Essay

Value of Technical Publications in Enterprise Resource Planning (Erp)

[pic] ———————– Position Paper on Value of Technical Publications in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Besides transferring knowledge, technical publications are also used for marketing a product. Before a product is released in the market, information about the product needs to be effectively communicated to the customers. Well-designed, accurately presented, and attractive marketing collaterals increase the market prospects of a product and reduce support costs. ERP software in India was originally treated as support software and used for back office functions.

As companies began to understand the diverse applications of ERP, it was shifted from maintenance of back office functions to the whole of the company. [pic] ¦ Business Proposals ¦ Legal Disclaimers ¦ Policy Manuals ¦ Style Guide Design ¦ Template Design TWB is a leading technical communication outsourcing company that provides services in technical documentation. TWB is the ideal choice for leading vendors of ERP solutions. TWB helps customers with all their technical documentation needs such as user guides, administration guides, installation manuals, process and workflow documentation, configuration documents and training materials.

TWB works closely with client teams located globally, and assists them in meeting their worldwide product announcements and launch deadlines. TWB’s documentation services enable customers launch their products with world-class documentation. An enterprise system is implemented to develop a business or make it more effective. This is a large investment, and with competition increases and lower profit margins, keeping implementation costs low is important. Up to 80% of the total cost for an ERP system is connected to maintenance activities.

A major factor that affects the maintenance of the system, positively or negatively, is the quality of documentation. If the documentation is not satisfying, it needs to be restructured, which leads to a sizeable increase in maintenance effort and total costs. TWB provides documentation with professional quality. Further, ERP systems are standardized systems, which often need modifications to suit the requirements of a specific organization. It is essential for the documentation to be updated accurately and effectively, to reflect the changes made after customization. Economic Business Research ¦ Industry Analysis ¦ Market Opportunity Analysis ¦ Competitive Business Analysis ¦ Company & Prospect Profiling ¦ Reporting Solutions ¦ Assessment of Unmet Market Needs ¦ Status and Potential of Technologies ¦ Benchmarking of Strategies Vs Competition ¦ Forecasting ¦ Sales Force Effectiveness ¦ Market Assessments ¦ Competitive Intelligence ¦ Opinion Leadership ¦ Emerging Markets – evaluation and research TWB – Leading Technical Documentation Outsourcing Company Attractive Publications as Useful Marketing Tools Document Management Solutions ¦ Record Management Storage and Retrieval ¦ Records Management ¦ Software Translation Services ¦ Document Translation Services ¦ Localization (L10N) Testing ¦ Internationalization (I18N) Testing Translation and Localization Services In technical publications, audience is the focal point. Hence, the style, language, and content must vary depending on the type of audience being addressed. It is because every user has a specific role in the implementation and usage of the technology.

Therefore, it is important that documents be created keeping in mind the role of the person who will use the document. For example, when you document a software application designed for highly technical users, it is sufficient to provide the users with quick reference information to use the application. For users who start without technical or product knowledge, it is important to provide detailed product information along with instructions on how to use the product. Deployment and Support The first marked increase in the ERP market was in 2004.

The 14% increase made ERP a USD 23. 6 billion business. “The Indian ERP market experienced CAGR (compounded annual growth rate) of 25. 2 during the period of 2004 – 2009. The market was $83 million in 2004 and is projected to be over $250 million in 2009, according to a research report. ” Growth and Penetration of ERP in India Challenges and Solutions Qualitative Analytics for Decision Support This paper presents the value and need for qualitative Technical Publications in companies providing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solutions.

Technical publications include a wide variety of material such as Process and Workflow Documentation, User Guides, Online Help, White Papers, Classroom Training Materials, Reference Guides, Administration Guides, Standard Operating Procedures, Installation Manuals, Web-based Training Materials, and Product Demos. ERP implementation in an organization results in extensive changes in staff and work practices. These changes necessitate documentation of the updated processes and workflows, along with the creation of user manuals for the software and its modules, training material for employees, and product-specific configuration documents.

Industry analysts predict that every major manufacturing company will purchase and implement the software, with leaders redirecting 50% to 75% of their R&D budgets to e-commerce. Further, the rapid growth and evolution of ERP has led to the development of ERP II, which is intended to help businesses gain a competitive edge. However, despite the rapidly increasing popularity of ERP solutions, the complexity of the implementation of the software makes quality documentation important to both the vendors of ERP solutions and those organizations that purchase them.

The documentation needs to be simple and comprehensible to end users, which necessitates the involvement of Technical Documentation Specialists in the creation of these documents. In this paper we will discuss the importance of technical publications to ERP, to facilitate the growth, implementation and evolution of ERP solutions. “TWB believes that the technology cannot exist without being communicated effectively. ” ¦ Workflows ¦ Standard Operating Procedures ¦ ISO Documentation ¦ CMM Documentation ¦ Installation and Configuration Guides ¦ Operations Manual ¦

Process Documentation ¦ Web 2. 0 development ¦ Web content ¦ Web applications Web site Development ¦ Graphic Designing ¦ Info graphics ¦ 2D & 3D animation ¦ Line drawings and illustrations Illustrations ¦ Single Sourcing ¦ File Version Control ¦ Document Naming Conventions ¦ Consistent Document Formatting ¦ Data Transformation Content Management TWB is India’s leader in technical communication outsourcing and education. TWB offers a complete suite of services that allows our customers to effectively publish their technical knowledge with their people and processes.

TWB’s customers range from Global 500 – including Cisco, Accenture, McAfee, LG, Samsung, Citrix, SAP, Siemens, AOL, Intel; Indian technology majors – including Infosys, Wipro; Global defense majors – Pratt & Whitney, Honeywell, DRDO, HAL; and exciting technology startups. TWB’s expertise in technical communication ranges from IT Products and Outsourcing, ITES, Banking, Financial, Aerospace, Defense, Ship Building to Hi-tech Manufacturing, and Discrete and Process Manufacturing. TWB’s services include: ¦ The Importance of ERP: An ERP system provides support by combining different internal and external organizational functions.

These systems are often customized to meet the specific needs of specific organizations. Documentation in an ERP project serves two functions: first, to specify the changes that have been made to the standard ERP package; and second, to help the users operate the system. Good documentation is clear, easy to read and simple to understand. It helps users operate and maintain systems with ease. Good documentation allows the ERP system itself to be used effectively to enhance the business and its processes. ¦ Value of Technical Publications: Technical Publications are very essential for transferring product knowledge to end users.

Provisioning of proper material to use the technology and products enables the user to accept and efficiently use the product. Faulty assumptions about documentation lead to inaccurate and hard-to-understand material. This also decreases the chances of marketing the products in the global market. ¦ Role of Documentation Outsourcing: The complexity involved in implementing an ERP system requires that vendors and purchasers consider outsourcing their documentation needs to well-established Technical Publications Solutions providers. This helps the company cut costs and at the same time deliver their products with quality documents.

Growth and Penetration of ERP Globally The faulty assumptions listed below result in incomprehensible document: ¦ Developers know their products better than anyone else – due to time constraints and limited resources, many companies assign their documentation tasks to the programmers. This more often results in the creation of technology-centered information, while end users require task-oriented information. [pic] ¦ Documentation of complex applications requires a longer learning curve for the writer – learning the product will not be a major obstacle for writers with the right technical background.

Communication for Different Levels of Technical and Product Knowledge Benefits Business Documentation The purpose of technical communication is to transfer product knowledge to end users in a comprehensible manner. The strategies of communication and levels of information vary depending on the type of product and audience. Providing end users with information about a product’s operation and maintenance is critical to the market performance of the product. Hence, the need for quality documentation is imperative. In today’s business scenario, technical publications are often developed as an afterthought.

This usually results in inaccurate and incomprehensible documentation, which, in turn, renders the users incapable of using the products. Accurate, readily understandable, and quality documents determine how a product sells in the market and result in increased customer satisfaction. Technical Communication for Transferring Product Knowledge Faulty Assumptions that Result in Problems in Documentation The total revenue increased to over USD 28 billion by the end of 2006. It is of note that ERP license revenue increased by 18% in 2006, according to AMR Research Inc. ’s ERP Market Sizing Report 2006-2011. Overall, this is the healthiest the ERP and enterprise applications market has been since the 1990s. ” Jim Shepherd, Vice President, AMR. The ERP license revenue increased markedly in 2007, growing to 19%. The sale of ERP packages remained stable to small, medium, and large businesses alike. “Knowledge is people, money, learning, flexibility and competitive advantage. Knowledge is more relevant to sustained business than capital or labor. And yet knowledge remains the most neglected asset of a business. TWB helps you unlock and share your technical knowledge with the world. ” Short Reports ¦ Proposals ¦ Case Studies ¦ Lab Reports ¦ Memos ¦ Progress/Interim Reports ¦ Writing for Electronic Media Business Communication ¦ Copy Editing and Proof Reading ¦ Managing Writing ¦ Editing Services ¦ Layout and Design ¦ Creating SLAs Documentation Quality Management ¦ Datasheets ¦ Administrator’s Guide ¦ API Document ¦ Configuration Guide ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Installation Manual ¦ Interface Document ¦ Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) ¦ Maintenance Manual ¦ Online Help ¦ Operation Manual ¦ Product Demo ¦ Product Specifications Document Product Overview Document ¦ Quick Reference Guide ¦ Release Notes ¦ Requirement Analysis Document ¦ SDK Document ¦ Troubleshooting Manual ¦ User Manual ¦ Open Source Documentation ¦ Programmers Guides ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Use Cases ¦ Online Help /Context Sensitive Help ¦ Troubleshooting Guides ¦ Technical Product Documentation Technical Marketing Solutions ¦ Datasheets ¦ Cheat sheets ¦ Solution Briefs/Solution Brochures ¦ Presentations – Products/Corporate Profile ¦ Brochures and marketing collateral ¦ Web content ¦ Audio and video scripts ¦ Press releases Direct mail ¦ Newsletter design copy ¦ Sales catalogues ¦ Sales sheets Our technical proficiency in software and authoring tools includes: ¦ SCORM 1. 2 / 2004 ¦ AICC ¦ W3C ¦ Section 508 ¦ QTI XML Standards ¦ Microsoft Visio ¦ iGrafx ¦ EDraw ¦ RFFlow ¦ Flowbreeze ¦ Smart Draw Flowcharting ¦ Sharepoint® ¦ Moodle ¦ Joomla, ¦ WordPress ¦ Media Wiki ¦ CMS Builder ¦ Author-it (formerly AuthorIT) ¦ Alfresco ¦ XMetal® ¦ Microsoft Word 2003®, ¦ Microsoft Word 2007® CMS/ LMS XML ¦ Microsoft Access ¦ Microsoft SQL Server Databases ¦ JavaHelp ¦ Adobe RoboHelp 7. 0 ¦ HelpScribble WebWorks Publisher ¦ PowerCHM ¦ Doc-To-Help ¦ WinCHM ¦ HelpSmith 2. 1. 1(Windows) ¦ Fast-Help ¦ MadCap Flare ¦ Help-Server ¦ NVU Help Online Help ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Flex® ¦ Adobe AIR® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Adobe Acrobat® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Authorware® ¦ Adobe Director® ¦ Adobe Captivate® ¦ Trivantis Lectora® ¦ ASP. NET ¦ JSP ¦ JAVA Multimedia/Authoring/ Supporting tools Graphics/Animation ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Illustrator® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Microsoft FrontPage® Adobe Captivate® Multimedia/Authoring ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® Macromedia Captivate Graphics/Animations ¦ Adobe Flash CS4 Professional ¦ Adobe Illustrator CS3 ¦ CorelDRAW ¦ Microsoft-Expression Graphic Designer ¦ Xara Xtreme (Windows & Linux) ¦ CuteDraw ¦ Publisher3D(for animation) ¦ Sketsa SVG Editor (for vector graphics) ¦ Techsmith Camtasia ¦ Arbortext IsoDraw (technical illustrations for 2D and 3D) Illustrations ¦ XSLT/XSL ¦ EDD Development and Publishing tools ¦ Epic ¦ FrameMaker+SGML ¦ X-Metal® XML Structured Editors ¦ Microsoft Word® Adobe FrameMaker® ¦ Adobe InDesign® ¦ QuarkXPress® ¦ Adobe PageMaker® ¦ Unstructured Content Development TWB services a wide range of technology and knowledge-driven industries, helping them meet their markets better. These include: ¦ Banking, Insurance and Financial Services ¦ Consulting and Business Services ¦ Defense, Aerospace and Hi-Tech Manufacturing ¦ Education and Learning ¦ IT, ITES ¦ ITES/ KPO/ BPO ¦ Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology ¦ Process Manufacturing and Allied Industries ¦ Steel, Ship Building, Construction and Aviation ¦ Telecom and Digital Communications

