Until 1997, about 75% of the cattle in the US were being fed livestock wastes, the rendered remains of dead sheep and cattle.

They were also fed millions of dead pets from animal shelters” (Stossel, 2009). Stossel uses this information to appeal to the emotion of the reader. This article is written for anyone who eats fast food, or pre packaged processed meals. The author is writing this to inform us of just how unhealthy all of this un-natural chemical filled food is for us. Although it is a very good and informative article the author did make a few mistakes, making him seem less credible. Such as, “They also allow the poultry to be fed to dead cattle” (Stossel, 2009).

This does not make sense because you can’t feel something that is dead. In this article Richard Stossel appealed to the emotion of the reader by scaring the reader away from eating these types of food. “With the terrible and inhumane way in which the animals themselves are treated which causes the meat to lose any of it’s health benefits, coupled with the contamination of the meat itself during processing, you now have a situation where this meat is not only providing very little nutrition or bio-energy, but it can be quite dangerous and deadly” (Stossel, 2009).

Stossel is describing the cruelty these animals endure before being slaughtered, frozen, and shipped off to fast food restaurants around the country for us to eat. He also explained that some of the animals that are even to sick and weak to walk to the slaughter are picked up with forklifts and carried. Many of these animals are sick from tumors, viruses, infections, some even have cancer throughout their bodies, says Stossel.

The workers at the slaughterhouses are trained to cut around the infections and cancers, but Stossel says “even the “uninfected” parts are so weakened of nutrients, oxygen, energy and life force that it is still unfit for human consumption” (Stossel, 2009). Richard Stossel doesn’t just tell us how bad the fast food industry is for us, he gives great suggestions oh how to improve our diets, which makes him seem more trustworthy. When enzymes are not busy digesting our last meal, they travel around the body dissolving tumors, killing bacteria, viruses and germs, absorbing dead tissues and rebuilding new ones along with strengthening the entire system” (Stossel, 2009), while making himself seem credible about what his is writing, he is also appealing to the emotions of some who would like to improve their health. The author goes on to tell us about how many of the foods that we eat are chemically enhanced for flavor, color, texture, and smell. Many of these chemicals are labeled as “natural Flavors” and the food is still sold as organic.

One of the companies that make these chemicals for our food, IFF (International Flavor and Fragrances), also makes many other tastes and smells. Such as toothpastes, mouthwashes, dishwashing detergents, floor waxes, shampoo, soaps, furniture polish, antacids, beer, frostings, said Stossel. The author uses pathos to describe the way the meat packing industry changes the color of the meat, If you have ever bought standard supermarket meats then you have probably noticed that the meat has a bright red “healthy” looking color to it.

Well that meat is not much better than your typical fast food meats. The bright red color is from the same kind of food coloring and chemical wizardry of sight and aroma as those used in the fast food industry to trick your senses into believing the meat is health and tasty. He describes the meat as being bright red and “healthy” looking, when it really is the chemicals that these companies add to the meat that make it look this way. This article, written by Richard Stossel had some very good examples of rhetorical appeal.

The use of statistics and quotations was a good appeal to logos. Thought the author did make a few mistakes in this article, he was very credible and knowledgeable about the topic. Stossel appealed to pathos by using vivid descriptions of the food that we eat, almost seeming to try to disgust the reader. Because of the great use of pathos, logos, and ethos, I myself will not be eating as much fast food as I once did before reading this article. Bibliography Stossel, R. (2009, January 06). Retrieved from Natural News: http://www. NaturalNews. com/025241_food_fast_meat. html

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An Approach to Information Security Management

An Approach to Information Security Management Anene L. Nnolim, Annette L. Steenkamp College of Management Lawrence Technological University Abstract This paper reports on part of a doctoral dissertation research project in information security management. The intent of this research is to attempt to determine how information security management could be enhanced as a structured and repeatable management process, and to develop an appropriate architectural framework and methodology that could enable integration of information security management with enterprise life cycle processes.

Over the years, the focus of information security has evolved from the physical security of computer centers to securing information technology systems and networks, to securing business information systems. The proliferation of computer networks and the advent of the Internet added another dimension to information security. With the Internet, computers can communicate and share information with other computers outside an organization’s networks and beyond their computer center.