Some of the greatest documentation challenges that most companies face today include: ¦ Timely availability of quality documents during product release ¦ Cost cutting in a multi-vendor business environment ¦ Managing large volumes of documentation for new products releases For a leading vendor of ERP systems, association with TWB has benefited them immensely in saving costs and producing professional documentation along with services such as: ¦ Transferring complex technical data into easily understandable language ¦ Protecting technical and commercial data of newly developed products ¦ Managing knowledge management and content management olutions, single sourcing, and data migration. TWB has been the preferred technical documentation outsourcing company for: The TWB Building No: 4062, 19th Main Road, HAL 2nd Stage, Bangalore – 560008 India. Landmark: Behind Carlton Towers Telephone: +91. 80. 40741400 / +91. 80. 41256367 Corporate Enquiries: [email protected] in [pic] US Office: TWB 11701 Norwegian Wood Drive Austin, TX 78758 Telephone: +1. 512. 586. 8357 ———————– The Writers Blockwww. twb. in1 The Writers Blockwww. twb. in1 TWB Position Paper on Value of Technical Publication in Indian Aerospace and Defense Industry2

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Reducing Juvenile Delinquency

Reducing Juvenile Delinquency ABSTRACT There are many different parts of the Criminal Justice system. This paper will bring about the argument of how we can reduce Juvenile Delinquency in the United States. When a child is born he has no way of knowing he will become a bad element of society. There are many reasons that a child can turn to the bad elements of crime. We must ask ourselves, “why does this happen”? What can we as adults do to help the children of America stay on the right track?

The bible states that a child is accountable for his own actions beginning at the age of 12 but what can we do as parents before that age to ensure that our children grow up and be a successful part of the communities which they live in? We can no longer afford to leave it to the teachers or the principle or even the church to change our children, we must be the one to turn our children around so that they can have the future that you have nurtured them for. Reducing Juvenile Delinquency

The topic that I chose to write about is Criminal Justice and reducing juvenile delinquency. In every city in the United States there is an epidemic of juvenile delinquency. The problem is everywhere and it leaves most Americans to wonder what will happen to this generation of young kids that have developed their own system of justice called, “street justice”. There are many reasons that a child turns to the streets as a way of life and we must ask the question, why? What went wrong in this child’s life that made him take that path in life?

When a child is first born into this world, the parents have many hopes and dreams for him. The first thing we think about is what profession the child will be a part of. Will he be a doctor, lawyer, brain surgeon, etc? We have big dreams for our children and we do the best that we can to nurture them to be all that they can be. We learn from the bible that we are accountable for our children’s actions and behavior until the age of 12 yrs old. After that, the child is held accountable to God for their sins.

Many households across the United States have teenagers that for the most have done everything right in their young lives. There are also those teenagers that have chose to do everything wrong, totally forgetting everything they were taught as a young child. These teenagers want to make their own set of rules to live by which always ends up bad for them. What is it that makes a young child turn into a “juvenile delinquent”? Whenever we ask this question, most people will look at the parents for that answer.

It’s so easy to put the blame on the parents for working too much, not being there when the children are out of school either because they have to work two jobs or they have other activities that occupy them other than the children at home. It is very easy for a child to get caught up in the life of juvenile delinquency if there is no boundaries set forth by the parents. Some parents are afraid to set boundaries for fear the child will not like them, or they prefer to be a friend to their child instead of a parent. There is no way that a parent can be both.

When the child faces puberty there is mixed emotions that come with it. They want to be accepted and most times that comes at a price. There are many teenagers that are introduced to crime such as shoplifting, fighting, and skipping school to go and hang out at the mall. This almost always leads to becoming a juvenile delinquent. Once these things are introduced to them at a young age, they feel that it’s a part of who they are and it makes them cool, this is how they become juvenile delinquents. The juvenile justice system is filled with young offenders as young as 12-13 all the way up to 16-17.

We look to blame the parents for the behavior of the child but that is not always the case. I know many families that have both mother and father in the home and have a good home life for the kids and still there is one child in the home that will make the decision to let the streets dictate what they will and will not do with their lives. The laws for juveniles are very vague which gives these teenagers the idea that they will just get a slap on the wrist each time they get into trouble so they continue to break the law.

There must be more options for these kids other than just incarceration or boot camps. These facilities should be utilized for the more dangerous offenders that commit the more violent crimes. Juveniles that are arrested for shoplifting or fighting need to have more counseling offered to them. Parents can try and reach out to these kids but I see it all too often that it takes more than one parent talking to the child, it takes the entire community to step up and help the parents to turn these kids around. I truly believe that anyone can change if they want it bad enough and a lot of these ids are crying out for attention but they feel getting into trouble is the only way they will be heard. When I was a young child our neighbors always kept an eye out for us if mom was at work and we were left with an older sibling. A lot has changed since then and neighbors no longer want to get involved with other people’s children. I think that is a sad state of affairs in our society. As a society if everyone would stop being so self-centered in their own lives, then our children would follow by our example and I truly believe they would change their lives for the better.

There are many children out there that have awesome potential to be whatever they ewant to be besides being a juvenile delinquent. The jails are overcrowded with adults and now the teenagers are becoming more like the adult offenders because they don’t have the right direction. It’s not too late to get it right, our kids are our future. We must do more to invest more in them so that they can know without a doubt that they are loved. Once they feel that, they won’t be so eager to turn to the streets for love and identity.

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Value of Technical Publication in the Business Intelligence Industry

TWB is India’s leader in technical communication outsourcing and education. TWB offers a complete suite of services that allows our customers to effectively publish their technical knowledge with their people and processes. TWB’s customers range from Global 500 – including Cisco, Accenture, McAfee, LG, Samsung, Citrix, SAP, Siemens, AOL, Intel; Indian technology majors – including Infosys, Wipro; Global defense majors – Pratt & Whitney, Honeywell, DRDO, HAL; and exciting technology startups.

TWB’s expertise in technical communication ranges from IT Products and Outsourcing, ITES, Banking, Financial, Aerospace, Defense, Ship Building to Hi-tech Manufacturing, and Discrete and Process Manufacturing. TWB’s services include: Our technical proficiency in software and authoring tools includes: TWB services a wide range of technology and knowledge driven industries, helping them meet their markets better, these include: TWB has been the preferred technical documentation outsourcing company for: [pic] ———————–

Position Paper on Value of Technical Publication in the Business Intelligence Industry US Office: TWB 11701 Norwegian Wood Drive Austin, TX 78758 Some of the greatest documentation challenges most companies in the industry face today include: ¦ Timely availability of quality documents during product release ¦ Accurate, readily understandable documentation ¦ Documentation for global audience ¦ Cost cutting in a multi-vendor business environment ¦ Managing large volumes of documentation for new product releases Price Competitive Growth in the BI Industry: Growth of BI vendor relies heavily on the accurate, timely, and cost-effective documentation process. The BI vendors portray a global presence and need technical publications that can be used in different geographies. Marketing BI products require supportive business collaterals and product documentation for global audience. ¦ Value of Technical Publications: Technical Publications are very essential for transferring product knowledge to the end users.

Provisioning of proper material to use the technology and products enables the user to accept and efficiently use the product. Faulty assumptions about documentation lead to inaccurate and hard-to-understand material. This also decreases the chances of marketing the products in the global markets. ¦ Role of Documentation Outsourcing: The complexity involved in implementing BI applications requires that BI vendors consider outsourcing the documentation needs to well-established Technical Publications Solutions providers.

This helps the companies cut costs and at the same time deliver their products with quality documents. ¦ Gartner predicts: “Because of lack of information, processes, and tools, through 2012, more than 35 percent of the top 5,000 global companies will regularly fail to make insightful decisions about significant changes in their business and markets. ” “By 2012, business units will control at least 40 per cent of the total budget for business intelligence. ” “By 2012, one-third of analytic applications applied to business processes will be delivered through coarse-grained application mashups. ¦ SCORM 1. 2 / 2004 ¦ AICC ¦ W3C ¦ Section 508 ¦ QTI XML “Knowledge is people, money, learning, flexibility and competitive advantage. Knowledge is more relevant to sustained business than capital or labor. And yet knowledge remains the most neglected asset of a business. TWB helps you unlock and share your technical knowledge with the world. ” ¦ Besides transferring knowledge, technical publications are also used for marketing a product. Before a product is released in the market, information about the product needs to be effectively communicated to the customers.

Well-designed, accurately presented, and attractive marketing collaterals increase the market prospects of a product and reduce support costs. Standards ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Flex® ¦ Adobe AIR® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Adobe Acrobat® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Authorware® ¦ Adobe Director® ¦ Adobe Captivate® ¦ Trivantis Lectora® ¦ ASP. NET ¦ JSP ¦ JAVA Multimedia/Authoring/ Supporting tools Attractive Publications as Useful Marketing Tools ¦ ITES/ KPO/ BPO ¦ Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology ¦ Process Manufacturing and Allied Industries ¦ Steel, Ship Building, Construction and Aviation Telecom and Digital Communications ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Microsoft FrontPage® ¦ Adobe Captivate® Multimedia/Authoring A leading BI vendor has drawn the following benefits through its association with TWB: ¦ Significant dollar savings ¦ High-quality, error-free documentation ¦ Maximized usability of documentation ¦ Quick product release ¦ XSLT/XSL ¦ EDD Development and Publishing tools This spending will further increase as the Indian Defence Industry is determined to increase tOnline Help tion of private investors. Presently more than 5,000 Indian companies are suGraphics/Animation f components and subassemblies to state-owned companies. The government has set a 70 per cent target for procuring its defence requirements from indigenous sources by 2010. For achieving this target the government is mainly relying on private players. Some of the key civil industry players supplying Defence equipment and services include Tata Group, Mahindra & Mahindra, Kirloskar Bros. , Larsen & Toubro, Ashok Leyland, Jindal, Max Aerospace & Aviation and Ramoss India. ¦ Sharepoint® ¦ Moodle ¦ Joomla, ¦ WordPress ¦ Media Wiki ¦ CMS Builder ¦ Author-it (formerly AuthorIT) Alfresco To address these challenges, TWB, with its long-standing, impeccable record in handling Technical Publication, provides the following solutions: ¦ Cost-effective knowledge documentation and knowledge management ¦ Documentation in simple, plain, readily understandable English ¦ Simplified, multi-staged documentation and review processes ¦ Goal-driven approach to ensure quality and accuracy ¦ Single point of contact for all documentation needs Challenges and Solutions Telephone: +91. 80. 40741400 / +91. 80. 41256367 Corporate Enquiries: [email protected] in

TWB is a leading technical communication outsourcing company that provides services in technical documentation. TWB is the ideal choice for leading BI vendors. TWB helps customers with all their technical documentation needs such as user guides, administration guides, installation manuals, process and workflow documentation, configuration documents and training materials. TWB works closely with client teams located globally, and assists them in meeting their worldwide product announcements and launch deadlines. TWB’s documentation services enable customers launch their products with world-class documentation.

TWB – Leading Technical Documentation Outsourcing Company In technical publications, audience is the focal point. Hence, the style, language, and content must vary depending on the type of audience being addressed. It is because every user has a specific role in the implementation and usage of the technology. Therefore, it is important that documents be created keeping in mind the role of the person who will use the document. For example, when you document a software application designed for highly technical users, it is sufficient to provide the users with quick reference information to use the application.

For users who start without technical or product knowledge, it is important to provide detailed product information along with instructions on how to use the product. Communication for Different Levels of Technical and Product Knowledge ¦ The faulty assumptions listed below result in incomprehensible documents: ¦ Developers know their products better than anyone else – due to time constraints and limited resources, many companies assign their documentation tasks to the programmers. This more often results in the creation of technology-centered information, while end users require task-oriented information. [pic] Documentation of complex applications requires a longer learning curve for the writer – learning the product will not be a major obstacle for writers with the right technical background. Telephone: +1. 512. 586. 8357 Benefits Faulty Assumptions that Result in Problems in Documentation The purpose of technical communication is to transfer product knowledge to end users in a comprehensible manner. The strategies of communication and levels of information vary depending on the type of product and audience. Providing end users with information about a product’s operation and maintenance is critical to the market performance of the product.

Hence, the need for quality documentation is imperative. In today’s business scenario, technical publications are often developed as an afterthought. This usually results in inaccurate and incomprehensible documentation, which, in turn, renders the users incapable of using the products. Accurate, readily understandable, and quality documents determine how a product sells in the market and result in increased customer satisfaction. ¦ XMetal® ¦ Microsoft Word 2003®, ¦ Microsoft Word 2007® Technical Communication for Transferring Product Knowledge The TWB Building

No: 4062, 19th Main Road, HAL 2nd Stage, Bangalore – 560008 India. Landmark: Behind Carlton Towers [pic] CMS/ LMS XML ¦ JavaHelp ¦ Adobe RoboHelp 7. 0 ¦ HelpScribble ¦ WebWorks Publisher ¦ PowerCHM ¦ Doc-To-Help ¦ WinCHM ¦ HelpSmith 2. 1. 1(Windows) ¦ Fast-Help ¦ MadCap Flare ¦ Help-Server ¦ NVU Help Business Communication Online Help ¦ Datasheets Administrator’s GuideSoftwaSingle SourcSCopy Editing Datasheets Cheat sheets Solution Briefs/Solution Brochures Presentations – Products/Corporate Profile Brochures and marketing collateral Web content Audio and video scripts

Press releases Direct mail Newsletter design copy Sales catalogues Sales sheets ct Specifications Document Product Overview Document Quick Reference Guide Release Notes Requirement Analysis Document SDK Document Troubleshooting Manual User Manual Open Source Documentation Programmers Guides Functional Specifications Document Use Cases Online Help /Context Sensitive Help Troubleshooting Guides and Proof Reading Managing Writing Editing Services Layout and Design Creating SLAs onic Media ic Tech Services ¦ l (IETM) ¦ Maintenance Manual ¦ Online Help ¦ Operation Manual ¦ Product Demo Product Specifications Document ¦ Product Overview Document ¦ Quick Reference Guide ¦ Release Notes ¦ Requirement Analysis Document ¦ SDK Document ¦ Troubleshooting Manual User ManualDocument Management Solutions Record Management Storage and Retrieval ¦ Document ¦ Use Cases ¦ Online Help /Context Sensitive Help ¦ Troubleshooting Guides ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® Macromedia Captivate Graphics/Animations ¦ Epic ¦ FrameMaker+SGML ¦ X-Metal® XML Structured Editors ¦ Microsoft Visio ¦ iGrafx ¦ EDraw ¦ RFFlow ¦ Flowbreeze ¦ Smart Draw Flowcharting ¦ Microsoft Access Microsoft SQL Server Databases Graphics/Animation ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Illustrator® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Flash CS4 Professional ¦ Adobe Illustrator CS3 ¦ CorelDRAW ¦ Microsoft-Expression Graphic Designer ¦ Xara Xtreme (Windows & Linux) ¦ CuteDraw ¦ Publisher3D(for animation) ¦ Sketsa SVG Editor (for vector graphics) ¦ Techsmith Camtasia ¦ Adobe Flash CS4 Professional ¦ Arbortext IsoDraw (technical illustrations for 2D and 3D) Illustrations ¦ Microsoft Word® ¦ Adobe FrameMaker® ¦ Adobe InDesign® ¦ QuarkXPress® ¦ Adobe PageMaker® ¦

BI industry is one of the versatile industries catering to almost all business sectors such as healthcare, financials, retails, IT, etc. BI tools range from query reporting and analysis and data mining to data warehousing. Interestingly, today, 80% of an organization uses BI tools. [pic] According to Gartner, Inc. , in 2008, despite the economic downturn, the global BI witnessed a significant growth of 21. 7% in the sales of BI applications and performance management software. The market value increased from $7. 2 billion in 2007 to $8. 8 billion in 2008. BI market is expected to be $15 billion annually by 2010.

This expected market scenario will pave way for increased number of BI software and applications, bringing about a fierce competition among BI vendors. Effective, accurate, and readily-understandable documentation of the BI tools will determine the market performance of BI vendors. Unstructured Content Development ¦ Business Proposals ¦ Legal Disclaimers ¦ Policy Manuals ¦ Style Guide Design ¦ Template Design ¦ Document Management Solutions ¦ Record Management Storage and Retrieval ¦ Software Translation Services ¦ Document Translation Services ¦ Localization (L10N) Testing ¦ Internationalization (I18N) Testing

Translation and Localization Services ¦ Web 2. 0 development ¦ Web content ¦ Web applications Web site Development ¦ Single Sourcing ¦ File Version Control ¦ Document Naming Conventions ¦ Consistent Document Formatting ¦ Data Transformation Content Management Business Documentation ¦ Copy Editing and Proof Reading ¦ Managing Writing ¦ Editing Services ¦ Layout and Design ¦ Creating SLAs Documentation Quality Management ¦ Economic Business Research ¦ Industry Analysis ¦ Market Opportunity Analysis ¦ Competitive Business Analysis ¦ Company & Prospect Profiling ¦ Reporting Solutions ¦ Assessment of Unmet Market Needs Status and Potential of Technologies ¦ Benchmarking of Strategies Vs Competition ¦ Forecasting ¦ Sales Force Effectiveness ¦ Market Assessments ¦ Competitive Intelligence ¦ Opinion Leadership ¦ Emerging Markets – evaluation and research Qualitative Analytics for Decision Support ¦ Datasheets ¦ Administrator’s Guide ¦ API Document ¦ Configuration Guide ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Installation Manual ¦ Interface Document ¦ Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) ¦ Maintenance Manual ¦ Online Help ¦ Operation Manual ¦ Product Demo ¦ Product Specifications Document ¦ Product Overview Document Quick Reference Guide ¦ Release Notes ¦ Requirement Analysis Document ¦ SDK Document ¦ Troubleshooting Manual ¦ User Manual ¦ Open Source Documentation ¦ Programmers Guides ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Use Cases ¦ Online Help /Context Sensitive Help ¦ Troubleshooting Guides ¦ Technical Product Documentation Deployment and Support ¦ Workflows ¦ Standard Operating Procedures ¦ ISO Documentation ¦ CMM Documentation ¦ Installation and Configuration Guides ¦ Operations Manual Process Documentation ¦ Graphic Designing ¦ Info graphics ¦ 2D & 3D animation ¦ Line drawings and illustrations

Illustrations ¦ Short Reports ¦ Proposals ¦ Case Studies ¦ Lab Reports ¦ Memos ¦ Progress/Interim Reports ¦ Writing for Electronic Media Business Communication ¦ Banking, Insurance and Financial Services ¦ Consulting and Business Services ¦ Defense, Aerospace and Hi-Tech Manufacturing ¦ Education and Learning ¦ IT, ITES “TWB believes that the technology cannot exist without being communicated effectively. ” This paper presents the value and need for quality Technical Publications in the growing Business Intelligence (BI) industry, to market BI products with a higher value proposition.

Technical publications created in BI industry include a wide variety of materials such as user guides, white papers, datasheets, cheat sheets, reference guides, installation manuals, and product demos. These materials transfer information on processes and procedures involved in using the latest BI applications and tools. In today’s business scenario, there is an increased need for quick and decentralized decision-making, and automation of business processes to reduce costs and risks. With a plethora of BI tools available today, the company that uses most effective and integrated BI tools will outdo its competitors in the market.

It does not stop there. Accurate and readily understandable documentation of such applications is critical to the effective and faster use of the products. Almost all businesses, be it small or large; depend heavily on BI for their business success. Many BI vendors, both industry leaders and new entrants, compete with one another to bring new BI tools and applications to market. These products require effective documentation process in place for quick release and for successful market performance. Hence, outsourcing the documentation needs will help these vendors in reducing resource overhead and cost.