This new mode of communication meant that the existing security model was inadequate to meet the threats and challenges inherent in this new technology infrastructure. A new model of information security management is needed to meet the security challenges presented in this new environment. This has motivated the focal area of this research in information security management. Part of meeting this new challenge could also include the resurrection of risk as an important component of information security management. The results of this research would be important to any organization with a need for a secure business environment.

The research results will also be important to individuals responsible for managing information security in their organizations, as well as to senior executives and members of corporate boards of directors, because of their increased statutory responsibilities to secure various types of information in their organizations. From the results of the research so far, the information security management viewpoint calls for a phased approach with iterative process models that include several elements, supporting methods and specific outputs.

The viewpoint should also include an integrated process improvement model, with supporting methodology. Currently, the main doctoral research is in the “demonstration of concept” stage. In this stage, the conceptual model will be validated in terms of the stated research problem. Potential outcomes and value of validation of the research proposition could be an approach to implementing an information security management system. This would include an In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org

Pg 2-2 information security policy framework, a methodology, and a supporting process model that is regarded as essential to managing information security in the enterprise. Key words: Information security management, information security architecture, security policy, security process improvement, information security viewpoint, risk management. Evolution of Computer Security Strategies Before computer security evolved into the many dimensional fields of today, the primary security focus of most organizations was in providing physical security to their assets.

For organizations with early computers, this included securing and protecting data from natural disasters or malicious activities. With the advent of the personal computer, it was inevitable that security objectives would eventually include computer security. Up to the early 1980’s when computers were used simply as business tools to automate business processes, the focus of computer security objective was securing computer centers since most computers were located in computer centers.

The security strategy was mainly accomplished through physical security (Vermeulen and Von Solms, 2002). Up to the early 1990’s as computers began to be used throughout the enterprise, the focus of security objective shifted to securing information technology (IT) systems and computer networks. The security strategy this time was accomplished through software that resided on IT systems (Vermeulen and Von Solms, 2002). From the early 2000’s to the present, computers became components of IT systems that supported information as business assets.

The focus of security objective was on securing business information systems, and this was accomplished through information security management (Vermeulen and Von Solms, 2002). The proliferation of computer networks and the advent of the Internet added another dimension to information security. With the Internet, computers can communicate and share information with other computers outside an organization’s networks and beyond their computer center. This new mode of communication meant that the existing security model was inadequate to meet the threats and challenges inherent in this new technology infrastructure.

A new model of information security management is needed to meet the security challenges presented in this new environment. The objective of the new model would be the protection of business information systems in the enterprise. Securing business information systems also involves some risk. As a result, meeting this new challenge for security management would require that risk management be an important element in information security management. Achieving the objective of this new model requires comprehensive information security management strategies.

Purpose and Scope of the Research The intent of this research is to examine information security management in the enterprise. It will attempt to determine how information security management could be enhanced as a structured and repeatable management process. The research also aims to develop an appropriate architectural framework and methodology that could enable integration of information security management with enterprise life cycle processes. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org Pg 2-3

The results of this research would be important to any organization with a need for a secure business environment. The research results will also be important to individuals responsible for managing information security in their organizations, as well as to senior executives and members of corporate boards of directors, because of their increased statutory responsibilities to secure various types of information in their organizations. This dissertation research project will be limited to examining the information security management viewpoint and related views.

This includes the process and method for architectural descriptions for the information security management viewpoint, in the context of enterprise security domain. A review of other enterprise security viewpoints may be undertaken, to enable the presentation of research findings in the appropriate context. Problem Statement and Research Question The problem statement for this research is a lack of a comprehensive framework, supporting process model, and methodology that can enable the implementation and management of information security.

Related to the problem statement are three research questions. The questions cover important aspects of information security management, i. e. principles, policy framework, integration with enterprise life cycle processes, and its significance to enterprise planning process. The questions are: 1. What are the underlining principles influencing the transition of information security, from a traditional IT environment of managing data and application security, to managing information security as an integrated component of the enterprise business strategy and management process? . How can an enterprise security framework facilitate the effective management of information security? 3. How can information security management become a significant element of the enterprise strategic planning model? Research Proposition This research is based on the following propositions: 1. Enterprise information security can be managed effectively using a frameworkbased approach and supporting methodology. 2. Information security management could be a structured and repeatable management process if a systematic approach is followed to its implementation.