Technical Marketing Solutions ¦ Datasheets ¦ Cheat sheets ¦ Solution Briefs/Solution Brochures ¦ Presentations – Products/Corporate Profile ¦ Brochures and marketing collateral ¦ Web content ¦ Audio and video scripts ¦ Press releases ¦ Direct mail ¦ Newsletter design copy ¦ Sales catalogues ¦ Sales sheets Technical Publication for transferring Product knowledge ra ———————– The Writers Blockwww. twb. in3 The Writers Blockwww. twb. in7 TWB Position Paper on Value of Technical Publication in Indian Aerospace and Defense Industry2

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Value of Technical Publications in Automotive Engineering Industry

[pic] ———————– Position Paper on Value of Technical Publications in Automotive Engineering Industry Providing useful and accurate documents is critical to ensure that the user can easily find the required information. If the end users cannot find the answers to their problems, they assume that the documentation is useless. To be useful, the documentation must be clear, concise, and well designed. The documentation that is accurate and complete also needs to be well designed. Accurate and easy-to-understand technical documentation is the only way to provide information to the end user, and it is also cost-effective.

India is the 9th largest automobile industry in the world, with a production of 2. 3 million units in 2008 alone. In 2009, India became Asia’s 4th largest exporter of cars. Automobile companies like Nissan, Volkswagen, Toyota and Hyundai have expanded manufacturing facilities to India. Nissan and Hyundai predict an export of over 250,000 vehicles by 2011. [pic] ¦ Business Proposals ¦ Legal Disclaimers ¦ Policy Manuals ¦ Style Guide Design ¦ Template Design Telephone: +91. 80. 40741400 / +91. 80. 41256367 Corporate Enquiries: [email protected] in

TWB is a leading technical publisher with an excellent record of providing unmatched technical documentation to many major companies. TWB is the ideal choice for leading manufacturers in the automotive industry. TWB helps customers with all their technical documentation needs such as design documents, analytical reports, handbooks, technical specification documents, technical reports and training materials. TWB works closely with client teams located globally, and assists them in meeting their worldwide product announcements and launch deadlines.

TWB works round-the-clock with client teams and help them with quick responses that facilitate timely distribution of documents around the globe. Rapid technological advances in the automotive industry have resulted in complex and diverse technical products. The task of creating documentation for such a wide range of products may seem complex and daunting, since documentation has to be revised or updated to keep pace with advancements. Quality documentation is easy to update and maintain, reducing the cost involved despite the massive amounts of documentation required by the industry.

Differences in the functionality and quality of technical products are slowly reducing. However the complexity of these products is increasing correspondingly. As product complexity increases, the quality of the documentation is often the deciding factor in customer decision making. TWB provides documentation with professional quality. Product liability regulations, like the EU product liability directive, have impacted technical documentation enormously. Today, the demand for experts in technical documentation is high to guarantee quality document creation, thus avoiding legal ramifications. Economic Business Research ¦ Industry Analysis ¦ Market Opportunity Analysis ¦ Competitive Business Analysis ¦ Company & Prospect Profiling ¦ Reporting Solutions ¦ Assessment of Unmet Market Needs ¦ Status and Potential of Technologies ¦ Benchmarking of Strategies Vs Competition ¦ Forecasting ¦ Sales Force Effectiveness ¦ Market Assessments ¦ Competitive Intelligence ¦ Opinion Leadership ¦ Emerging Markets – evaluation and research TWB – Leading Technical Documentation Outsourcing Company Telephone: +1. 512. 586. 8357 Attractive Publications as Useful Marketing Tool Document Management Solutions ¦ Record Management Storage and Retrieval ¦ US Office: TWB 11701 Norwegian Wood Drive Austin, TX 78758 Records Management ¦ Software Translation Services ¦ Document Translation Services ¦ Localization (L10N) Testing ¦ Internationalization (I18N) Testing Translation and Localization Services In the automotive industry, it is necessary to create several different types of documentation for different purposes: design documents, technical reports, specification documents, user manuals and training material and so on.

Each of these documents addresses a different audience, each of whom has a specific role in the automotive industry. It is important that documents be created keeping in mind the role of the person who will use the documentation. For example, a technical analyst, who is accustomed to reviewing satellite images on a workstation, needs to learn how to use the system and software to magnify the image, but not how to analyze the image. For users who start without technical or product knowledge, you need to provide instructions to use the product as well as information they need to look for as a result of using the product.

This presents a more difficult problem. Different needs of the end users and the gap between their technical and product knowledge determines the amount of information that goes into technical publications. Deployment and Support The recent economic crisis has created momentum for a massive structural change in the auto industry, preparing the industry for growth for the next decade. “The automotive industry in India grew at a compounded annual growth rate of 11. 5% over the past five years. ” – The Economic Survey, 2008 – 2009.

Growth of the automotive industry in India Challenges and Solutions Qualitative Analytics for Decision Support This paper presents the value of and need for quality Technical Publications in the Automotive Engineering industry. Technical publications include a wide variety of material such as design documents, analytical reports, handbooks, technical specification documents, user manuals, requirement documents, technical reports, white papers, online help files, classroom and web based training material, policy manuals, lab reports, and case studies.

Modern automotive engineering is a complex process, integrating elements of mechanical, electrical and electronic, software and safety engineering. The key concept behind the integration of multiple processes is to automate vehicle manufacture and increase efficiency. This has led to rapid innovation in the development of automotive systems. Today, customers are offered highly customized products at low prices. This is achieved by configuring individual vehicles from a large number of options. This necessitates the creation of highly accurate and specific product documentation.

Further, the rapid technological progress in the automotive industry has led to increased complexity in technical products. Owner and user manuals have increased by over 100% in volume in the last decade. This has proven to be a challenge, since globalization has necessitated an increase in the number of languages into which a technical document is translated. With each additional language translation, costs increase, directly proportional to the size and complexity of the documentation. This makes the creation of simple, easily comprehensible documentation essential to the automotive industry.

This, in turn, necessitates the involvement of Technical Documentation Specialists in the creation of these documents. In this paper we will discuss the importance of technical publications to the automotive industry, to facilitate the growth, and development of the industry. “TWB believes that technology cannot exist without being communicated effectively. ” ¦ Workflows ¦ Standard Operating Procedures ¦ ISO Documentation ¦ CMM Documentation ¦ Installation and Configuration Guides ¦ Operations Manual ¦ Process Documentation ¦ Web 2. development ¦ Web content ¦ Web applications Web site Development ¦ Graphic Designing ¦ Info graphics ¦ 2D & 3D animation ¦ Line drawings and illustrations Illustrations ¦ Single Sourcing ¦ File Version Control ¦ Document Naming Conventions ¦ Consistent Document Formatting ¦ Data Transformation Content Management TWB is India’s leader in technical communication outsourcing and education. TWB offers a complete suite of services that allow our customers to effectively publish their technical knowledge with their people and processes.

TWB’s customers range from Global 500 – including Cisco, Accenture, McAfee, LG, Samsung, Citrix, SAP, Siemens, AOL, Intel; Indian technology majors – including Infosys, Wipro; Global defense majors – Pratt & Whitney, Honeywell, DRDO, HAL; and exciting technology startups. TWB’s expertise in technical communication ranges from IT Products and Outsourcing, ITES, Banking, Financial, Aerospace, Defense, Ship Building to Hi-tech Manufacturing, and Discrete and Process Manufacturing. TWB’s services include: The Importance of the Automotive Industry: The automotive industry is among the few that have shown steady growth during the last few years, particularly with the troubled economy. The automotive industry is important not just for its direct effects, but for its indirect effects as well. The industry has a large, complex supply chain, which draws from both specialized component suppliers and material suppliers. The automotive industry is one of the largest consumers of products of the aluminum, rubber, glass, plastics and steel industries.

For many industries, the automotive industry is a leading consumer, whose requirements provide an impetus to innovations that benefit other sectors. ¦ Value of Technical Publications: Technical Publications are very essential for transferring product knowledge to the end users. Providing proper material to use technology and products enables the user to accept and efficiently use the product. Frequently, the quality of documentation is a factor which directly contributes to a customer’s decision to purchase or reject a product.

Faulty assumptions about documentation lead to inaccurate and hard-to-understand material which discourages end users from the product itself. This also decreases the changes of marketing the products in the global markets. ¦ Role of Documentation Outsourcing: The complexity involved in automotive engineering, arising from the integration of electric, electronic, manufacturing, software, and hardware systems requires that vendors and purchasers look at outsourcing their documentation needs to well-established Technical Publications Solutions providers.

This helps the company cut costs and at the same time deliver their products with quality documents. Growth of the automotive industry Globally These faulty assumptions result in incomprehensible documents: ¦ The developers know the product better than anyone else: With time constraints and limited resources, many companies are tempted to let the programmers do the documentation. The engineers and developers know the product very well. However, the developer is likely to provide technology-centered information; where as the end user requires task-centered information. pic] ¦ The application is complicated; having a writer learn about it will take too long: Learning the product should not be a major obstacle for the writers with the right technical background. Publications for Different Levels of Technical and Product Knowledge Benefits Business Documentation The purpose of technical publications is to transfer product knowledge to the end user, in a comprehensible format. The strategies of communication and levels of information vary depending on the type of product.

When delivering a product, whether a hardware product or a software application, it is equally important to give the users information about the product’s operation and maintenance. In the real world scenario, technical publications are often developed as an afterthought. This usually results in inaccurate and hard-to-understand material. As a result, the users dislike these materials and avoid using them. Inaccurate and hard-to-understand material also results in the user’s inability to understand and implement high-end technologies. The users might reject the product.