Research Design The research approach followed is mixed methods. The strategy of inquiry is concurrent procedures. Concurrent procedures strategy is defined as situations “… in which In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org Pg 2-4 the researcher converges quantitative and qualitative data in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the research problem” (Creswell, 2003, p. 16). The rationale for selecting mixed methods design is to get a better understanding of the problem identified in this research.

The mixed methods would allow for both text and statistical analyses of data, and would permit more flexibility when designing questions for possible interviews, i. e. both open- and closeended questions (Creswell, 2003, p. 17). The knowledge claim position for this research will be pragmatism. Creswell (2003) noted that some of the characteristics of the pragmatism knowledge claims are problemcentered, consequences of actions, real-world practice oriented, and pluralistic (Creswell, 2003, p. 6).

These seem to fit well within the scope of this research. The proposed methods of investigation for this research are: a) Continue the literature survey and perform a comprehensive analysis of literature on information security management. b) Develop a conceptual model of a solution to the problems of inadequate information security management. c) Demonstrate the conceptual model by means of an appropriate method, such as an example of how to apply the approach to developing an information security system for the organization. ) Conduct in-depth structured interviews with senior executives in different industries, using a set of questions derived from the conceptual model. The interviews would be limited to senior executives responsible for information security management in their organization. This may include interviews with information security professionals. Research Process In the process model used for this research, the various activities, timelines, and expected deliverables are outlined.

The major phases of the research process model are Research Planning (Problem identification, Proposal development), Research (Literature review, Conceptualization of solution), and Research Experiment (Demonstration of concept, Interpretation of findings, Presentation and defense of dissertation) Research Validation Methodology To validate the propositions for this research, it will be necessary to design a demonstration of the concept in the form of an example of how the approach might be implemented within an organization.

Validation of the proposition will be done by means of criteria for evaluating validity, reliability, and generalizability of the approach. The results of the research project will be evaluated in terms of: a) Whether they support or refute the research propositions, b) Whether they provide the basis to confirm or reject the conceptual solution, and c) Applicability of the demonstration-of-concept example to the conceptual solution. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org

Pg 2-5 Summary of Focal Theory The Open Group (2006) defines a viewpoint, also known as a metaview, as: A specification of the conventions for constructing and using a view. A metaview acts as a pattern or template of the view, from which to develop individual views. A metaview establishes the purpose and audience for a view, the ways in which the view is documented (e. g. for visual modeling), and the ways in which it is used (e. g. for analysis) (The Open Group, 2006, Glossary, p. 8). Various security viewpoints in the enterprise make up an enterprise composite security viewpoint.

These are physical security, data security, information security, application security, and infrastructure security viewpoints. Each viewpoint has various additional views. The concept of information security management in the enterprise may be viewed at three main levels, namely strategic, tactical, and operational. These levels correspond to the types of security issues that are of concern to management, including the general nature of expertise required to manage security, at that level (Belsis et al, 2005, p. 93). The distinguishing factors between the domains are strategic (impacts corporate strategy), tactical (regarding the methodologies/practices used to manage security), and operations (installation and operation of security tools and measures) (Belsis et al, 2005, p. 193). In other words, the motivators for security management are that it should be policy-driven (strategic level), guidelines-driven (tactical level), and measures-driven (operational level).

It would seem that majority of information security management activities in the past have been focused at the operational level, and very little attention was given to information security management as a continuum at all three-enterprise levels. Slewe and Hoogenboom (2004) alluded to this when they noted “… for security measures the focus is often on logical and technical measures…” (Slewe and Hoogenboom, 2004, p. 60). It can be inferred, then, that information security management has not reached a maturity level that could make it a repeatable management process.

This has motivated the focal area of this research, namely information security management in the enterprise. Sample Literature Review The literature review for the research was organized into themes. This facilitated the analysis of literature materials. Examples of these themes include architecture framework, governance, risk management, policy, and standards, etc. A sample of the literature review follows. Eloff and Eloff (2003) proposed that organizations use a holistic approach to information security management, and establish an information security management system.

This system would integrate policies, standards, guidelines, code-of-practice, technology, human issues, legal, and ethical issues. This means using a process model approach to manage information security. The authors propose “process security” and “product security” in information security management. In “process security”, the focus would be on planning In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org Pg 2-6 and implementing management practices, procedures, and processes to establish and maintain information security.

In “product security”, the focus would be on the use of certified software products in the IT infrastructure in order to establish and maintain information security (Eloff and Eloff, 2003). Doherty, N. F. , and Fulford, H. (2006) discussed the aligning of information security policy with strategic information systems plan (SISP). It would seem that a broader strategy of aligning information security policy with corporate policy strategy might be better in the long run. The argument in support of aligning information security policy with SISP is that it would provide a framework to ensure that systems are developed with security built-in.

However, if information security policy is aligned with corporate policy, the same systems development objective could still be accomplished. To comply with security regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) organizations are required to secure individual identifiable personal information (HIPAA, sub. F, Sec. 261). The security regulations identifies three safeguard standards that must be met by organizations covered under the Act, namely administrative safeguards, physical safeguards, and technical safeguards.

Geffert (2004) observed that in the process of complying with this Act, organizations could end up with an effective enterprise risk management system (Geffert, 2004, p. 21). On the other hand, Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) does not deal specifically with information security. However, the focus of the act is mostly on corporate governance, i. e. corporate accountability and responsibility of officers of the organization. Botha, J. , and von Solms, R. (2004) presented a theoretical model of business continuity planning methodology that could be generally applied to most businesses, as part of an information security management strategy.

Out of the three information security fundamental principles of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, this study maintains that availability tends to assume greater importance than the other two principles in business continuity planning (Botha & von Solms 2004, p. 329). Their theoretical model is a sevenphase planning methodology, namely project planning, business impact analysis, business continuity strategies, continuity strategies implementation, continuity training, continuity testing, and continuity plan maintenance (Botha & von Solms 2004, p. 31-332). This is similar to that proposed by Heng (1996). However, before most organizations can use this methodology, they would need to first identify their specific organizational properties. These properties become variables in the organization’s business continuity plan. Gerber, M. , and von Solms, R. (2001) attempted to determine the importance of risk analysis in identifying security controls, and whether there are other alternative approaches to risk analysis for accomplishing similar goals (Gerber & von Solms 2001, p. 577).

They identified several factors that influence an organization’s security requirements. These are (a) business requirements for confidentiality, integrity, and integrity, (b) legal, statutory, or regulatory requirements, and (c) risks to the infrastructure. They argue that if the security requirements analysis determines the appropriate security controls, then this alternative analysis is called “security requirements analysis” (Gerber & von Solms 2001, p. 582-583). In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. soneworld. org Pg 2-7 Stakeholder involvement is an important component of information security management. Tsohou, A. , Karyda, M. , and Kokolakis, S. (2006) examined the potential use of cultural theory as a tool for identifying patterns in stakeholders’ perception of risk, and its effect on information system risk management. They maintain that awareness and training are not the only social factors that influence stakeholders’ perception on security threats (Tsohou et al, 2006, p. 198).

The fundamental principle of cultural theory is that the way people socially interact encroaches on the systems of symbols they use to understand the world. The study uses this theory, as a foundation framework, to associate social context with information security risks and security management practices (Tsohou et al, 2006, p. 207). Human factors have always had some impact on information security programs in organizations. Besnard and Arief (2004) used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate some of the human factors in computer security.

For example, a legitimate user may devise work-arounds if the security control measure that has recently been installed cannot provide good usability to the user. In some cases, legitimate users could unknowingly facilitate attacks from outside the organization. Ultimately, end user responsibility is a key component to improving user behavior in information security. International Standards Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 17799 (2000) provides procedures and code of practice for information security management in the enterprise.

It outlines a general framework that provides a common basis for developing enterprise security standards and effective security management practices. Other independent organizations that may be relevant to information security management include British Standards Institution (BS), Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) of the Treadway Commission, and International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Technical Committee 11. Conceptualization of the Solution The research is still in progress, and the dissertation has not been published.