Technical Publication for Transferring Product Knowledge Faulty Assumptions that Result in Problems in Documentation “Mark Oline, a Fitch Ratings Analyst predicted that sales will rise to 11. 1 million cars and trucks next year, a 7. 8 percent increase over the 10. 3 million he expects for 2009. ” China’s automobile market showed massive growth in 2010, with output and sales for January continuing from the growth in December 2009, to reach 1. 6148 million and 1. 6642 million units respectively. Autofacts forecasts a 10% improvement in sales in the North America, predicting sales of 13. million units with an assembly forecast of 10. 4 million units. In South America, the vehicle sales reached 3 million units in 2009, a record-breaking 12. 7% increase over sales in the 2008. This growth is expected to continue, both in sales and assembly. “Knowledge is people, money, learning, flexibility and competitive advantage. Knowledge is more relevant to sustained business than capital or labor. And yet knowledge remains the most neglected asset of a business. TWB helps you unlock and share your technical knowledge with the world. ” ¦ Short Reports ¦ Proposals ¦ Case Studies Lab Reports ¦ Memos ¦ Progress/Interim Reports ¦ Writing for Electronic Media Business Communication ¦ Copy Editing and Proof Reading ¦ Managing Writing ¦ Editing Services ¦ Layout and Design ¦ Creating SLAs Documentation Quality Management ¦ Datasheets ¦ Administrator’s Guide ¦ API Document ¦ Configuration Guide ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Installation Manual ¦ Interface Document ¦ Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) ¦ Maintenance Manual ¦ Online Help ¦ Operation Manual ¦ Product Demo ¦ Product Specifications Document ¦ Product Overview Document ¦ Quick Reference Guide Release Notes ¦ Requirement Analysis Document ¦ SDK Document ¦ Troubleshooting Manual ¦ User Manual ¦ Open Source Documentation ¦ Programmers Guides ¦ Functional Specifications Document ¦ Use Cases ¦ Online Help /Context Sensitive Help ¦ Troubleshooting Guides ¦ Technical Product Documentation Technical Marketing Solutions ¦ Datasheets ¦ Cheat sheets ¦ Solution Briefs/Solution Brochures ¦ Presentations – Products/Corporate Profile ¦ Brochures and marketing collateral ¦ Web content ¦ Audio and video scripts ¦ Press releases ¦ Direct mail ¦ Newsletter design copy ¦ Sales catalogues ¦ Sales sheets

Our technical proficiency in software and authoring tools includes: ¦ SCORM 1. 2 / 2004 ¦ AICC ¦ W3C ¦ Section 508 ¦ QTI XML Standards ¦ Microsoft Visio ¦ iGrafx ¦ EDraw ¦ RFFlow ¦ Flowbreeze ¦ Smart Draw Flowcharting ¦ Sharepoint® ¦ Moodle ¦ Joomla, ¦ WordPress ¦ Media Wiki ¦ CMS Builder ¦ Author-it (formerly AuthorIT) ¦ Alfresco ¦ XMetal® ¦ Microsoft Word 2003®, ¦ Microsoft Word 2007® CMS/ LMS XML ¦ Microsoft Access ¦ Microsoft SQL Server Databases ¦ JavaHelp ¦ Adobe RoboHelp 7. 0 ¦ HelpScribble ¦ WebWorks Publisher ¦ PowerCHM ¦ Doc-To-Help ¦ WinCHM ¦ HelpSmith 2. 1. 1(Windows) ¦ Fast-Help MadCap Flare ¦ Help-Server ¦ NVU Help Online Help ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Flex® ¦ Adobe AIR® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Adobe Acrobat® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Authorware® ¦ Adobe Director® ¦ Adobe Captivate® ¦ Trivantis Lectora® ¦ ASP. NET ¦ JSP ¦ JAVA Multimedia/Authoring/ Supporting tools Graphics/Animation ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Illustrator® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® ¦ Microsoft Silverlight® ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Dreamweaver® ¦ Microsoft FrontPage® ¦ Adobe Captivate® Multimedia/Authoring ¦ Adobe Flash® ¦ Adobe Photoshop® ¦ Adobe Fireworks® Macromedia Captivate Graphics/Animations Adobe Flash CS4 Professional ¦ Adobe Illustrator CS3 ¦ CorelDRAW ¦ Microsoft-Expression Graphic Designer ¦ Xara Xtreme (Windows & Linux) ¦ CuteDraw ¦ Publisher3D(for animation) ¦ Sketsa SVG Editor (for vector graphics) ¦ Techsmith Camtasia ¦ Adobe Flash CS4 Professional ¦ Arbortext IsoDraw (technical illustrations for 2D and 3D) Illustrations ¦ XSLT/XSL ¦ EDD Development and Publishing tools ¦ Epic ¦ FrameMaker+SGML ¦ X-Metal® XML Structured Editors ¦ Microsoft Word® ¦ Adobe FrameMaker® ¦ Adobe InDesign® ¦ QuarkXPress® ¦ Adobe PageMaker® ¦ Unstructured Content Development

TWB services a wide range of technology and knowledge driven industries, helping them meet their markets better, these include: ¦ Banking, Insurance and Financial Services ¦ Consulting and Business Services ¦ Defense, Aerospace and Hi-Tech Manufacturing ¦ Education and Learning ¦ IT, ITES ¦ ITES/ KPO/ BPO ¦ Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology ¦ Process Manufacturing and Allied Industries ¦ Steel, Ship Building, Construction and Aviation ¦ Telecom and Digital Communications Some of the greatest documentation challenges that most companies in the automotive industry face today include: ¦ Increased complexity and diversity of products Increased competition with regard to documentation quality and efficiency ¦ Stricter product liability regulations, placing more importance on completeness and comprehensibility of documentation. For a leading vendor in the automotive industry, association with TWB has benefited them immensely in saving costs and producing professional documentation along with services such as: ¦ Transferring complex technical data into easily understandable language ¦ Protecting technical and commercial data of newly developed products ¦ Creating, editing, reviewing, and maintaining content Preparing training material, online Help, graphics and illustrations TWB has been the preferred technical documentation outsourcing company for: The TWB Building No: 4062, 19th Main Road, HAL 2nd Stage, Bangalore – 560008 India. Landmark: Behind Carlton Towers [pic] ———————– The Writers Blockwww. twb. in7 The Writers Blockwww. twb. in6 TWB Position Paper on Value of Technical Publication in Indian Aerospace and Defense Industry2

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An Analysis of Age Requirements for New Jersey Mandated Insurance Coverage of Infertility Treatment

An Analysis of Age Requirements for New Jersey Mandated Insurance Coverage of Infertility Treatment An Analysis of Age Requirements for New Jersey Mandated Insurance Coverage of Assisted Reproductive Technology Over the past decade, advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) including such procedures as in vitro fertilization (IVF) have reduced the obstacles to conception for women with infertility issues, particularly for women of advanced maternal age. Each state is now facing the dilemma of whether or not to mandate coverage of ART for their constituents.

Furthermore, the state must decide what the qualifications for coverage should be if a mandate is to be enacted. RESOLVE, the National Infertility Association, a non-profit consumer-advocacy and patient –support organization, maintains a website with an up to date listing of mandated infertility coverage for each state (www. resolve. org). Currently, thirteen states have made the decision to mandate infertility coverage, New Jersey is one of two states, the other being Connecticut, who have chosen to apply an age requirement.

On February 28, 2000, the state of New Jersey enacted a mandate to regulate coverage for ART services. The New Jersey State legislature is now concerned that the state may be perceived to be discriminating based upon age. Legislators have requested an analysis to answer the question: Is there a more appropriate age cutoff for mandated insurance coverage for infertility? In the past there have been minor amendments to the New Jersey fertility mandate informally known as the Family Building Act.

It is the intention of this analysis to help New Jersey legislators determine whether the current coverage limitation is fair and reasonable and/or if the age requirement should be modified to make it so. As the mandate currently stands, health insurance policies covering more than 50 people are required to offer services for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility to individuals over 35 years of age who have been unable to conceive for two years, and to those between the ages of 35 and 45 who have been unable to conceive for one year.

No coverage is mandated for those over 45 years of age (Martin, 2001). Furthermore, groups that are self-funded, or employed under a religious organization for which fertility treatment is contrary to their ideology, are not required to follow the mandate. Recently, legislators have reviewed the requirement of 50 or more persons to be on one policy, as this excludes employees of small businesses from infertility benefits; however, a decision has not yet been made on whether or not to make amendment in this regard (Karcher, 2006).

Legislators are now requesting a review and analysis of sections 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, and 5a, which state that covered persons must be “45 years of age or younger” (Martin, 2001). Analysis is required to determine if the aforementioned limitation/exclusion should be expanded to include infertile persons 50 years of age or younger, reduced to include only those 42 years of age or younger, or eliminated completely. The population most impacted by a change in the infertility policy would be women between the ages of 42 and 50. Women in this age group may find themselves faced with a change in their health insurance coverage for infertility services.

As an amendment in the age requirement has not previously been considered nor has it been publicly announced there is a need to scrutinize the possible amendment before announcing any such change which could cause unrest in the community. Possible Actions Expansion of Age Requirement. The first possible reformation to the current age requirement would be to increase infertility coverage to include women 50 years of age and under. The social and financial impacts must be examined in order to properly determine the feasibility of such a change.

An extension of women covered could have both positive and negative impacts socially as well as a negative financial impact. A negative impact which may result from an expansion in benefit coverage is the possibility that women could decide to wait longer to conceive. While this cannot be statistically verified for years to come, women may feel not only that the threat of their inner “time clock” may be eased by assisted reproductive technology, but also that the financial burden of these technologies will be relieved by state-mandated insurance coverage.

Due to the availability of insured ART services it may be that in the foreseeable future a whole generation of women may forego natural conception, instead opting to attempt conception on their own schedule rather than under the time constraints of their biological time clock. Another serious impact would be the possibility that the state would be mandating coverage for a treatment that offers minimal success of a live birth while at the same time putting the health of these women at risk.

For example, women receiving fertility treatments are at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation, adnexal torsion (ovarian twisting), and increased risk of ovarian cancer (IVF-Infertility. com, 2006). In addition, these women are faced with a greater chance of multiple pregnancy, which carries with it its own set of risks to the mother as well as to potential offspring. Also, the risks associated with IVF may outweigh the live birth rate of only 1. 9 % to women over the age of 45 who undergo ART (SART, 2003).

Furthermore, while women are faced with health risks from infertility treatments, they also run the risk of increased birth defects and health risks to their fetus if they should be one of the fortunate few 1. 9 % that do carry to term. Women over the age of 45 who carry to term face a 1 in 30 chance of having a child with Down’s Syndrome and a 1 in 21 chance of having a child with some form of chromosomal abnormality (Heffner, 2004). Table 1 shows the drastic increase in the risk of birth defects in women between the ages of 40 and 45. pic] According to Joe Leigh Simpson (2005), advanced maternal age is associated with increased rates of pregnancy loss and numerous chromosomal abnormalities. These risks aside, women still may choose to attempt to conceive beyond the age of 45. Therefore, an obvious positive social impact would be the ease of financial burden to persons that make the choice to use ART. The amount of women over the age of 45 utilizing these ART services has remained steady over the past four years at around 9% of all women receiving ART treatment.

These statistics show that the use of IVF is on the rise for this category of women, and with mandated coverage it may increase even more by allowing financially challenged persons to attempt conception as well. Through relief of the financial burden, the psychological stresses to this group can be reduced or alleviated as well. Naturally the adoption of an amendment increasing the age of women covered for infertility treatments would incur higher costs to the public. Unfortunately, it is difficult to accurately determine the increased costs that would be passed on to the consumer.

An analysis of insurance costs (from 1986–1993) in Massachusetts before and after their infertility mandate was enacted in 1989 shows that there was an increase of approximately $0. 26 a month, or “less than 0. 1% of the total health care premium in the typical family health care benefits plan”(Griffin & Panak, 1998). While this data is somewhat outdated, according to Griffin and Panak the “expenditures for infertility services increased at a rate similar to or slower than inflation during the years 1988–1992. In light of this it can be assumed that the health care premium would increase by less than 0. 1% for persons in New Jersey, as the infertility mandate would be expanding coverage to women for only an additional 5 years. Reduction of Age Requirement. The legislature may opt to reduce the age of women who qualify for services under the family planning act from 45 years of age to 42 years of age and under. The most apparent social impact would be the exclusion of women between the ages of 42 and 45 that are currently using infertility services under the mandate.