From the results of the research so far, the information security management viewpoint calls for a phased approach with iterative process models that include several elements, supporting methods and specific outputs. The viewpoint should also include an integrated process improvement model, with supporting methodology. Other developments from the research include a meta model with detailed meta primitives, an architecture framework, a security governance structure, and a security management process model.

Demonstration of Concept As the research progresses, part of the demonstration of concept stage will include conducting in-depth structured interviews with senior executives in different industries, using a set of questions derived from the conceptual model. The interviews will be limited to senior executives responsible for information security management in their organizations. This process may also include interviews with information security professionals. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org Pg 2-8

Conclusion The potential outcome and value of validation of the research proposition could be an approach to implement an information security management system. This approach would include an architectural framework and methodology, a security policy framework, and a supporting process model that could enable integration of information security management with enterprise life cycle processes. References Belsis, P. , Kokolakis, S. , & Kiountouzis, E. (2005), Information systems security from a knowledge management perspective, Information Management& Computer Security, Volume 13, Number 3, 189-202.

Besnard, D. , & Arief, B. (2004), Computer security impaired by legitimate users, Computers & Security, Volume 23, 253-264. Botha, J. , & von Solms, R. (2004), A cyclic approach to business continuity planning, Information Management & Computer Security, Volume 12, Number 4, 328-337. Creswell, J. W. (2003), Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd. Edition, Sage Publications, London. Doherty, N. F. , & Fulford, H. (2006), Aligning information security policy with the strategic information systems plan, Computers & Security, Volume 25, 55-63. Heng, G.

M. (1996), Developing a suitable business continuity planning methodology, Information Management & Computer Security, Volume 4, Number 2, 11-13. Eloff, J. , & Eloff, M. (2003), Information security management – a new paradigm, Proceedings of the 2003 annual research conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists on enablement through technology SAICSIT, 130-136. Geffert, B. T. (2004), Incorporating HIPAA security requirements into an enterprise security program, Information Systems Security, November/December, Volume 13, Issue 5, 21-28.

Gerber, M. , & von Solms, R. (2001), From risk analysis to security requirements, Computers & Security, Volume 20, 577-584. ISO/IEC 17799 (2000), Information Technology – Code of Practice for Information Security Management. Sarbanes-Oxley (2002), Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Slewe, T. , & Hoogenboom, M. (2004), Who will rob you on the digital highway? Communications of the ACM, Volume 47, Number 5, May 2004, 56-60. The Open Group (2006), The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), Version 8. 1, Enterprise Edition The Open Group, San Francisco. Tsohou, A. , Karyda, M. Kokolakis, S. , & Kiountouzis, (2006), Formulating information systems risk management strategies through cultural theory, Information Management & Computer Security, Volume 14, Number 3, 198-217. Vermeulen, C. , & Von Solms, R. (2002), The information security management toolbox – taking the pain out of security management, Information Management and Computer Security, Volume 10, Number 3, 119-125. Anene L. Nnolim Anene is a Doctoral Candidate for the degree of Doctor of Management in Information Technology (DMIT) at Lawrence Technological University in Southfield, Michigan.

He holds a bachelor’s degree in business from State University of New York, Buffalo, and an In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org Pg 2-9 MBA from Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, Texas. He has a Human Resources Management Certificate from University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. He is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP). Currently, he is the principal consultant at InfoTSG, Inc. (www. infotsg. com), an IT services consulting company with interests in business process management and information security management.

His professional experience includes several years of management and leadership positions in government, telecommunications, and IT industries in Canada and U. S. He is an Adjunct Professor in business process management at Lawrence Technological University, and On-Line faculty at the University of Phoenix, teaching IT, management, and business courses. Annette Lerine Steenkamp Annette Lerine Steenkamp is Program Director of the Doctoral Program in Management of Information Technology and Professor in Computer and Information Systems in the College of Graduate Management at the Lawrence Technological University, Southfield, Michigan.

She holds a PhD in Computer Science, with specialization in Software Engineering. Dr. Steenkamp’s research interest is in approaches to information technology process improvement, enterprise architecture and knowledge management. Current research is concerned with the application of CMMI in the education sector, redesign of organization processes for mobile technology adoption, knowledge management frameworks, alignment of IT and organization strategies, and systems integration. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, April 11-13, 2007, Las Vegas, NV www. isoneworld. org

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