The psychological and financial distress the reduction in coverage would cause these women would make it extremely difficult for any legislature to opt for this change. Furthermore, while the change in age limitation from 45 to 50 would allow more persons with a smaller chance of having a live birth to have coverage, the opposite is the case with a change to a cutoff of 42 years. The option of reduction in benefits allows fewer people with greater odds of success to have coverage for ART services.

Tables 2 and 3 show that the live birth rates for women undergoing IVF drastically decreases by 74% in woman 43 and older as compared to woman under the age of 42. Table 2 [pic] Note. From Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Table 3 [pic] Note. From Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) In addition, women 42 and under are less likely to have a child with birth defects, with an approximate 1 in 70 chance versus the odds of an approximate 1 in 25 chance for women over 42.

Financially, a reduction in coverage to women 42 and under would reduce the amount of money spent by health insurance companies, businesses, and persons whose policies are covered under the mandate. Again the amount of money saved cannot be accurately determined, but considering the aforementioned data from the analysis of the Massachusetts insurance rates, the reduction in costs would less than 0. 1% of the health care premium per family plan (Griffin & Panak, 1998). Elimination of Age Requirement. The last option open to legislation would be to eliminate the age requirement from the mandate.

The most significant impact of the removal of age limitation is the encouragement of women who are menopausal or perimenopausal to attempt conception. Moreover, as previously mentioned the risks to women over the age of 45 who attempt to conceive as well as their offspring upon conception significantly increase. A concern with this option would be the public perception that New Jersey supports conception by women of a non-childbearing age as well as the belief that the costs incurred by such an endeavor should be the burden of the public.

The possible abuse of ART is a concern when no age limitation is provided. However, after analysis of insurance companies in Massachusetts who are mandated to cover ART, Griffin and Panak 1998, concluded “mandated infertility coverage was associated with increased use of ART but not with excessive increases in consumer cost for infertility insurance coverage”. Financially, the mandate of infertility services without age discrimination should cause no more than a 0. 1% increase in health care premiums (Griffin & Panak, 1998).

However, the financial strain that persons whom are diagnosed with infertility would be relieved allowing them to attempt to satisfy the basic human desire to procreate. Recommended Action Expansion of Age Requirement with Stipulations. After review and analyzation of the available options for amendment it is recommended that legislation of the state of NJ modify the age requirement contained in the mandate. As a nurse in a prominent fertility clinic I have become aware of he emotional and financial hardships that women diagnosed with infertility are faced with on a daily basis. Bearing this in mind I had a predisposition to recommend to the NJ legislators a complete removal of the age requirement from the mandate. Surely I thought that all of the evidence gathered would support this disposition as well. This was of course before I knew all of the facts and had reviewed opinions of many other professionals in the field of infertility.

I was correct in the fact that there are many people that would support the removal of the age requirement and plenty of data that could be used to back these people up. But after all was said and done I found my conviction wavering and to my surprise my recommendation to legislation to be contrary to my original position. However, it is exactly because of the fact that I went about my analyzation of the mandated age requirement with such a strong opinion and walked away with an even stronger one that I know my recommendation is sound and quantifiable to all persons of the state of New Jersey.

Therefore, after examination of the data available to me it is my opinion and recommendation to the New Jersey legislators that the best option is to expand mandated infertility coverage to include women 50 years of age and younger. However, it is also recommended that women that fall between the ages of 45 and 50 should have coverage limited to IVF through the use of donor egg. The reason for such a change to the mandate is supported by the by the costs of infertility services, the success rate (live-birth rate) of women above the age of 45 as well understanding and acknowledgement of human rights and desires.

The high costs of ART that would be incurred by insurance companies, employers, and all persons under a mandated policy make it more financially practical to limit coverage to women that are of a natural childbearing age and whom have a fair chance of a live-birth. This allows for a limit to the costs passed onto the public via an increase in the cost of their insurance policies, while at the same time offering those that are of a natural child-bearing age the option of fertility treatment without facing a financial hardship.

Unfortunately, the live birth rate of 1. 9% (undergoing ART services using the woman’s own eggs) for women above the age of 45 is so nominal that the costs of receiving infertility services are not balanced. On the other hand, women who choose to use donor egg regardless of their age have an average live birth per transfer rate of 51% as substantiated by Tables 4 and 5 below (SART, 2003). Table 4 [pic] Note. From Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Table 5 pic] Note. From Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) This is comparable to women attempting natural conception that are normally fertile who according to Diane Aronson, the executive director of RESOLVE, have a 22 percent chance of becoming pregnant in any given month (Aronson & Merrill, 1999). The live birth rate of 51% offers strong support of mandated coverage for donor egg in women above the age of 45 who still have the desire to build their families.

Constituents of the state of New Jersey should find it difficult to deny this opportunity to couples who are faced with the disease of infertility, especially considering that individuals with infertility pay into the insurance plans that cover costs for maternal and neonatal services of fertile couples able to have children, even though they often cannot access care to bear children themselves (Aronson & Merrill, 1999). This could better serve all involved, including persons who are not direct recipients of infertility services.

This could be done by considering the option of retaining the benefit coverage for women 45 years of age and under, while at the same time amending the policy to offer donor egg benefits to women ages 46 through 50 years of age. This amendment could balance the costs against the benefits more appropriately than would choosing a simple age cutoff; after all, the statistics do show that women can have successful pregnancies that lead to live births after age 45. References Aronson, D. D. , & Matthews, M. (1999, February 8).

Symposium: Should health insurers be forced to pay for infertility treatments? Insight on the News, 15(5), 24-27. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005, December). 2003 Assisted reproductive technology success rates: National summary and fertility clinic reports. Retrieved April 14, 2006, from http://www. cdc. gov/ART/ART2003/nation. htm Griffin, M. , & Panak, W. H. (1998, July). The economic cost of infertility-related services: An examination of the Massachusetts infertility insurance mandate.

Fertility and Sterility, 70(1), 22-29. Heffner, L. J. (2004, November 4). Advanced maternal age—How old is too old? New England Journal of Medicine, 351(19), 1927-1929. Hook, E. B. , Cross, P. K. , and Schreinemachers, D. M. (1983, April 15). Chromosomal abnormality rates at amniocentesis and in live-born infants. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 249(15), 2034-2038. IVF-Infertility. com. Risks and complications of IVF treatment. Retrieved April 18, 2006, from http://www. ivf-infertility. om/ivf/standard/complications/ index. php Karcher, E. State of New Jersey. (2006). Senate, No. 216, 212th Legislature. Prefile. Klipstein, S. , Regan, M, Ryley, D. A. , Goldman, M. B. , Alper, M. M. , & Reindollar, R. H. (2005, August). One last chance for pregnancy: a review of 2,705 in vitro fertilization cycles initiated in women age 40 years and above. Fertility and Sterility, 84(2), 435-445. Martin, A. State of New Jersey. (2001). The family building act. Senate, No. 1076, 209th Legislature. Third Reprint.

New Jersey Department of Banking and Insurance. New Jersey mandated health benefits advisory commission. Retrieved April 14, 2006, from http://www. state. nj. us/ dobi/mandatedhbac. htm New Jersey Department of Banking and Insurance Division of Insurance. (n. d. ) Benefit standards for infertility coverage. Retrieved April 14, 2006, from http:// www. state. nj. us/dobi/acrobat/pn02_260. pdf Simpson, J. L. (2005,October). ART and offspring anomalies: How concerned should we be? Sexuality, Reproduction and Menopause, 3(2), 52-58.

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Memorandum Team Project

Memorandum To:Stephen King From:Jason Statham and Angelina Jolie Date:4/11/2009 Re:Team F Midterm Project Analytical Report Enclosed is the informal report about the culture in China for the Sales Team with Kelly Services, which you requested on April 11, 2009. You will find a great deal information pertaining to the Chinese culture and their etiquette practices. China has a rich culture infused with rituals that it will be necessary for company to learn from a business aspect. Team F originally consisted of 5 members, Jason Statham, Angelina Jolie, Jessica Biel, Jessica Alba and Nicholas Cage.

As we started developing the roles of our team members in week 4, we came to the realization that the only team members that were going to participate were Jason Statham and Angelina Jolie. We decided instead of assigning roles, that we would equally contribute to the project and turn it in together. We have worked very hard this week pulling the weight of our absent team mates. Despite some original disagreements between me and Angelina Jolie, we pulled it together and worked very well as one unit.

We set deadlines that were advanced of the original timeline, in order to make sure that there would be plenty of time to finish the project. We have successfully completed the team assignment for week 4 ahead of schedule and we feel confident in the work that we had done. During research on how business is conducted in China, it was revealed that relationship among various parties play a key role. Business in China runs on a basis known as ‘Guanxi’. “Guanxi” means “relationships. “. Any type of relationship, or source, with another company is considered good business practice and builds trust between other companies (Vincent Lo,

Chinese Business Culture). Knowing this fact makes it imperative to build a good and healthy relationship with our clients, as it strengthens trust and allows for a stronger network among companies and clients. To gain grounds in a new location, delivery in stages is key to our success. Guanxi should be the first and foremost item we should focus our attention on. Thank you for giving us the opportunity to work together this week. Jason Statham and Angelina Jolie English 123, Team F CONFIDENTIAL

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American Cancer Society Website

American Cancer Society The American Cancer Society website is a website that allows the public to research and get involved with the cancer community. On this website one can find out how to research cancer, find support and treatment, and how to stay healthy. Since health is a very crucial factor in avoiding cancer, this website gives incentive on how to keep the right diet to avoid cancer and what foods will benefit the body the most. This website also contains the latest news about cancer. It allows people can get in touch with doctors to help themselves or a loved one who is diagnosed.

Information is also provided on the latest treatments used to narrow some cancers, which might be related to a certain individual in the community. The American Cancer Society headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia with 12 chartered Divisions, over 900 local offices nationwide and over 5,100 communities are involved in the fight against cancer. Internationally the American Cancer Society focuses on building and developing cancer societies with collaboration of other cancer-related organization throughout the world. The American Cancer Society is a health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a main health problem.

The society is community based and functions from volunteers, they are nationwide and the goal is saving lives to reduce suffering from cancer through research, education, support and services. Society focuses on building and developing cancer societies with collaboration of other cancer-related organization throughout the world. In relation with the health care continuum, the American Cancer Society website offers programs and services for patients and family members dealing with cancer before and after treatment.

Once you register as a member the ACS provides members with locations of local events, volunteer opportunities, and programs. An individual can contact support either via email or by telephone to help with dealing with cancer. While going through the stages towards survival the website keeps information updated on new treatments, news and reviews, and continues to help those in need and those wanting to participate in finding a cure. The American Cancer Society have other languages to better help the community to access the information provided, along with references in finding support in those languages.

Resources on finding treatment and the aspects of starting treatment for any particular cancer, for example finding the right healthcare team and dealing with financial and insurance issues. The website also provides a list of questions and individual should ask and interactive tools that can be used to learn about a cancer and how it is typically treated. General information regarding treatments used against cancers, include both traditional and alternative therapies. The side effects from treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy along with clinical trials are also provided.

Staying active is an essential key to living a healthy life. Tips are provided on continuing exercise and being active before and after cancer treatment. Inspirational and hope stories are also found on the website, these stories help other people whose lives have been touch by cancer, with the possibility of a cancer reoccurrence. Understanding cancer and how to manage life through treatment and recovery and finding emotional support, the ACS offers programs and services to help people with cancer and their loved ones comprehend the disease.

When a child is diagnosed it presents unique challenges for both the family and the child. The American Cancer Society provides information and suggestions for families diagnosed with cancer. It also offers information on helping children understand the disease and how to deal with cancer. Getting involved in the community is very important to the success in fighting the battle against cancer. The ACS has a wide variety of opportunities to participate or attend community events. The website allows you to insert you location by zip code, city or state to find events and volunteer opportunities in your area.

This service is great because you can find what works with individual schedules, help cancer patients and their families and build relationships that last a lifetime. Donations are another way to contribute to the fight against cancer. The contributions provide free programs and services, funds research and makes sure cancer remains a priority issue for future elected officials. I found the website to be very informative in finding services in my community. I personally used this website to help find support groups for myself and my loved ones dealing with cancer.

I have been diagnosed with two types of cancer and found that resources help my family and I get through the process. Being referred by my general physician, I researched doctors and services regarding radiation and chemotherapy through the ACS website and found a hospital that suited my needs in the Northern California area. My family and I also found events to participate in, throughout California. We have been able to connect with others suffering from this disease and create friendships that help go through the process and stay positive.

Anyone diagnosed with cancer or having a loved one going through the struggle can use this website to gather information on a cancer and have a better understanding of exactly what to expect. I found this website to help my family maintain hope of my survival. With my diagnosis I maintained a positive because I was sure I would beat the cancer thriving inside of me. The ACS gave me knowledge and allows me to educate family and friends on what cancer I was dealing with and what to expect with each stage of fighting the disease. I found the section on radiation and chemotherapy to be very informative.

Luckily I only had to endure radiation, and prepared me on what expect during and after the treatment. I also used my own therapy with my children, even though services were provided free of charge through Sutter General for families dealing with cancer, I was able to take an idea that they had and incorporate that into my family. Art therapy worked for my children. They were able to express what they were feeling and the fears they had regarding my illness. The day of my diagnosis I made sure my children were aware of what was going on and we talked about it just about every day.

I also had them research information using the ACS website to help answer any questions they might have. They also enjoyed reading stories of other patients. We now use the website to find events to participate in, and stay involved to support others in the struggle. I am a survivor and have had the opportunity to share my story to help others stay inspired and maintain hope that they will also survive. References American Cancer Society. (2011). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www. cancer. org/index

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Sociological Perspectives on the Family

Sociological Perspectives on the Family SOC101: Introduction to Sociology Instructor:  Jeanette Maxey August 15, 2011 Sociological Perspectives on the Family In the field of sociology, there are numerous approaches sociologists reflect on when studying humankind’s behavior. Sociologists argue that no single theory is correct by itself; but to a certain extent, they draw on all of them for various purposes. Sociologists vision the social world in diverse ways, meaning seeing the world as stable and a continuing entity.

Those who have this view contend they are impressed with the endurance of social institutions such as family. Family is “one of the most important aspects of what happens to us over the life course. ” (Vissing, 2011) However, historically, the three major theoretical perspectives, functionalism, conflict, and interactionism, are most commonly considered and used by sociologists (Vissing, 2011). Some details about family are the three major groups: theoretical, perspective, impact, and the institution.

By evaluating the family unit from various sociological viewpoints gives insight into the development of socialization within the familial framework and society at large. The Institute of Family The family unit is often seen as a societal institution which initiates the positive and negative process of social interactions between people. Over the last decade what constitutes the family unit has changed throughout the world. Family units in today’s environment are diverse in nature and may go beyond the scope of just parents and their children.

Families can consist of variations in relationships such as close relatives, stepparents, half siblings and/or extended non-biological members. Typically, immediate family members live in the same household, nearby, or close in heart until a state of maturation or appropriate age has been attained. Most often members of the families have intimate and personal relationships with each other. According to B. Weston, “Americans are strongly committed to marriage, like southern Europeans, and also strongly committed to individualism, like northern Europeans. (Weston, 2010) Within the family unit there is a continuation of social interactions between members that can influence and shape peoples responses and reactions to their larger societies. Functionalism Theory The functionalism perspective studies society on a macro-sociological level. Functionalists contend that all societal institutions are an enormous network of connected parts working together preserving the social system as a whole to create and maintain stability. Functionalists have a positive view of society.

Their premise is that society is a living organism much like the human body in which each organ plays a vital role in its survival (Vissing, 2011). Similar to the operation of the human anatomy, functionalists perceive that society goes through an analysis and diagnosis of the workings of the system resulting in solutions to restore optimal balance. Functionalism further contends that each member of the family is interdependent of each other and contributes to the functioning of the family as a whole. When family members are doing their part, there is balance, peace and unity.

When a single member rebels against their role or responsibilities, the family suffers as a whole causing imbalance, stress, discord and dysfunctional tendencies. Functionalism suggests that the family works best when each member has input to agree or disagree on decisions. Having input is a sense of empowerment which allows each member to feel validated, and the family can grow based on the idea of consensus of the group versus authoritarianism. With consensus and cooperation the functional family is better able to contribute to the larger society. Individuals

Functionalists believe individuals are socially shaped to perform societal functions (Vissing, 2011). According to information obtained from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Miller, 2007) functionalists argue that the family unit as a whole is more important than merely one individual, because they are a product of social influences such as their family, friends, and educational background. Thus, the individual is produced by society. From the functionalist perspective, one could conclude that the individual’s perspective is shaped by understanding their role, function and responsibility within the family unit.

Unity and progress are achieved when each individual understands, commits, accepts responsibility and is accountable in their role. Discord and chaos are achieved when even one member does not understand, will not commit or refuses to accept and function within their role. For example, a father would be expected to be one who must provide and protect his family. This is based on standards of expectations of what fathers are supposed to do and what fatherhood means in the given society of which they belong. Individuals who adhere to functionalism would be rooted in their functions, roles, and expectations that are expected of them.

Social Change Functionalists believe societal change is predictable and positive (Vissing, 2011). Social change within the family is planned for and expected. Social change and interaction within the family is hoped for as a child grows. A toddler learns to walk; children learn to dress themselves; and teens begin choosing their own music and style of dress. By graduation they are almost autonomous. As long as children and parents agree with the roles they are expected to fill, the family can live in harmony and be productive. Views of Society Functionalists view the family unit as a necessary and vital contribution to the greater society.

Those who adhere to the functionalist theory contend that family’s original purpose was to meet the needs of the community and social order. Family and community have a mutual productive relationship. Families give back to society through working, paying taxes, and becoming educated. Functionalists believe that families work together within their own micro level society as a means of improving their internal environments. Further, functionalism contends that society order is maintained through cooperation and consensus by its members (Vissing, 2011). Children and parents will view society based on the perspective of functionalism.

Within the family unit, if healthy interaction and understanding has occurred during the development of roles and functions, children and parents will be optimistic about success in society and become contributors. They will look at society and determine what role they are to play and live accordingly. Children should be taught that living according to certain expectations is not burdensome. Parents will have learned that discussing roles with their children does not have to be threatening and does not necessarily undermine their role as parents. Within the functionalist perspective, individuals are prepared to function within society.

Conflict Theory The conflict theory is associated with both Karl Marx and Max Weber. This perspective, similar to functionalism, approaches society on a macro-sociological level. The conflict theory has a pessimistic view of society. The conflict perspective consists of three Key concepts: inequality, capitalism and stratification (Vissing, 2011). Karl Marx contends that the dominant society creates institutional laws and enforces systems that support its power and control of resources (Vissing, 2011). Unlike Marx, Max Weber contends that there are many status groups who have various degrees of social power.

In contrast, Marx believed there were only two: capitalist and the working group. Weber further contends that power plays a role in ethnicity, religion, politics, and gender (Zarka, 2007). The conflict perspective views society as struggles and tension between the groups. Social Change Conflict sociologists contend that while social change is a source of conflict and stress, it takes place on an ongoing basis and may have positive outcomes (Vissing, 2011). Children desire more freedom than responsibility. Parents desire their children to exhibit responsibility in order to earn freedom.

Change seems to not occur quickly enough for the children and too quickly for most parents. Views of Society Families who adhere to the conflict theory have been preconditioned to view life as a conflict; therefore, they view society as a constant conflict of desires and lifestyles. As family members encounter situations they do not like they may seek to undermine or even ignore that aspect of society; if there are interpersonal problems family members may be uninterested in discussing roles. They may concentrate on rebelling against the person they are in conflict with or removing the individual from the position of authority over them.

Interactionism Theory George Herbert Mead was credited for pioneering the interactionist perspective. Mead, a professor at the University of Chicago, focused on the study of one-to-one situations and other small groups. Mead focused his attention on body language such as a frown or nod. Sociologist Charles Horton Cooley shared Mead’s views. Mead based his theory on the belief that humankind’s cognition and behavior is fundamentally social. He concluded that language is an enabling symbol of social interaction.

The commonality of symbols is what allows meaningful interactions between humans, as well as the facilitation of the development of roles and the formation of self-concept (Victor, 2010). Interactionists view society as active in influencing and affecting everyday social interactions. Society is viewed on micro-sociological level as a method to understand the larger society. Key concepts are symbols, nonverbal communication, and face-to-face interactions. The Family Unit Symbolic interactionists explain the family unit in terms of the subjective meanings and daily interpretations that people give to their lives.

For interactionists, families are living forms that change overtime. The family unit is not based on cultural or legal prescriptions but on the shared meanings that result from the interactions of its members. Further, they contend that the family unit is vital to understanding the dynamic interrelationship between self and society (Reynolds, & Herman-Kinney, 2003). Family members attach meaning to words and symbols and extract meaning from them. For example, a parent who may tell their child to go clean their room attaches certain meaning to the word “clean. The child typically applies a completely different and more liberal meaning of the word “clean. ” Another illustration of interactionism is the word “fair”. Children often clam that their parents are not being fair because they do not buy them the latest cell phone or newest brand sneaker like their friends have. On the other hand, parents may feel as though it is not fair that their children complete very few chores around the house or constantly complain about anything they are asked to do; yet, the children expect to have food on the table, a roof over their heads, left alone, chauffeured at the last minute and financially funded.

Individuals Interactionist sociologists view the individual as having the ability to manipulate symbols and shape their social worlds through interactions. They believe that individuals derive their self concepts from memberships in social groups and categories. “Symbolic interactionism also helps to account for the formation and preservation of culture, institutions and social roles in society” (Vissing, 2011). As individuals manipulate symbols and shape their social worlds they may identify with the various interpretations and definitions of identical words or icons.

For instance, many parents interpret enormous baggy pants hanging low around a teenager’s knees as a sign of bad taste, to say the least. Teenage boys, of course, interpret this symbol as stylish and fitting in with their peers. Social Change Interactionists believe that social change is a reflection of people’s communications with others and their social position (Vissing, 2011). In families, parents have a tendency to remain “old fashioned” in regards to the symbols they use and understand. Styles of clothing, taste in music, and appropriate ways of displaying feelings are all areas that are changing.

Conflict will inevitably occur unless parents and children are able to come to a mutual understanding regarding these symbols. However, if they are able reach an agreement, change can become an enjoyable experience. Views of Society Life is made up of encounters with other people who attribute different meanings to identical symbols. Interactionists contend that social order is maintained by sharing understanding of everyday behaviors (Vissing, 2011). For families who have devised a healthy way to discuss and debate the meaning of shared symbols, social interaction may be a healthy venture.

Families who refuse to acknowledge the possibility that another’s interpretation of a particular symbol may be as equally valid as their own, may experience a life of constant confrontations in which neither party understands each other. The individual may constantly feel misunderstood, superior to his/her peers, and/or disillusioned with others and perhaps with life because they have never considered that their own interpretation may be wrong or at least one of many correct interpretations. Similarities and Differences of the Theories

Functionalism provides a positive platform for viewing society; although interactionism does so as well. The conflict theory is very negative and pessimistic in its view of society. Conflict is assumed and little energy is devoted to solving it because the underlying assumption is that it is an expected constant. Interactionism can be extremely positive if helpful strategies have been learned that can be used in interactions with others. However, it can be negative if individuals are locked into their personal views.

Additionally, in contrast to functionalism and conflict perspectives that study society on a macro-sociological level, interactionists employ micro-sociology (Vissing, 2011). Evaluating the family unit from various sociological viewpoints gives insight into the development of socialization within the familial framework and society at large. Reference Miller, S. (2007). Social Institutions. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/social-institutions Reynolds, L. , & Herman-Kinney, N. (2003). Handbook of symbolic interactionism.

Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Vissing, Y. (2011). Introduction to Sociology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Retrieved from https://content. ashford. edu Weston, B. (2010, February). The marriage-go-round: the state of marriage and the family in America today. Choice, 47(6), 1172. Retrieved August 09, 2011, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1961252341). Zarka, H. (2007, June 05). Karl Marx and max weber: fathers of sociological theories. Retrieved from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/267349/ karl_marx _ and_max_weber_fathers_of_pg2. html? cat=4.

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Culture Analysis

Cultural analysis | Vietnam| Individualism | 20| Power distance| 70| Masculinity | 40| Uncertainty Avoidance| 30| Long-Term Orientation| 80| http://www. geert-hofstede. com/ Individualism Individualism focuses on the degree to which members of a culture focus on the individual or the group. In fact, Vietnam is a low individualism ranking type society with a more collectivist nature which means that the individuals bear strong ties amongst themselves. Floreal Knitwear Ltd will have to operate along with the culture and norms of Vietnam in order to lessen the difference of culture. http://www. cyborlink. com/besite/hofstede. htm Power Distance

Power Distance concerns the level of equality or inequality amongst people in the society. A high power distance ranking shows that employees are afraid to take risks as they are in a certain way scared of their bosses who tend to be autocratic. In Vietnam, the level of power distance is high and this means that the Floreal Knitwear Ltd will have to operate in an adequate way as regard towards the authority such as the government. http://www. cyborlink. com/besite/hofstede. htm Masculinity Masculinity focuses on how the society reacts to the masculine work which is associated with achievement, assertiveness and material success.

On the other hand, femininity focuses more on quality of life and good decision making. In Vietnam, there is a rather low masculinity level which means that Vietnamese prefer quality of life to material success. Floreal Knitwear Ltd will have to take that into consideration while recruiting and managing the organization. They will have to give proper motivation and offer facilities to the employees who will consider it profitable both for the company and his family. http://www. cyborlink. com/besite/hofstede. htm Uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty avoidance deals with the level of tolerance of the society towards uncertainty and doubt.

In a high uncertainty avoidance ranking society, laws and regulations are set up in order to decrease the risk of uncertainty. On the other hand, a low uncertainty level shows that the society is more prone to take risks and to accept changes as they are less concern about uncertainty and doubt. Vietnam has a low uncertainty avoidance index which means that employees accept change more easily. This could be a problem as they will tend to change jobs more easily. FLoreal Knitwear Ltd will have to propose a good remuneration and motivate their employees in order to keep them. ttp://www. cyborlink. com/besite/hofstede. htm Long-Term orientation A high level of long-term orientation shows that the employees are characterized by perseverance and are more concerned about the future. Vietnam has a significant level of long-term orientation whereby the employees believe that their present efforts and hard work will pay in the future. Floreal Knitwear Ltd will have to show the Vietnamese the advantages of working for the organization which they will benefit not only in the present time but also in the future. http://www. cyborlink. com/besite/hofstede. htm

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Ishmael Beah a Long Way Gone

Reconnecting with rap and reggae music during his rehabilitation at Benin Home is no small point Beah makes. Listening to Run-D. M. C. , one of the early pioneers of new school hip hop (It’s Like That, – {That’s Just the Way It Is} ) was a bridge to artists, beats and rhymes Beah’s childhood rap and dance group enjoyed and performed, such as Eric B and Rakim (I Know You Got Soul). This bridge became a link between fond memories of pre-war childhood and being able to increasingly live more fully in the present.

After about five months at the center, Beah was returning more quickly to his former self. Beah’s creative juices started flowing. At an event for the center, he delivered a monologue from Julius Caesar followed by a performance of a play he wrote with Esther’s encouragement about the redemption of a former child soldier. This helped to make Beah admired at the center and the director, Mr. Kamara asked him if he would be willing to become a spokesperson for the center. A week later, he was speaking at events in Freetown about ending child soldiering and the role of rehabilitation. ‘We can be rehabilitated,’ I would emphasize, and point to myself as an example. I would always tell people that I believe children have the resilience to outlive their suffering, if given a chance. ” After eight months in Benin Home, Ishmael Beah was repatriated back into society and went to live with his uncle from his father’s side of the family, a carpenter in Freetown. His uncle and wife and four children welcomed him with open arms and Beah went to live in their home. From the verandah, there was a beautiful view of the city and the ships in the harbor.

He kept in touch with Esther and Leslie and was reunited with his childhood friend Mohamed. He also resumed school, St. Edward’s Secondary School in Freetown. Life was returning to normal and long talks with his uncle and routine family life were restorative. In a competitive process, Beah was selected to serve as a representative of Children Associated with the War (CAW) at a U. N. conference in New York City to speak about child soldiering and the important role of rehabilitation.

Beah’s participation with other children from countries around the world at the United Nations First International Children’s Parliament was the beginning of his developing international role as a spokesperson to end child soldiering and address the educational and rehabilitation needs of former child soldiers and all children affected by conflict. He returned to his family and friends in Freetown, telling stories of his visit to New York City. He resumed his life as a high school student, living joyfully in the present in his new life, but this was not to last.

Family tragedy struck again, and then, on May 25, 1997, the war came to Freetown when President Kabbah was overthrown by the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), a military junta, which invited the RUF to join in the new government. Violence, looting and killings of civilians on the streets of Freetown convinced Beah it would only be a matter of time before he would be forced to return to his previous life, or be killed. In a series of arrangements and risks that would make a separate spellbinding book, Beah made it to Guinea where there was peace and then back to New York City to a storyteller, Laura Simms, he had met during the U.

N. conference. Beah was adopted by Simms and finished high school at the United Nations International School. He went on to Oberlin College in Ohio where he started writing A Long Way Gone and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science in 2004. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier was published in 2007. In writing A Long Way Gone, Ishmael Beah has told his story, the story thousands of Sierra Leonean children trapped in the horrors of war, and the stories of millions of children who during the past quarter century have had their lives turned upside down and inside out by war and being turned into child soldiers.

It is a story that should motivate us to build a culture of peace and oppose war, wherever we are, and to prevent new wars. Child soldiering is a component of today’s wars. Child soldiering will not end until wars are prevented and until conditions which cause wars and armed conflict are proactively addressed. It is also a story that should convince us deeply within our soul that no matter how severely a child has been stripped of his or her humanity as a child soldier, in Beah’s words, “children have the resilience to outlive their suffering if given a chance. In other words, rehabilitation works. Beah is a strong global advocate through speaking engagements, workshops and advocacy forums to end child soldiering and support the rehabilitation of former child soldiers. He also advocates for rehabilitative services for all children affected by conflict, child soldier or not. Children are traumatized by war in myriad ways: witnessing atrocities, loss of family and friends, displacement, fear and anxiety and child soldiering. Beah speaks for all children suffering from these ordeals today, and for the many youth who have suffered these raumatizing ordeals over the past decades. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier has made Beah one of the world’s most significant advocates for the rights and needs of children engulfed in war. In advocating for the rehabilitation of all former child soldiers and children affected by conflict, Beah is very clear that rehabilitation cannot achieve its goals in a short period of time, nor should it be governed by unrealistic budgetary limitations. He emphasizes that rehabilitation must be of sufficient length and quality to work.

His own extensive rehabilitation at Benin Home proves the point. On February 5, 2007 in Paris, France at an international conference on children and armed conflict which included France’s foreign minister and high level government officials from 55 nations, major witness Ishmael Beah urged delegates to support the rehabilitation of people like him. He pushed for governments to fund and keep funding programs to rehabilitate former child soldiers and for other children who are swallowed up in war and armed conflict. No child is born violent. ” Beah stated. “No child in Africa, Latin America or Asia wants to be part of war,” and he used himself as an example of “living proof” of how rehabilitation works. Ishmael Beah has met with Nelson Mandela and Bill Clinton and walked the halls of power to advocate for an end to the root causes of child soldiering and to address the education and rehabilitation needs of children and youth affected by conflict.

In writing A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier, Beah has given us the knowledge we need to act responsibly for millions of children and youth in the world. Let us – former child soldiers and non-former child soldiers alike – act responsibly and embrace Beah’s vision and mission with our caring and the will to act. Now, when it is needed. Ishmael Beah is earning the Nobel Peace Prize one mind at a time and is one of the most gifted writers of the 21st century. I cannot wait to read his next book.

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